Involvement of leukotactin-1, a novel CC chemokine, in human atherosclerosis

Kyungpook National University, Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
Atherosclerosis (Impact Factor: 3.99). 06/2004; 174(1):35-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2003.11.024
Source: PubMed


Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the recruitment of leukocytes to the arterial wall. Leukotactin-1 (Lkn-1), a new member of the CC chemokine family, is a potent chemoattractant for leukocytes and thus is implicated in inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the possible association of Lkn-1 with human atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic lesion and plasma samples were obtained from atherosclerotic patients. Human THP-1 monocyte-derived foam cells were prepared by treatment with an oxidized low-density lipoprotein. The expression level of Lkn-1 or its receptors mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Levels of plasma Lkn-1, MCP-1, ICAM-1 and total cholesterol were measured by ELISA or enzymatic assay. Lkn-1 expression was markedly enhanced not only at the mRNA level in human atherosclerotic lesions, but also at the circulating level in atherosclerosis patients compared with normal subjects. An in vitro study revealed that the level of Lkn-1 release was significantly enhanced by oxidative stress or proatherogenic mediators in macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells. Lkn-1 stimulated endothelial cells to release ICAM-1, which is implicated in atherogenesis. Taken together, our data suggest that Lkn-1 plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis.

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    • "The fact that IL-6 is produced by several organs might contribute to its complex effects on metabolic regulation. MCP-1 decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes[49], and plays a pivotal role in the development of atherosclerosis via the enhancement of adhesion molecules on leukocytes and endothelial cells[50]. However, recent studies investigating the role of MCP-1 on insulin resistance have produced inconsistent results[51,52]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Metabolic health is an emerging concept that is highly correlated with various metabolic complications, and adipocytokines have been causally linked to a wide range of metabolic diseases. Thus, this study compared serum adipocytokine levels according to metabolic health and obesity status. Methods: Four hundred and fifty-six nondiabetic subjects (mean age, 40.5 years) were categorized into four groups according to metabolic health and obesity status: metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUHNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO). Being metabolically healthy was defined as the presence of fewer than two of the following five metabolic abnormalities: high blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and being in the highest decile of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index. Obesity status was assessed using body mass index (BMI), with obesity defined as a BMI higher than 25 kg/m². Levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) were also evaluated. Results: Of the 456 subjects, 247 (54.2%) were in the MHNO group, 66 (14.5%) were in the MHO group, 66 (14.5%) were in the MUHNO group, and 77 (16.9%) were in the MUHO group. There were no significant differences in IL-6 or MCP-1 levels among the groups, but levels of TNF-α and A-FABP were significantly higher in the MUHNO group compared to the MHNO group. Conclusion: High TNF-α and A-FABP levels are significantly associated with metabolically unhealthiness in nonobese Korean individuals.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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    • "* P < 0.05, significantly different from the control without Lkn-1/CCL15 treatment. phages and macrophage-derived foam cells (Yu et al., 2004). Therefore, it can be postulated that macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions may enhance the local concentration of Lkn-1 in the lesions, and Lkn-1/CCL15 subsequently stimulate the macrophages/foam cells per se to secrete MMP-9, indicating that Lkn-1/CCL15 action on macrophages and foam cells to release MMP-9 may contribute to plaque destabilization in the progression of atherosclerosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is characterized by a chronic inflammatory disease, and chemokines play an important role in both initiation and progression of atherosclerosis development. Leukotactin-1 (Lkn-1/CCL15), a new member of the human CC chemokine family, is a potent chemoattractant for leukocytes. Our previous study has demonstrated that Lkn-1/CCL15 plays a role in the initiation of atherosclerosis, however, little is currently known whether Lkn-1/CCL15 is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human coronary atherosclerotic lesions play a crucial role in the progression of atherosclerosis by altering the vulnerability of plaque rupture. In the present study, we examined whether Lkn-1/CCL15 modulates MMP-9 release, which is a prevalent form expressed by activated macrophages and foam cells. Human THP-1 monocytic cells and/or human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) were treated with phorbol myristate acetate to induce their differentiation into macrophages. Foam cells were prepared by the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with human oxidized LDL. The macrophages and foam cells were treated with Lkn-1/CCL15, and the levels of MMP-9 release were measured by Gelatin Zymography. Lkn-1/CCL15 significantly enhanced the levels of MMP-9 protein secretion from THP-1 monocytic cells-derived macrophages, human PBMC-derived macrophages, as well as macrophage-derived foam cell in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that the action of Lkn-1/CCL15 on macrophages and foam cells to release MMP-9 may contribute to plaque destabilization in the progression of atherosclerosis.
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