Involvement of leukotactin-1, a novel CC chemokine, in human atherosclerosis

ArticleinAtherosclerosis 174(1):35-42 · June 2004with2 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2003.11.024 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the recruitment of leukocytes to the arterial wall. Leukotactin-1 (Lkn-1), a new member of the CC chemokine family, is a potent chemoattractant for leukocytes and thus is implicated in inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the possible association of Lkn-1 with human atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic lesion and plasma samples were obtained from atherosclerotic patients. Human THP-1 monocyte-derived foam cells were prepared by treatment with an oxidized low-density lipoprotein. The expression level of Lkn-1 or its receptors mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Levels of plasma Lkn-1, MCP-1, ICAM-1 and total cholesterol were measured by ELISA or enzymatic assay. Lkn-1 expression was markedly enhanced not only at the mRNA level in human atherosclerotic lesions, but also at the circulating level in atherosclerosis patients compared with normal subjects. An in vitro study revealed that the level of Lkn-1 release was significantly enhanced by oxidative stress or proatherogenic mediators in macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells. Lkn-1 stimulated endothelial cells to release ICAM-1, which is implicated in atherogenesis. Taken together, our data suggest that Lkn-1 plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis.
    • "The fact that IL-6 is produced by several organs might contribute to its complex effects on metabolic regulation. MCP-1 decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes [49], and plays a pivotal role in the development of atherosclerosis via the enhancement of adhesion molecules on leukocytes and endothelial cells [50]. However, recent studies investigating the role of MCP-1 on insulin resistance have produced inconsistent results [51,52]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Metabolic health is an emerging concept that is highly correlated with various metabolic complications, and adipocytokines have been causally linked to a wide range of metabolic diseases. Thus, this study compared serum adipocytokine levels according to metabolic health and obesity status. Methods: Four hundred and fifty-six nondiabetic subjects (mean age, 40.5 years) were categorized into four groups according to metabolic health and obesity status: metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUHNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO). Being metabolically healthy was defined as the presence of fewer than two of the following five metabolic abnormalities: high blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and being in the highest decile of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index. Obesity status was assessed using body mass index (BMI), with obesity defined as a BMI higher than 25 kg/m². Levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) were also evaluated. Results: Of the 456 subjects, 247 (54.2%) were in the MHNO group, 66 (14.5%) were in the MHO group, 66 (14.5%) were in the MUHNO group, and 77 (16.9%) were in the MUHO group. There were no significant differences in IL-6 or MCP-1 levels among the groups, but levels of TNF-α and A-FABP were significantly higher in the MUHNO group compared to the MHNO group. Conclusion: High TNF-α and A-FABP levels are significantly associated with metabolically unhealthiness in nonobese Korean individuals.
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    • "To date, there have been no studies evaluating the correlation between IL-8 levels and the development of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis. However , when the role of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes or atheroscle- rosis [122, 125, 130] is taken under consideration, it cannot be excluded that elevated circulating levels of IL-8 in patients with psoriasis may contribute to the maintenance of the inflammation, which plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. rophages, mast cells and NK cells [63]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a chronic immune mediated inflammatory skin disease with a population prevalence of 2–3%. In recent years, psoriasis has been recognized as a systemic disease associated with metabolic syndrome or its components such as: obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Many bioactive substances have appeared to be related to metabolic syndrome. Based on current literature, we here discuss the possible role of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, resistin, inflammatory cytokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, uric acid, C-reactive protein and lipid abnormalities in psoriasis and in metabolic syndrome. <br /
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    • "Lkn-1 exerts its effect mainly via CC chemokine receptor CCR1, which is a GPCR with seven transmembrane domains. With the ability to mediate chemotaxis of inflammatory cells, Lkn-1 and CCR1 have been shown to contribute to the development of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis [3, 4] and angiogenesis [5] . CCR1 are expressed on various cell types implicated in atherosclerosis, such as monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes [6] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agonists of CC chemokine receptor CCR1 contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and other inflammatory diseases, possibly via the regulation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. CCR1 and CCR2b have been demonstrated to use PTX-insensitive Galpha(14) and Galpha(16) to stimulate PLCbeta in cotransfected cells, and Galpha(14) and Galpha(16) are capable of activating NF-kappaB. The coexpression of Galpha(14), Galpha(16), and CCR1 in human monocytic THP-1 cells suggests that CCR1 may use Galpha(14) or Galpha(16) to induce NF-kappaB activation. Here, we demonstrated that a CCR1 agonist, Lkn-1, stimulated NF-kappaB phosphorylation via PTX-insensitive G proteins in THP-1 cells. Lkn-1 also mediated IKK/NF-kappaB phosphorylations in HEK293 cells overexpressing CCR1 and Galpha(14/16). Using various kinase inhibitors, Raf-1, MEK1/2, PLCbeta, PKC, CaM, CaMKII, and c-Src were found to participate in Lkn-1-stimulated IKK/NF-kappaB phosphorylations in THP-1 and transfected HEK293 cells. Although c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK were activated by Lkn-1, they were not required in Lkn-1-induced IKK phosphorylation. The ability of CCR1 to signal through Galpha(14/16) thus provides a linkage for chemokines to regulate NF-kappaB-dependent responses.
    Article · Sep 2009
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