Article

Continuation treatment of chronic depression: a comparison of nefazodone, cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination.

Department of Psychiatry, Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Psychopharmacology bulletin (Impact Factor: 0.5). 02/2003; 37(4):73-87.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the relative benefits of psychotherapy, medication, and combined treatment as continuation therapies for chronic forms of major depressive disorder (MDD) after a positive response to acute treatment. We hypothesize that combined treatment would demonstrate superior continuation phase outcomes compared to either monotherapy, as evidenced by lower relapse rates and greater rates of improvement from partial to full remission. We report 16-week continuation phase outcomes for 324 patients who had participated in either the acute phase of a randomized multicenter trial of nefazodone, Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), or combination therapy (COMB) for chronic forms of MDD. Patients entering the continuation phase had either fully or partially remitted after 12 weeks of acute phase treatment. The primary efficacy measure was the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. For patients in remission at acute phase exit, 73.3% (107/146) maintained their remitted status at endpoint of the continuation phase. Of those having a partial remission at acute phase exit, 52.9% (92/174) achieved full remission by end of continuation. A greater proportion of patients maintained a partial or full remission status on COMB (90%) compared to nefazodone (80%, p=0.011) or to CBASP (82%, p=0.042). These differences reflected greater symptom re-emergence in the partial remission groups on CBASP and nefazodone monotherapy compared to COMB. Continuation treatment assignment was not randomized or blinded. There was no placebo group. Most patients with chronic forms of MDD sustained their acute phase response and more than 50% of partial remitters achieved full remission while continuing treatment with nefazodone, CBASP, or COMB. COMB was associated with less symptom re-emergence during the continuation phase than either monotherapy, particularly for partial remitters.

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Available from: John C Markowitz, May 09, 2014
    • "In addition, MBCT appears to be at least as effective as mADM (Kuyken et al., 2008;Kuyken et al., 2015;Segal et al., 2010). However, for patients with a high relapse/recurrence risk, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be recommended (Keller et al., 2000;Thase, 2014). The combination of two different interventions might be helpful as they might be complementary to each other, work in synergy or one treatment might have a positive influence on the adherence to the other treatment (Craighead and Dunlop, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and maintenance antidepressant medication (mADM) both reduce the risk of relapse in recurrent depression, but their combination has not been studied. Our aim was to investigate whether the addition of MBCT to mADM is a more effective prevention strategy than mADM alone. This study is one of two multicenter randomised trials comparing the combination of MBCT and mADM to either intervention on its own. In the current trial, recurrently depressed patients in remission who had been using mADM for 6 months or longer (n=68), were randomly allocated to either MBCT+mADM (n=33) or mADM alone (n=35). Primary outcome was depressive relapse/recurrence within 15 months. Key secondary outcomes were time to relapse/recurrence and depression severity. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. There were no significant differences between the groups on any of the outcome measures. The current study included patients who had recovered from depression with mADM and who preferred the certainty of continuing medication to the possibility of participating in MBCT. Lower expectations of mindfulness in the current trial, compared with the parallel trial, may have caused selection bias. In addition, recruitment was hampered by the increasing availability of MBCT in the Netherlands, and even about a quarter of participants included in the trial who were allocated to the control group chose to get MBCT elsewhere. For this selection of recurrently depressed patients in remission and using mADM for 6 months or longer, MBCT did not further reduce their risk for relapse/recurrence or their (residual) depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    • "This suggestion is contrary to conventional wisdom, which suggests psychotherapy is more likely to benefit non-melancholic patients. However, therapies such as Cognitive Behavior Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) (McCullough, 2000) combined with antidepressant medication have been reported to be superior to monotherapy for achieving partial or full remission in MDD (Kocsis et al., 2003). Hirschfeld et al. (2002) also found combination therapy (CBASP and nefazdone) to be more effective for improving social functioning, an improvement that appeared to be independent of depression severity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This study seeks to provide a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of baseline clinical and psychological features and treatment response characteristics that differentiate Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) outpatients with and without melancholic features. Reflecting the emphasis in DSM-5, we also include impairment and distress. Methods: Participants were assessed pre-treatment on clinical features (severity, risk factors, comorbid conditions, illness course), psychological profile (personality, emotion regulation), functional capacity (social and occupational function, quality of life) and distress/coping (negativity bias, emotional resilience, social skills, satisfaction with life). Participants were randomized to sertraline, escitalopram or venlafaxine extended-release and re-assessed post-treatment at 8 weeks regarding remission, response, and change in impairment and distress. Results: Patients with melancholic features (n1⁄4339; 33.7%) were distinguished clinically from non- melancholics by more severe depressive symptoms and greater exposure to abuse in childhood. Psychologically, melancholic patients were defined by introversion, and a greater use of suppression to regulate negative emotion. Melancholics also had poorer capacity for social and occupational function, and physical and psychological quality of life, along with poorer coping, reflected in less emotional resilience and capacity for social skills. Post-treatment, melancholic patients had lower remission and response, but some of this effect was due to the more severe symptoms pre-treatment. The distress/ coping outcome measure of capacity for social skills remained significantly lower for melancholic participants. Limitations: Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, causal pathways cannot be concluded. Conclusions: Findings provide new insights into a melancholic profile of reduced ability to function interpersonally or effectively deal with one's emotions. This distinctly poorer capacity for social skills remained post-treatment. The pre-treatment profile may account for some of the difficulty in achieving remission or response with treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    • "The optimal relapse prevention treatment for chronic depression is less clear. Continuation treatment using a combination of medication and cognitive behavioral therapy seems to be more effective in preventing relapse than either monotherapy (Kocsis et al. 2003), but systematic reviews to investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options are still needed to shed light on this important clinical issue (Kriston et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is commonly chronic and/or recurrent. We aimed to determine whether a chronic and/or recurrent course of MDD is associated with acute and longer-term MDD treatment outcomes. This cohort study recruited out-patients aged 18-75 years with non-psychotic MDD from 18 primary and 23 psychiatric care clinics across the USA. Participants were grouped as: chronic (index episode >2 years) and recurrent (n = 398); chronic non-recurrent (n=257); non-chronic recurrent (n=1614); and non-chronic non-recurrent (n = 387). Acute treatment was up to 14 weeks of citalopram (≤ 60 mg/day) with up to 12 months of follow-up treatment. The primary outcomes for this report were remission [16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Rated (QIDS-SR(16)) ≤ 5] or response (≥ 50% reduction from baseline in QIDS-SR(16)) and time to first relapse [first QIDS-SR16 by Interactive Voice Response (IVR) ≥ 11]. Most participants (85%) had a chronic and/or recurrent course; 15% had both. Chronic index episode was associated with greater sociodemographic disadvantage. Recurrent course was associated with earlier age of onset and greater family histories of depression and substance abuse. Remission rates were lowest and slowest for those with chronic index episodes. For participants in remission entering follow-up, relapse was most likely for the chronic and recurrent group, and least likely for the non-chronic, non-recurrent group. For participants not in remission when entering follow-up, prior course was unrelated to relapse. Recurrent MDD is the norm for out-patients, of whom 15% also have a chronic index episode. Chronic and recurrent course of MDD may be useful in predicting acute and long-term MDD treatment outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Psychological Medicine
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