Overexpression of human KCNA5 increases IK(V) and enhances apoptosis
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Dept. of Medicine, Medical Teaching Facility, University of California-San Diego, #0725, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0725, USA.AJP Cell Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.78). 10/2004; 287(3):C715-22. DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00050.2004
Apoptotic cell shrinkage, an early hallmark of apoptosis, is regulated by K+ efflux and K+ channel activity. Inhibited apoptosis and downregulated K+ channels in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) have been implicated in development of pulmonary vascular medial hypertrophy and pulmonary hypertension. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that overexpression of KCNA5, which encodes a delayed-rectifier voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel, increases K+ currents and enhances apoptosis. Transient transfection of KCNA5 caused 25- to 34-fold increase in KCNA5 channel protein level and 24- to 29-fold increase in Kv channel current (I(K(V))) at +60 mV in COS-7 and rat PASMC, respectively. In KCNA5-transfected COS-7 cells, staurosporine (ST)-mediated increases in caspase-3 activity and the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis were both enhanced, whereas basal apoptosis (without ST stimulation) was unchanged compared with cells transfected with an empty vector. In rat PASMC, however, transfection of KCNA5 alone caused marked increase in basal apoptosis, in addition to enhancing ST-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, ST-induced apoptotic cell shrinkage was significantly accelerated in COS-7 cells and rat PASMC transfected with KCNA5, and blockade of KCNA5 channels with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) reduced K+ currents through KCNA5 channels and inhibited ST-induced apoptosis in KCNA5-transfected COS-7 cells. Overexpression of the human KCNA5 gene increases K+ currents (i.e., K+ efflux or loss), accelerates apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), increases caspase-3 activity, and induces apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis in PASMC by KCNA5 gene transfer may serve as an important strategy for preventing the progression of pulmonary vascular wall thickening and for treating patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH).
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- "K balance is known to regulate the apoptotic cell shrinkage, a main event in the apoptotic process . Specifically, KCNA5 participates in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) apoptosis control . It has been reported that overexpression of the KCNA5 gene induces accelerated K efflux and increases caspase-3 proteolytic activity, promoting apoptosis . "
ABSTRACT: Introduction Potassium voltage-gated channel shaker-related subfamily member 5 (KCNA5) is implicated in vascular tone regulation, and its inhibition during hypoxia produces pulmonary vasoconstriction. Recently, a protective association of the KCNA5 locus with systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was reported. Hence, the aim of this study was to replicate these findings in an independent multicenter Caucasian SSc cohort. Methods The 2,343 SSc cases (179 PAH positive, confirmed by right-heart catheterization) and 2,690 matched healthy controls from five European countries were included in this study. Rs10744676 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was genotyped by using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Results Individual population analyses of the selected KCNA5 genetic variant did not show significant association with SSc or any of the defined subsets (for example, limited cutaneous SSc, diffuse cutaneous SSc, anti-centromere autoantibody positive and anti-topoisomerase autoantibody positive). Furthermore, pooled analyses revealed no significant evidence of association with the disease or any of the subsets, not even the PAH-positive group. The comparison of PAH-positive patients with PAH-negative patients showed no significant differences among patients. Conclusions Our data do not support an important role of KCNA5 as an SSc-susceptibility factor or as a PAH-development genetic marker for SSc patients.
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- "The decrease in mitochondrial H2O2 generation directly suppresses Kv1.5 channel expression and activity, a critical process for the impairment of cellular apoptosis and hampers elimination of apoptotic cells, thus aggravating the progression of oxidative stress-related diseases such as PAH and cancer . In contrast, overexpression of KCNA5 gene or attenuation of Kv1.5 downregulation , ,  reduces apoptosis during these diseases. Therefore Kv1.5 is taken as a potential therapeutic target for preventing the progression of PAH or cancers , , . "
ABSTRACT: Endothelial injury related to oxidative stress is a key event in cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. The activation of the redox-sensitive Kv1.5 potassium channel mediates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells and some cancer cells. Kv1.5 channel is therefore taken as a new potential therapeutic target for pulmonary hypertension and cancers. Although Kv1.5 is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelium, there is little knowledge of its role in endothelial injury related to oxidative stress. We found that DPO-1, a specific inhibitor of Kv1.5, attenuated H(2)O(2)-evoked endothelial cell apoptosis in an in vivo rat carotid arterial model. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAECs), angiotensin II and oxLDL time- or concentration-dependently enhanced Kv1.5 protein expression in parallel with the production of intracellular ROS and endothelial cell injury. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Kv1.5 attenuated, whereas adenovirus-mediated Kv1.5 cDNA overexpression enhanced oxLDL-induced cellular damage, NADPH oxidase and mitochondria-derived ROS production and restored the decrease in protein expression of mitochondria uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Collectively, these data suggest that Kv1.5 may play an important role in oxidative vascular endothelial injury.
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- "These findings prompted us to investigate whether TGF-b might regulate neuronal maturation. Voltage-gated potassium channels form a diverse and extensive superfamily and are indispensable for the normal function of neurons, smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, lymphocytes, and pancreatic islets (Storey et al., 2003; Brevnova et al., 2004; Yan et al., 2004). In addition to regulating neuronal electrical activity, K þ efflux via voltage-gated K þ channels has recently been recognized as a key step in neuronal apoptosis and migration (Rao et al., 2002; Pal et al., 2003; Storey et al., 2003; Redman et al., 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of cytokines are involved in diverse physiological processes. Although TGF-β is known to play multiple roles in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), its role in neuronal development has not been explored. We have studied the effects of TGF-β1 on the electrophysiological properties and maturation of rat primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). We report that incubation with TGF-β1 increased delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K) ) amplitudes in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but did not affect the kinetic properties of the channel. Exposure to TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml) for 36 h led to a 37.2% increase in I(K) amplitudes. There was no significant change in mRNA levels for the key Kv2.1 channel protein, but translation blockade abolished the increase in protein levels and channel activity, arguing that TGF-β1 increases I(K) amplitudes by upregulating translation of the Kv2.1 channel protein. Although TGF-β1 treatment did not affect the activity of protein kinase A (PKA), and constitutive activation of PKA with forskolin failed to increase I(K) amplitudes, inhibition of PKA prevented channel upregulation, demonstrating that basal PKA activity is required for TGF-β1 stimulation of I(K) channel activity. TGF-β1 also promoted the expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A) ) receptor α6 subunit, a marker of mature CGNs, and calcium influx during depolarizing stimuli was reduced by TGF-β1. The effects of TGF-β1 were only observed during a narrow developmental time-window, and were lost as CGNs matured. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 upregulates K(+) channel expression and I(K) currents and thereby promotes CGN maturation.
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