Methods for time trend analysis of cancer incidence rates

ArticleinZhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 25(2):173-7 · March 2004with7 Reads
Source: PubMed
Abstract
To introduce statistical methods of time trend analysis on cancer rates. Cancer incidence data collected by the Shanghai Cancer Registry during 1991 to 1999 was used in the analysis to calculate the crude and age-adjusted rates, percent changes (PCs) and annual percent changes (APCs). APCs were estimated by a linear regression of the logarithm on the incidence rates during the nine years. It also introduced a method for partitioning a linear trend in age-adjusted rates into site-specific contributions to the overall floating trend. 95% confidence intervals for the APCs and contributions were described in the paper. A decreasing rates were observed for cancers of stomach and esophagus among both men and women in urban Shanghai from 1991 to 1999. The increasing rates among men would include cancers of colon, rectum, gall bladder, pancreas, prostate, urinary bladder, kidney and leukemia. The rates of cancers among women increased for colon, rectum, lung, breast, gall bladder, endometrium, ovary, urinary bladder and kidney. The changes of above cancers over time were statistically significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), but rates for other cancer sites changed little. The APCs (weighted method) and contributions for the cancers of stomach, esophagus, colon, rectum and prostate were -2.99% and -65.72%, -2.90% and -17.07%, 12.30% and 21.46%, 2.94% and 18.62%, and 3.11% and 15.09% among men, and -6.05% and -39.55%, -1.08% and -35.19%, 2.81% and 28.64%, and 3.69% and 15.70% for the cancers of stomach, esophagus, breast and colon in women, respectively. APC, and related statistics could be used to describe and analyze the time trend of cancer rates rather than PC or/and graphical method alone.
    • "Endometrial cancer (EC) is the fourth most common malignancy in women and the most common gynecologic cancer [1] , and in 2014, 52,630 new cases was diagnosed with an estimated 8590 deaths predicted in the USA alone [2]. The incidence of EC is also increasing in developing countries in the past decades [3, 4]. Overall, the 5-year survival rates for EC are approximately 78–90 % for stage I, 74 % for stage II, 36–57 % for stage III, and 20 % for stage IV [5]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to summarize the global predicting role of hormone receptors for survival in endometrial cancer. Eligible studies were identified and assessed for quality through multiple search strategies. Data were collected from studies comparing overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), or progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with elevated levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with those in patients with lower levels. The combined hazard ratios of ER, PR, and HER2 for survival were calculated. A total of 98 studies were included for meta-analysis (44 for ER, 38 for PR, and 16 for HER2). Higher levels of either ER or PR could significantly indicate better survival. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of ER for OS, CSS, and PFS were 0.75 (95 %CI, 0.68-0.83), 0.45 (95 %CI, 0.33-0.62), and 0.66 (95 %CI, 0.52-0.85), respectively. The combined HRs of PR for OS, CSS, and PFS reached 0.63 (95 %CI, 0.56-0.71), 0.62 (95 %CI, 0.42-0.93), and 0.45 (95 %CI, 0.30-0.68), respectively. In contrast, elevated levels of HER2 could predict worse outcome with a HR of 1.98 (95 %CI, 1.49-2.62) for OS, and a HR of 2.26 (95 %CI, 1.57-3.25) for PFS. In patients with endometrial cancer, higher level of ER and PR predicted favorable survival, and increased level of HER2 was associated with poorer survival. All of the three hormone receptors had prognostic value for survival.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection status in Shanghai and its risk factors. A questionnaire survey including 60 items related to Hp was conducted among 1925 persons, 976 males (50.7%) and 949 females (49.3%), aged 37 +/- 11 (15 approximately 72), selected by cluster sampling in 12 rural and urban areas in Shanghai. Peripheral blood was collected to detect Hp IgG antibody so as to evaluate the past infection status and (14)C urea breath test (UBT) was performed so as to evaluate the present infection status. Fecal Hp antigen test was done in the subjects under 18 years of age. 1822 of the 1925 subjects (94.6%) underwent the 3 tests. were followed antibody detection and (14)C UBT and response with questionnaires. The Hp infection rate was 66.4% in general, and 68.4% in the females, somehow higher than in the males (64.3%, P = 0.067). The infection rate was different in different age groups, was the lowest in the age group of 15 approximately 19 (44.4%) and the highest 70% in age group of 20 approximately 30 (70%), then somewhat lower and gradually became higher. Socio-economic status was related to Hp infection. Hp infection was related with such factors as eating raw vegetables and fruits, and never washing raw vegetables and fruits before eating. The knowledge rate about Hp infection was only 33.2% among the respondents. Only 23.8% of the respondents knew well the transmission route of Hp. Hp infection rate is rather high in Shanghai. Hp infection is related to socio-economic status, and family dietary and sanitary habits.
    Article · Apr 2005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromatin remodeling agents such as histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to modulate gene expression in tumor cells and inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis. We investigated the mechanisms of chronic valproic acid (VPA) inhibiting PC3 cell growth in the study. We established tumor xenografts of the PC3 cell line and investigated the effect of VPA chronic administration on tumor growth. Apoptosis in tumor tissue was measured using the TUNEL Detection Kit. We detected the effect of VPA chronic administration on histone acetylation; p21CIP1/WAF1 gene expression; vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by reverse-transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis; immunohistochemistry; and Western Blotting. In mouse models with established subcutaneous prostate (PC3), VPA treatment induced 70% inhibition of tumor growth without overt toxicity. Our result showed that chronic administration of VPA has an effect on tumor growth arrest and the effect was associated with increased histone acetylation, p21CIP1/WAF1 up-regulation, and VEGF down-regulation. We conclude that chronic VPA results in profound decreases in the proliferation of PC3 cells, not only by increasing histone H3 acetylation and up-regulating p21CIP1/WAF1 expression, but also by down-regulating VEGF.
    Article · Oct 2007
Show more

  • undefined · undefined
  • undefined · undefined
  • undefined · undefined

Recommended publications

Discover more