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A possible model to understand the personality-intelligence interface

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Abstract

Despite the recent increase in the number of studies examining empirical links between personality and intelligence (see Hofstee, 2001; Zeidner & Matthews, 2000), a theoretical integration of ability and nonability traits remains largely unaddressed. This paper presents a possible conceptual framework for understanding the personality-intelligence interface. In doing so, it conceptualizes three different levels of intelligence, namely, intellectual ability (which comprises both Gf and Gc), IQ test performance and subjectively assessed intelligence (a mediator between personality, intellectual ability and IQ test performance). Although the model draws heavily upon correlation evidence, each of its paths may be tested independently. The presented model may, therefore, be used to explore causation and further develop theoretical approaches to understanding the relation between ability and nonability traits underlying human performance.

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... und r = .37 (Ashton et al., 2000;Goff & Ackerman, 1992 (Blickle, 1996) (Ackerman, 1994;Cattell, 1987) (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004;Gold & Arbuckle, 1990;McCrae, 1987). Deshalb wird in der in dieser Arbeit ersten vorgestellten Studie der Zusammenhang zwischen Offenheit für neue Erfahrungen und der fluiden sowie kristallinen Intelligenz im mittleren und höheren Erwachsenenalter untersucht und überprüft, ob der Zusammenhang in den beiden Altersgruppen unterschiedlich ist. ...
... As we will lay out in the sequel, based on the investment hypothesis (Cattell, 1987) there are reasons to expect that the link between openness and intellectual functioning, especially crystallized intelligence, becomes stronger in older adults (c.f. Ackerman, 1997;Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004;Hofer & Sliwinski, 2001;McCrae, 1987 Chapman, 2007;Saucier, 1998). A special feature is that the items designated to measure ...
... In order to account for openness-intelligence associations reported above, Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham (2004) have recently argued that some personality traits may play a significant role in the process of skill acquisition in that they may influence choices to engage or invest in particular domains of knowledge. Hence, Openness to Experience might lead to engaging in intellectually beneficial activities, which, in turn, may strengthen the development of intellectual abilities, particularly crystallized intelligence. ...
... In two studies, we took an in-depth look at the link between morningnesseveningness and SAI as well as potential variables that might account for this relationship. Eveningness correlates positively with objective intelligence (Preckel et al. 2011;Roberts and Kyllonen 1999), and there is empirical and theoretical evidence suggesting that people do have insight into their own cognitive ability (Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham 2004;Freund and Kasten 2012). Therefore, we expected an association between eveningness and higher SAI. ...
... However, the above hypothesis seems less obvious in light of some correlates of eveningness. Specifically, as mentioned above, eveningness was linked to lower conscientiousness and higher neuroticism (Carciofo et al. 2016;Randler et al. 2014;Tonetti et al. 2009)the factors found to be associated with lower SAI (Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham 2004;Howard and Cogswell 2018). Thus, it seems important to control for these factors when analyzing the chronotype-SAI relationship. ...
... It is suggested that certain constructs are unrelated (or only weakly related) to intelligence, but at the same time, they relate to a systematic tendency to overestimate or underestimate one's own intelligence. For instance, narcissists and extraverts display a positive bias in self-assessed intelligence, while neurotics tend to underestimate their cognitive abilities (Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham 2004;Zajenkowski and Czarna 2015). Additionally, these traits are weakly (or not at all) related to objective intelligence (Ackerman and Haggestad 1997;Zajenkowski and Czarna 2015). ...
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Morningness-eveningness, or chronotype, reflects the timing of sleep-wake patterns across a 24-hour day. Extant research has revealed that chronotype correlates with numerous psychological constructs including cognitive ability. In the current research, we examined how people with different chronotypes perceive their intelligence. We expected eveningness to be positively associated with subjectively assessed intelligence (SAI) because evening chronotypes demonstrate slightly higher intelligence than morning individuals. Furthermore, we considered personality traits (Big Five and narcissism) and objective intelligence (measured with standardized tests of fluid and verbal IQ) as potential variables that could account for this relationship. Across two studies (N = 504 and 232), we found that eveningness was associated with higher SAI. This relationship remained significant even after controlling for objective intelligence. In Study 1, we also found that when conscientiousness and neuroticism were analyzed together with chronotype, the magnitude of positive association between eveningness and SAI increased. Furthermore, Study 2 revealed that evening individuals exhibited higher narcissism, which fully accounted for their intelligence self-views. In the discussion, we speculate that daily struggles of evening chronotypes to function in morning-oriented society give them a basis to think positively about their intelligence to the extent of positive bias.
... As an interim resume, one of the most comprehensive models seeking to integrate the Big Five personality traits with objectively and subjectively assessed ability was proposed by Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham (2004Furnham ( , 2008. In this general framework, they outlined the roles of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience in a network involving fluid and crystallized intelligence, as well as subjectively assessed intelligence, and IQ test performance. ...
... Both direct and indirect links between personality and ability are outlined. Importantly, they hypothesized that fluid intelligence influences both crystallized intelligence as well as Conscientiousness, and that Openness to Experience has an effect on crystallized intelligence (Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham, 2004). Thus far, however, this model has not been tested in a network analytic framework. ...
... Of importance to this work, we are using a network analytic approach in addition to bivariate analyses, as our aim is not so much focused on the specific structure of networks, but on associations between cognitive ability and personality variables when the possible effects of other variables are partialled out. This would allow us to complement the rather linear and interaction-free bivariate analyses with an approach that would be suitable for testing theoretical frameworks that, in essence, conceptualize network(− resembling) theories of personality traits and cognitive ability (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004. ...
Article
The present work provides robust insights into how cognitive ability is correlated to personality traits. We investigated how cognitive ability (operationalized as facets of working memory capacity) is linked to the Big Five personality traits on broader domain- and facet-levels, as well as with individual personality inventory items. The effective sample comprised 1211 people (55% female; age M = 31.39, SD = 11.76) who participated in the study via a smartphone application where they filled out a personality test, and solved six working memory capacity tasks (based on two binding paradigms with different stimulus types). In addition to bivariate analyses, we used network analysis to model cognitive ability in relation to personality on different aggregation levels. We found that Openness, its facet Intellectual and some items of the Openness domain were consistently associated with cognitive ability tasks. While some of the earlier findings were replicated, we also provide novel findings with robust methodology across different levels of personality and by differentiating the facets of cognition. All in all, personality is not substantially correlated with cognitive ability, and the links with Openness are weak.
... Empirical evidence for the interplay between fundamental cognitive and conative traits ranges from attempts to introduce theoretical models that explain the relationship between personality traits and intelligence (Ackerman, 1996;Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004), through contradictory and inconsistent results of examining their relationships (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Wolf & Ackerman, 2005) to recent evidence for the existence of their both linear and nonlinear associations (Major et al., 2014). Akerman's PPIK model (intelligence as Processes, Personality, Interests, and Knowledge) relies on the concept of Typical Intellectual Engagement (Ackerman, 1996), which includes aspects of Openness and Conscientiousness of the Five Factor Model -FFM (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004). ...
... Empirical evidence for the interplay between fundamental cognitive and conative traits ranges from attempts to introduce theoretical models that explain the relationship between personality traits and intelligence (Ackerman, 1996;Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004), through contradictory and inconsistent results of examining their relationships (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Wolf & Ackerman, 2005) to recent evidence for the existence of their both linear and nonlinear associations (Major et al., 2014). Akerman's PPIK model (intelligence as Processes, Personality, Interests, and Knowledge) relies on the concept of Typical Intellectual Engagement (Ackerman, 1996), which includes aspects of Openness and Conscientiousness of the Five Factor Model -FFM (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004). Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham (2006) consider that all FFM dimensions are related to intellectual competence. ...
Article
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The main aim of this study was to explore the etiology of relations between general cognitive ability (g) and different hierarchical phenotypic levels of the Five Factor Model (FFM), including the General Factor of Personality (GFP), the Big Two, the five domains of the FFM, and their 30 facets. The second aim was to detect personality facets that contribute to the prediction of general intelligence. The sample consisted of 424 young adult twins (134 pairs of monozygotic twins) on whom the NEO-PI-R and Advanced Progressive Matrices were administered. The results did not support hierarchical solutions above the FFM. Thus, five-domain and facet level of personality were analyzed, showing that only Openness and Neuroticism had significant genetic or environmental correlations with intelligence. The several facets from all domains had significant associations, among which Ideas and Positive Emotions showed the highest positive correlations, while Order and Modesty showed the highest negative genetic correlations with intelligence. Furthermore, seven facets significantly predicted g factor (35%), with higher genetic (0.52) than environmental (0.13) correlations with intelligence. The results reveal the common genetic basis of narrow traits and intelligence, highlighting the importance of specific traits in the explanation of general cognitive abilities.
... Much of the theoretical rationale for considering the simultaneous influence of personality traits on job performance extends to the simultaneous influence of personality and GMA. Some of the most popular frameworks for understanding the personality-GMA interface today have advocated for a complex, conditional relationship (e.g., Ackerman, 1996;Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004) much like the theoretical basis for trait by trait interactions. For example, Ackerman builds on earlier frameworks of intelligence in his intelligence-as-process, personality, and interests, and intelligence-as-knowledge (PPIK) theory to propose that personality may affect the intellect development. ...
... Assuming a linear relationship that is constant for all GMA levels is likely to yield misleading predictions of task performance and, consequently, selection decisions. Moreover, our results provide support for the broader theory of a conditional, compensatory relationship between conscientiousness and intelligence (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004). Individuals who are low in intelligence may be somewhat more likely to develop conscientiousness as strategy for goal attainment, such as through high discipline, rule-following, and greater work ethic. ...
Article
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We propose a compensatory interactive influence of conscientiousness and GMA in task performance such that conscientiousness is most beneficial to performance for low-GMA individuals. Drawing on trait by trait interaction theory and empirical evidence for a compensatory mechanism of conscientiousness for low GMA, we contrast our hypothesis with prior research on a conscientiousness-GMA interaction and argue that prior research considered a different interaction type. We argue that observing a compensatory interaction likely requires (a) considering the appropriate interaction form, including a possible curvilinear conscientiousness-performance relationship; (b) measuring the full conscientiousness domain (as opposed to motivation proxies); (c) narrowing the criterion domain to reflect task performance; and (d) appropriate psychometric scoring of variables to increase power and avoid type 1 error. In four employee samples (N1 = 300; N2 = 261; N3 = 1,413; N4 = 948), we test a conscientiousness-GMA interaction in two employee samples. In three of four samples, results support a nuanced compensatory mechanism such that conscientiousness compensates for low to moderate GMA, and high conscientiousness may be detrimental to or unimportant for task performance in high-GMA individuals.
... In the case of gender, men's self-estimates of their intelligence tend to be higher than those of women (Szymanowicz & Furnham, 2011). Among the Big Five traits, SAI has been found to correlate with high extraversion, high openness (especially the facet of intellect), and low neuroticism (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004, 2006Zajenkowski & Gignac, 2018). However, the strongest association found is that between SAI and grandiose narcissism (Howard & Cogswell, 2018;Zajenkowski, Czarna, Szymaniak, & Dufner, 2019). ...
... So far, no studies have comprehensively examined SAI using a wide range of constructs potentially associated with subjective ratings of intelligence among adolescents. The current study used an adolescent sample, and, in light of the extant literature on SAI, had five primary purposes: first, to examine the overlap between self-assessed and objectively measured intelligence; second, to test whether males score higher than females on SAI (Szymanowicz & Furnham, 2011); third, to explore how personality traits, i.e. the Big Five and grandiose narcissism, are associated with SAI-specifically, we expected that SAI would be correlated with high levels of narcissism, extraversion, and intellect, and low levels of neuroticism (see Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004;Howard & Cogswell, 2018;; fourth, to examine the association between SAI and well-being-we expected that high SAI would be related to high well-being (Howard & Cogswell, 2018); and finally, to test whether SAI could account for the link between narcissism and well-being as well as that between intellect and well-being (see Zajenkowski & Matthews, 2019). ...
Article
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Self-assessed intelligence (SAI) and its correlates have been extensively studied in adults. However, our understanding of how younger people perceive intelligence is limited. The current study aimed to fill this gap by investigating how SAI is associated with objective intelligence, gender, personality traits, and well-being in a sample (N = 428) of high-school students. The results revealed that SAI was not correlated with objectively measured intelligence (Raven's test); however, it was associated with other constructs. First, there were gender differences, i.e. boys' self-estimates of their intelligence were higher than that of girls. Furthermore, SAI was strongly related to grandiose narcissism and moderately related to the personality trait intellect. Additionally, high SAI was associated with high levels of well-being. Finally, SAI accounted for the link between narcissism and well-being as well as that between intellect and well-being. The lack of correlation between SAI and IQ score is consistent with previous findings suggesting that the conception of intelligence in adolescence differs from academic definitions of cognitive ability. On the other hand, the strong association between SAI and narcissism suggests that the concept of intelligence might primarily be a manifestation of boldness and a narcissistic attitude in adolescence.
... In the future, to avoid these potential biases, the evaluation of noncognitive variables like grit could use other strategies such as ipsative tests, situational judgement tests, or "anchoring vignettes" (Abrahams et al., 2019;Kyllonen, 2015;Moreno et al., 2018). Another aspect to highlight is that it might be interesting for future research to consider students' cognitive capacity, given its significance in school performance (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004;Heckman & Kautz, 2012;Rosander & Backstrom, 2014). In this way, the extent of academic grit's mediating role may be studied, over time, based on the students' intellectual capabilities (Light & Nencka, 2019). ...
Article
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Grit is a construct that is related to perseverance and passion for achieving set goals. Its relationship to school performance has been widely researched although the results are not conclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the temporal stability of grit and its relationship to adolescents’ school performance. A sample of 5,371 students were evaluated at two time points, four years apart. At first evaluation, mean age was 9.9 years old (SD = 0.41), at the second it was 13.87 (SD = 0.82). A longitudinal design was used, and the data were analysed using analysis of variance, factor analysis, and structural equations models. Adolescents’ academic grit and school achievement fall between ages of 10 and 14. Adolescents with higher levels of grit had higher academic achievement. The two constructs are correlated, which is why interventions aimed at improving academic grit could be important in improving school performance.
... Moreover, most literature suggests that conscientiousness is found to have the most significant and positive relationship with academic performance in most of the studies (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2003;Noftle & Robins, 2007). This correlate persists in conscientious students because of the inherent existence of self-control (Roberts, Chernyshenko, Stark, & Goldberg, 2005) self-discipline and achievement orientation in their nature (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004). Here, self-control is found to have a greater relation with academic grades of students (Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004). ...
Article
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This study investigates the impact of Big Five personality traits on the academic performance of university students in terms of their CGPA by using 20 item short Mini-IPIP Five-Factor personality test developed by Donnellan, Oswald, Baird, and Lucas (2006). The purpose of using this short measures test is to come up with a generalized and effective quick personality test for predicting academic performance (in terms of CGPA) in students. The study was conducted on undergraduate college students at Forman Christian College, Lahore (N = 406). The results affirm the predictive validity of the Big Five personality traits. Openness (0.169) was most positively related to academic performance followed by agreeableness (0.148) and conscientiousness (0.128). However, neuroticism (.054) and extraversion (.061) were found to have no significant correlation with academic performance. Implications of these results are discussed in context of career and academic counseling and university administration.
... IQ tests, personal background information, university entry examination scores and some other features were evaluated as tool for prediction [8], but those features can differ with respect to student's ethnicity, educational background and family conditions, except IQ, as IQ tests scores remain relatively stable after age of 5 or 6 years [9]. It is worthy to mention that IQ test is one of leading tools to evaluate mental and intelligence condition of the student but rarely account for more than %50 of the variance in academic performance [10]. Chamorro et al suggested that some factors, other than IQ ability, can contribute to individual differences in academic performance [2]. ...
Article
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Prediction of academic performance of the students continue to be hot topic in educational data mining field. In this paper, a linear regression analysis was conducted on IQ test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and Cumulative Grade Points Average (CGPA). A dataset from 111 undergraduate (59 females, 52 males) students from 2 different faculties (Medicine and Computer Science) were collected. The results show that both IQ and ROCF are significantly correlated to CGPA. Linear regression test shows that the combination of IQ-ROCF (β = 0.565) can serve as good feature to predict CGPA.
... Open individuals are more likely to invest in activities that stimulate the acquisition of knowledge (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004. It appears that the facet of openness, reflecting a curiosity about the world and a need to discover facts and information, can support academic achievement, particularly when creativity is a part of schooling (Paunonen & Ashton, 2001). ...
Chapter
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Trait complexes of cognitive ability, personality, and privilege can be used to conceptualize potential future roles of gifted adolescent students. The Counseling Laboratory for the Exploration of Optimal States (CLEOS) uses ACT scores; Big Five personality factors; and intersectional measures of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status used to assess distance from privilege. Combinations of these characteristics can be organized into a “Beehive,” in which professional workers (Worker Bees), nurturing and healing professions (Honeybees), business and political leaders (Strivers), scholars (Foragers), innovators (Drones), and visionaries (Queens) are represented. Combinations of ability and personality suggest the domain of work that may be appropriate and the training needed, while the addition of intersectional privilege suggests the social, cultural, and financial capital that are necessary for the attainment of the highest status within each domain.
... Aside from whether personality traits and intelligence should be considered separate or not, some personality traits from the FFM have been shown to predict intelligence test performance (Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham, 2004). Openness seems to be related to intelligence itself (Ackerman and Heggestad, 1997) rather than to intelligence test-taking like neuroticism (Furnham, 2001) and extraversion (Furnham et al., 1998). ...
Article
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This research examines whether the items of some of the most well-established five-factor inventories refer to competence. Results reveal that both experts and laymen can distinguish between items that refer to how competently a behavior is performed and items that do not (Study 1). Responses to items that refer to competence create a higher-order factor in the personality inventories (Study 2), and the variability in responses to competence-related items in personality self-ratings is best modeled as a general factor rather than as also tied to the specific Big Five factors (Studies 3 and 4). We suggest that a focused debate on what personality items should refer to is likely to have considerable positive consequences for both theory and measurement of personality.
... with a general measure of Big Five Conscientiousness (John & Srivastava, 1999), but that it was particularly characterized by the conscientiousness facets of self-discipline, self-efficacy, and achievement. Previous research suggests that a Conscientiousness measure with this facet profile should be a comparatively effective predictor of academic performance (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004). This was also recently confirmed by a recent study on the present data (Andersen, Gensowski, Ludeke, & John, 2020). ...
Article
Children's educational outcomes are strongly correlated with their parents' educational attainment. This finding is often attributed to the family environment-assuming, for instance, that parents' behavior and resources affect their children's educational outcomes. However, such inferences of a causal role of the family environment depend on the largely untested assumption that such relationships do not simply reflect genes shared between parent and child. We examine this assumption with an adoptee design in full-population cohorts from Danish administrative data. We test whether parental education predicts children's educational outcomes in both biological and adopted children, looking at four components of the child's educational development: (I) the child's conscientiousness during compulsory schooling, (II) academic performance in those same years, (III) enrollment in academically challenging high schools, and (IV) graduation success. Parental education was a substantial predictor of each of these child outcomes in the full population. However, little intergenerational correlation in education was observed in the absence of genetic similarity between parent and child-that is, among adoptees. Further analysis showed that what links adoptive parents' education did have with later-occurring components such as educational attainment (IV) and enrollment (III) appeared to be largely attributable to effects identifiable earlier in development, namely early academic performance (II). The primary nongenetic mechanisms by which education is transmitted across generations may thus have their effects on children early in their educational development, even as the consequences of those early effects persist throughout the child's educational development. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... These traits are independent stable behaviour patterns or tendencies. Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotions such as anxiety, depression and anger; extraversion refers to higher vigour, self-confidence and social behaviour; openness represents participation in intellectual activities and preference for new ideas and experiences; agreeableness includes friendliness, consideration, modesty and other behaviours; conscientiousness is related to effectiveness, determination, responsibility and persistence (Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham 2004). related to the person's personality (Boshoff and Arnolds 1995). ...
Conference Paper
This paper analyses the survey results on wages, working conditions and income redistribution after the enforcement of the minimum wage, as well as perceptions and attitudes of workers towards the minimum wage. The study finds that 49 percent of respondents in food-processing factories and 57 percent in garment factories earned less than the official minimum wage prior to the enforcement. Within a year of the enforcement of the minimum wage, not only their daily wage but also monthly income improved above the minimum wage level, reported by 96.0 percent of the surveyed garment workers and 90.5 percent of the surveyed food processing workers. At the same time, the rest of the respondents who were already above the market-clearing levels all received higher wages. The majority of respondents had a positive attitude towards the enforcement of the minimum wage. However, 14 percent suggested that the minimum wage was still not enough to meet their family needs and 13 percent reported that the number of overtime opportunities – where they should receive twice the normal hourly rate – were reduced while other benefits such as transport and food allowances were curtailed after the minimum wage law came into force. The paper concludes that the minimum wage enforcement has had positive effects on employment welfare. However, it recommends that the government urgently needs to promote an enabling environment and labour productivity for SMEs in Myanmar to maintain positive industrial relations and inclusive growth. This study also recommends a number of concrete measures to improve the minimum wage system and social security provisions for workers and their families when there is a large gap between what workers need and what employers afford to pay them.
... Academic performance is a criterion for validating IQ tests. However, IQ tests rarely account for more than 50% of the variance in academic performance [2,3], suggesting that factors other than ability contribute to individual differences in academic performance. ...
Article
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Introduction: It is well known that cognitive ability tests predict academic performance. This study was conducted to reinvestigate the effects of IQ assessed by Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test and Immediate recall (short-term visual memory) and Delayed recall (long-term visual memory) subtests of the ROCF on GPA in university students. Methods: A total of 125 Nigerian university students were involved in the study. Participants were 63 men and 62 women who were 16-18 years of age. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test developed by Rey and standardized by Osterrieth used to screen for visual memory. To get their full-scale IQ scores were used the Wonderlic Personnel Test Quicktest. Results: There were a strong positive correlation between GPA and IQ and short-term and long-term visual memories in total sample as well as men and women. GPA was not correlated with IQ in medicine students. But short-term and long-term visual memories were highly correlated with GPA. Conclusion: Because visual memory tests are culture and language free international tests, the universities can use visual memory tests firstly and IQ tests secondarily to predict their academic performance.
... The most mainstream and reliable personality traits model is the Big Five model ( McCrae and Jr, 1997 ), in which personality traits are structured as five domains: neuroticism 1 , consci-entiousness 2 , agreeableness 3 , extraversion 4 , and openness 5 . These five personality traits are stable patterns of behavior or tendencies, which are independent of each other ( Chamorropremuzic and Furnham, 2011 ). ...
Article
Password composition policies are used to prevent users from picking weak passwords. A website usually provides a unified password policy for each user but ignores people have a variety of preferences due to individual differences, which makes it difficult to achieve the expected strong password goals. In order to improve the effectiveness of password composition policies, we propose a dynamic personalized password policy (DPPP), which can personally recommend different password policies according to the user’s personality traits. We conduct an online study to evaluate the security and usability of DPPP and the two common password composition policies Basic8 and 3class8. The study results show that DPPP is more effective than Basic8 and 3class8 in resisting online and offline guessing attacks. DPPP is inferior to Basic8 and 3class8 only in the creation time and outperforms 3class8 in creating difficulty with significant differences.
... Therefore, it can be expected that high-trait anger individuals would tend to describe themselves as sarcastic. However, we did not anticipate links between trait anger and objective sarcasm use: Results show no significant ties between cognitive functioning and personality (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004). Sarcasm use and understanding can also be cognitively taxing (Gibbs, 2012). ...
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Sarcasm can indirectly express aggression, though it might be more cognitively demanding to produce. We expected positive correlations between trait anger and self-reported, but not objective (response choice task) sarcasm use. Results revealed associations between trait anger and self-reported sarcasm use only. Regression analysis showed trait anger to be a significant, independent predictor of self-reported sarcasm use. The results are discussed with reference to expanding the understanding of individual differences in nonliteral language use.
... Self-discipline (.56), Achievement striving (.40), and Derryberry and Reed's (2002) Concentration measure (.47), with considerably lesser associations with Dutifulness (.23), Orderliness (.16), and Cautiousness (.08). A measure with this facet profile could be expected to show comparatively strong correlations with educational performance (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004). The fact that two of the three Conscientiousness items (as well as two of three Emotional Stability items) refer to the school context could also inflate the correlations between these measures and test scores. ...
Article
Objective: Many studies have demonstrated that personality traits predict academic performance for students in high school and college. Much less evidence exists on whether the relationship between personality traits and academic performance changes from childhood to adolescence, and existing studies show very mixed findings. This study tests one hypothesis-that the importance of Agreeableness, Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness for academic performance changes fundamentally during school-against an alternative hypothesis suggesting that the changing relationships found in previous research are largely measurement artifacts. Method: We used a nationwide sample of 135,389 primary and lower-secondary students from grade 4 to grade 8. We replicated all results in a separate sample of another 127,375 students. Results: We found that academic performance was equally strongly related to our measure of Conscientiousness at all these grade levels, and the significance of Agreeableness and Emotional Stability predominantly reflected their connections with Conscientiousness. However, age also appeared to shape the relationship between Emotional Stability and performance. Conclusion: Amidst the replication crisis in psychology these findings demonstrate a very stable and predictable relationship between personality traits and academic performance, which may have important implications for the education of children already in primary school.
... If this is really the case, then grandiose narcissism should go along with a positive self-concept with regard to intelligence. Past research indicates that subjectively assessed intelligence (SAI) overlaps moderately with IQ (Freund & Kasten, 2012) but also with personality dispositions, such as high extraversion, high openness/intellect, and low neuroticism (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004;Furnham, 2001). Likewise, grandiose narcissism has been linked to high SAI (Dufner et al., 2012;Gabriel et al., 1994;Paulhus & Williams, 2002;Nathanson, Pauhlus & Williams, 2006;Zajenkowski & Czarna, 2015), which matches with the interpretation that self-enhancing one's IQ might be an important selfregulatory goal for persons with high grandiose narcissism. ...
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Objective: The current research comprehensively examined how grandiose and vulnerable narcissism are linked to intelligence and intelligence-related beliefs and emotions. Method: In four studies (total N = 1141) we tested the associations between both forms of narcissism, subjectively and objectively assessed intelligence, basic personality traits, test-related stress, beliefs about intelligence and well-being. Results: Both forms of narcissism (grandiose and vulnerable) were unrelated to objective intelligence. Grandiose narcissism was associated with high self-perceived intelligence (Studies 1-3) and explained more variance in self-perceived intelligence than objective intelligence and the Big Five personality traits. It was correlated with reduced distress in the context of IQ testing and low engagement in cognitive performance (Study 2). Individuals with high grandiose narcissism based their well-being (Study 3) partly on intelligence and considered intelligence important for success in different life domains, especially for social relations (Study 4). Vulnerable narcissism was unrelated to self-perceived intelligence (Studies 1-3) and went along with increased distress in the context of IQ testing (Study 2). Conclusions: The results indicate that the topic of intelligence is of key importance for people with high grandiose narcissism psychological functioning and it also has some relevance for individuals with high vulnerable narcissism.
... To explain those findings, it has been suggested that individuals with a high level of openness to experience more frequently and/or more intensively engage in stimulating activities that provide learning opportunities and that this activity engagement in turn improves cognitive ability levels [11]. Consistent with this view, combining the interplay of the aforementioned relationships in one overarching framework, Ihle et al. [12] found that greater activity engagement mediates the relation between higher openness to experience on the one hand and better performance status in cognitive functioning on the other. ...
Article
Aims: We investigated the mediating role of leisure activity engagement in the longitudinal relation between openness to experience and subsequent change in executive functioning over 6 years as measured through performance changes in the Trail Making Test (TMT). Methods: We analyzed longitudinal data from 897 older adults (mean = 74.33 years in the first wave) tested on TMT parts A and B in two waves 6 years apart. Participants reported information on leisure activity engagement and openness to experience. Results: Latent change score modeling revealed that 37.2% of the longitudinal relation between higher openness to experience in the first wave of data collection and a smaller subsequent increase in TMT completion time from the first to the second wave (i.e., a smaller decline in executive functioning) was mediated via a higher frequency of leisure activities in the first wave. Conclusion: Individuals with higher openness to experience show greater activity engagement in old age. By enhancing their cognitive reserve, this activity engagement may finally result in smaller subsequent decline in executive functioning.
... ≤ r ≤ .41, see Supplementary Table S3; see also Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004;Rammstedt et al., 2018;Ziegler et al., 2012. In other words, it is not that Openness had no associations with the outcomes-it simply had no incremental associations over g f and interests. ...
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Developmental theories of intelligence in the tradition of Cattell's investment theory posit that gains in crystallized intelligence (g c) depend mainly on fluid intelligence (g f) but also on a range of so-called intellectual investment traits, such as Openness to Experience and interest in a subject area. However, the relative predictive power of, and the precise nature of the interplay between, g f and different intellectual investment traits remains incompletely understood. In this study, we use large-scale, multi-wave data on secondary school students from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS; N = 4,646) to investigate how g f , Openness, and subject-specific interest relate to baseline levels and change over two years in g c in two domains, reading and math. Results of latent-variable models indicate that g f and interest, and to a lesser extent, Openness, predict higher initial levels and stronger gains over two years in reading competence and mathematical competence. Moreover, results yield strong support for the notion that g f interacts synergistically with interest in reading and math in producing (gains in) reading competence and mathematical competence. In other words, g f and interest cross-fertilize each other, with students who have both high g f and high interest showing the highest rate of skill and knowledge acquisition. Our findings contribute to developmental theories of intelligence by providing further support for the claim that g f and intellectual investment traits are both essential for the development of g c-and by providing evidence that the interplay between g c and investment traits is interactive and synergistic in nature.
... pañolas se adapta mejor a las preguntas que se proponen en la prueba MIR. Por otra, dados los trámites que necesitan realizar los médicos extranjeros de países no pertenecientes a la Unión Europea para la homologación de sus títulos, la proporción de recién graduados es muy superior entre los españoles que en los médicos extranjeros [20,24,25]. A esto se une, que, en muchos casos, los médicos extranjeros que convalidan sus títulos obtienen una nota media de expediente de 5, lo que no refleja fielmente cuál ha sido la nota media obtenida en el grado. ...
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Introducción. En España, el acceso a la formación médica especializada se hace a través de la prueba MIR. Esta prueba la convocan anualmente desde 1978 los Ministerios de Sanidad, y Educación y Formación Profesional. Así, teniendo en cuenta tanto el resultado que se obtiene en la prueba como el baremo promedio del grado, se asigna un número de orden a los médicos que quieren acceder a una plaza de formación como especialistas. El objetivo de este trabajo es el análisis de los resultados obtenidos por los médicos que se presentaron a la prueba de 2021 en función de su baremo académico y de si son españoles o extranjeros. Materiales y métodos. Para esta investigación se ha hecho uso de la información oficial pública relativa al baremo académico, la nacionalidad y los resultados obtenidos en la prueba por todos los aspirantes presentados a ella. Resultados. Entre los 5.000 primeros números de orden se situaron el 90,61% de los médicos presentados con un baremo de sobresaliente, el 79,59% de los baremos de notable igual o superior a 8, el 42,21% de los baremos de notable inferior a 8 y únicamente un 7,16% de los médicos con baremo de aprobado. Conclusiones. Este estudio confirma que existe una relación directa entre el baremo de los médicos aspirantes a una plaza de formación médica especializada y el resultado que obtienen en la prueba MIR, más allá de la ponderación de éste sobre la nota final de la prueba MIR
... However, a negative association between conscientiousness and cognitive functioning, as found in this study, may relate to individuals' occasional developing of a tendency toward conscientiousness in order to compensate for low cognitive ability. For people with higher cognitive abilities, conscientiousness may play a subordinate role reaching a desired goal (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004). In agreement with our findings, Soubelet (2011) observed that higher level of conscientiousness was indeed associated with lower working memory and fluid abilities. ...
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We examined the association between personality and level and change in reasoning ability in a population-based sample of older adults (62-68 years) using a three-year annual follow-up longitudinal study design (HEARTS; N = 3851). Personality traits were measured using the Mini-IPIP scale and reasoning using a short form of Raven’s Matrices. Findings from a structural equation model, controlling for age, education, and sex, revealed that higher levels on extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism were associated with lower reasoning ability (βs: -0.17 to -0.09). Higher levels of openness were associated with better reasoning (β: 0.16). We found no association with rate of change. This evidence replicates previous findings demonstrating that personality traits are associated with individual differences in cognition among older adults.
... To explain the observed associations between personality and intelligence, numerous theories have been proposed (i.e., Ackerman, 2018;Cattell, 1963;Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004;DeYoung, 2020;Rammstedt et al., 2018;Von Stumm & Ackerman, 2013;Ziegler et al., 2012). In particular, Openness has received the most theoretical attention given that it is the Big Five trait with the largest correlation with intelligence and appears to correlate more with crystallized than fluid intelligence (Ackerman & Goff, 1994;Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Gignac et al., 2004;MacCann et al., 2017;Reeve et al., 2006;Von Stumm et al., 2009b;Ziegler et al., 2012). ...
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This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the associations of personality and intelligence. It presents a meta-analysis (N = 162,636, k = 272) of domain, facet, and item-level correlations between personality and intelligence (general, fluid, and crystallized) for the major Big Five and HEXACO hierarchical frameworks of personality: NEO PI-R, Big Five Aspect Scales (BFAS), BFI-2, and HEXACO PI R. It provides the first meta-analysis of personality and intelligence to comprehensively examine (a) facet-level correlations for these hierarchical frameworks of personality, (b) item-level correlations, (c) domain- and facet-level predictive models. Age and sex differences in personality and intelligence, and study-level moderators, are also examined. The study was complemented by four of our own unpublished datasets (N = 26,813) which were used to assess the ability of item-level models to provide generalizable prediction. Results showed that openness (ρ = .20) and neuroticism (ρ = -.09) were the strongest Big Five correlates of intelligence and that openness correlated more with crystallized than fluid intelligence. At the facet-level, traits related to intellectual engagement and unconventionality were more strongly related to intelligence than other openness facets, and sociability and orderliness were negatively correlated with intelligence. Facets of gregariousness and excitement seeking had stronger negative correlations, and openness to aesthetics, feelings, and values had stronger positive correlations with crystallized than fluid intelligence. Facets explained more than twice the variance of domains. Overall, the results provide the most nuanced and robust evidence to date of the relationship between personality and intelligence.
... However, in recent times, there is a major paradigm shift on the performance model with much emphasis on transparency and feedback in developed countries. Furnham and Chamorro-Premuzic (2004) indicated that most corporations now include administrative staff and professionals in performance appraisal models. ...
... Individuals high in neuroticism and extraversion may thus demonstrate more variability in performance on a neuropsychological test battery due to test anxiety and emotional instability. Further, as outlined by Curtis et al. (2015), people high in extraversion may perform better on cognitive tasks due to assertiveness, faster responding, and lower general arousal (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004), though individuals high in extraversion may also be more easily distracted and have a lower patience for repetition (Gold & Arbuckle, 1990). Similarly, low conscientiousness and high neuroticism are associated with unhealthy diurnal cortisol patterns, reflecting poor biological coping mechanisms in the face of stress (Montoliu et al., 2020), which may be exacerbated by cognitive testing in older adulthood. ...
Article
Objectives: Dispersion in cognitive test performance within a single testing session is proposed as an early marker of poor brain health. Existing research, however, has not investigated factors that may explain individual differences in cognitive dispersion. We investigate the extent to which the Big Five personality traits are associated with cognitive dispersion in older adulthood. Method: To promote transparency and reliability, we applied preregistration and conceptual replication via coordinated analysis. Drawing data from seven longitudinal studies of aging (Ntotal = 33,581; Mage range = 56.4-71.2), cognitive dispersion scores were derived from cognitive test results. Independent linear regression models were fit in each study to examine personality traits as predictors of dispersion scores, adjusting for mean cognitive performance and sociodemographics (age, sex, education). Results from individual studies were synthesized using random effects meta-analyses. Results: Synthesized results revealed that openness was positively associated with cognitive dispersion, 0.028, 95% CI [0.003, 0.054]. There was minimal evidence for associations between cognitive dispersion and the other personality traits in independent analyses or meta-analyses. Mean cognitive scores were negatively associated with cognitive dispersion across the majority of studies, while sociodemographic variables were not consistently associated with cognitive dispersion. Conclusion: Higher levels of openness were associated with greater cognitive dispersion across seven independent samples, indicating that individuals higher in openness had more dispersion across cognitive tests. Further research is needed to investigate mechanisms that may help to explain the link between openness and cognitive dispersion, as well as to identify additional individual factors, beyond personality traits, that may be associated with cognitive dispersion. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Content is inert until a learner comes into contact with it, so interaction is key to engagement and learning, as implied by psychological theory (Carson, 1969;Chamorro-Premuzic and Furnham, 2004). In addition to learner-content interaction, experts such as instructors, mentors, researchers and tutors are typically part of a higher education class experience. ...
Chapter
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There is increasing discussion and academic debate about changing and improving learning and teaching praxis as widespread and increased digitization continues to impact life of individuals and society, both locally and globally. Widening the access to higher education is high on the global agenda not just in the field of education but also from the perspective of employment opportunities, entrepreneurship and innovation in the labor market. An open education for all learners is key to maximize the impact of education on society and to ensure its success and sustainability. Opening up education requires a change in attitudes and mindset that emphasizes flexible growth instead of fixed traditions. Enhancing quality in open education requires a system-based approach in which contingency provides for the integration of digitization and technology in both management and leadership. An open education pedagogical approach, or a more self-directed approach is likewise essential to foster openness in both praxis and culture.This chapter analyses the role of open educational practice and culture by discussing the opportunities and dilemmas encountered in this rapidly evolving age of technology-enabled learning, as well as the key issues that must be addressed in opening up education. © E. Ossiannilsson, Z. Altinay, and F. Altinay, CC BY 4.0 hp://dx.doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0103.08
... This result fits the findings from studies reporting negative relations between neuroticism and intelligence in children (Asendorpf & Van Aken, 2003) and adults (Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Furnham et al., 1998;Moutafi et al., 2003). It is also in line with findings on the relation between neuroticism and academic achievement since there is a bulk of evidence suggesting a negative relation between neuroticism and student's grade point average (e.g., Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2003a, 2003b. ...
Article
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Previous studies in adults showed heterogeneous results regarding the associations of personality with intelligence and executive functions (EF). In children, there is a lack of studies investigating the relations between personality and EF. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the relations between the Big Five personality traits, EF, and intelligence in a sample of children (Experiment 1) and young adults (Experiment 2). A total of 155 children (Experiment 1, mean age = 9.54 years) and 91 young adults (Experiment 2, mean age = 23.49 years) participated in the two studies. In both studies, participants performed tasks measuring working memory (WM), inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and fluid intelligence and completed a personality questionnaire. In Experiment 1, we found a negative relation between neuroticism and intelligence. In Experiment 2, we found a positive relation between conscientiousness and intelligence and a positive relation between conscientiousness and cognitive flexibility. Our results suggest a complex interplay between personality factors, EF, and intelligence both in children as well as in young adults.
... To explain the observed associations between personality and intelligence, numerous theories have been proposed (i.e., Ackerman, 2018;Cattell, 1963;Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004;DeYoung, 2020;Rammstedt et al., 2018;Von Stumm & Ackerman, 2013;Ziegler et al., 2012). In particular, Openness has received the most theoretical attention given that it is the Big Five trait with the largest correlation with intelligence and appears to correlate more with crystallized than fluid intelligence (Ackerman & Goff, 1994;Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997;Gignac et al., 2004;MacCann et al., 2017;Reeve et al., 2006;Von Stumm et al., 2009b;Ziegler et al., 2012). ...
... Individuals high in extraversion are more driven to be socially active, which may indirectly influence cognitive functioning and mortality, as social engagement protects against cognitive decline (James et al., 2011;Kelly et al., 2017) and mortality (Bennett, 2002;Thomas, 2012). Further, those high in extraversion may perform better on cognitive tasks due to faster responding, assertiveness, and lower general arousal (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2004). These hypotheses and supporting evidence are reinforced by research suggesting that higher extraversion is associated with better cognitive functioning and episodic memory performance (Meier et al., 2002) in older adults. ...
Article
Research suggests that personality traits are associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and mortality risk, but the timing of when traits are most important in the progression to dementia and the extent to which they are associated with years of cognitive health span are unclear. This project applied secondary data analysis to the Rush Memory and Aging Project (N = 1954; baseline Mage = 80 years; 74% female) over up to 23 annual assessments. Multistate survival modeling examined the extent to which conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion, assessed using the NEO Five Factor Inventory, were associated with transitions between cognitive status categories and death. Additionally, multinomial regression models estimated cognitive health span and total survival based on standard deviation units of personality traits. Adjusting for demographics, depressive symptoms, and apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4, personality traits were most important in the transition from no cognitive impairment (NCI) to MCI. For instance, higher conscientiousness was associated with a decreased risk of transitioning from NCI to MCI, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78, 95% CI [0.72, 0.85] and higher neuroticism was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from NCI to MCI, HR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.04, 1.21]. Additional significant and nonsignificant results are discussed in the context of the existing literature. While personality traits were not associated with total longevity, individuals higher in conscientiousness and extraversion, and lower in neuroticism, had more years of cognitive health span, particularly female participants. These findings provide novel understanding of the simultaneous associations between personality traits and transitions between cognitive status categories and death, as well as cognitive health span and total longevity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Research suggests that e-learning meets many challenges; therefore, an analysis of contributing factors might provide additional information on successful learning [70][71][72][73]. Moreover, there is a lack of empirical data on the links between automatic thoughts, peerto-peer confirmation, and flourishing, especially, in the context of e-learning. ...
Article
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Computer programming e-learners faced stressful life circumstances and educational changes that affected the world during the COVID-19 pandemic. As the cognitive model of flourishing focuses on cognitions rather than situations themselves, it was deemed significant to identify peer-to-peer confirmation, positive automatic thoughts, flourishing, and the links between these study variables in a group of computer programming e-learners and compare the results with other e-learners. This study applied the Flourishing Scale (FS), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Positive (ATQP), and the Student-to-Student Confirmation Scale. The sample consisted of 453 e-learners, including 211 computer programming e-learners. The results revealed that computer programming e-learners differed from other e-learners in flourishing, positive daily functioning, and peer-to-peer confirmation. In both samples, positive daily functioning and positive future expectations predicted self-reported flourishing. Positive automatic thoughts and flourishing predicted peer-to-peer confirmation just in the group of computer programming e-learners. The SEM analysis revealed that peer-to-peer confirmation and positive automatic thoughts explained 57.4% of the variance of flourishing in the computer programming e-learners group and 9.3% of the variance in the social sciences e-learners group, χ2 = 81.320, df = 36, p < 0.001; NFI = 0.963; TLI = 0.967; CFI = 0.979; RMSEA = 0.075 [0.053-0.096]; SRMR = 0.033. The findings signify the importance of peer-to-peer confirmation and positive thoughts for computer programming e-learners' psychological well-being. Nevertheless, the results of this particular study should be regarded with caution due to the relatively small sample size and other limitations. In the future, it would be valuable to identify the underlying mechanisms and the added value of positive states such as flow, which have recently received the increased attention of researchers.
Article
While there has been considerable research on the link between religiosity and self-regulation, the directionality of both constructs remains equivocal. Moreover, little is known regarding the association between religiosity and performance-based measures of self-regulatory abilities, given that past studies have predominantly examined self-regulatory traits via self-reports. Drawing from a 9-year longitudinal dataset (Time 1: n = 4836; Time 2: n = 3467), cross-sectional findings indicated that religious identification was positively and negatively correlated with self-regulatory traits and abilities, respectively. Longitudinal findings revealed that self-regulatory abilities predicted negative changes in religious identification, and this effect strengthened from middle to late adulthood. No longitudinal relations between religious identification and self-regulatory traits were found. Our findings highlight the differential associations of religious identification with self-regulatory traits and abilities, and how these associations are modulated by advancing adulthood.
Chapter
This book explores the development of cognitive skills related to reasoning and creativity, two strands that can intertwine to work together at times but may also be at odds. Spontaneity and freedom from constraint, characteristic of the thinking of young children, may be essential to creativity, which has prompted many to question how much we lose as we progress through childhood. Research and common sense tell us that effort, practice, and study are necessary for the highest levels of creative accomplishment, yet such intentional exertions seem antithetical to these hallmarks of creativity. In this revised and expanded second edition, leading scholars shed new light on creativity's complex relationship to the acquisition of domain-based skills and the development of more general logical reasoning skills. Creativity and Reason in Cognitive Development will be an essential reference for researchers, psychologists, and teachers seeking to better understand the most up-to-date work in the field.
Article
Relatively few studies have examined the reasons older individuals participate in activities that may benefit cognition with aging. Personality traits, particularly, openness to experience, are likely to influence how activities are selected. Openness to experience has also reliably shown to relate to cognitive and intellectual capacities. The current study tested whether diversity in activity helped to explain the overlap between openness to experience and cognitive functioning in an older adult sample (n = 476, mean age: 72.5 years). Results suggest that openness is a better predictor of activity diversity than of time spent engaged in activities or time spent in cognitively challenging activities. Further, activity diversity explained significant variance in the relationship between openness and cognitive ability for most constructs examined. This relationship did not vary with age, but differed as a function of education level, such that participating in a more diverse array of activities was most beneficial for those with less formal education. These results suggest that engagement with a diverse behavioral repertoire in late life may compensate for lack of early life resources.
Preprint
Aesthetic attractivity stands as an underestimated yet fundamental feature of species in conservation biology, significantly driving disproportionate protection efforts towards charismatic species. Despite the evidence, few attempts sought to precisely quantify the impact of aesthetic attractivity in defining priority of species for conservation actions (e.g. inclusion in International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists and protection lists). This study protocol describes the setting of an online test (available from April 2022 to April 2023 at www.unveiling.eu) designed to i) quantify the aesthetic attractivity to humans of the 496 European butterfly species and ii) identify which features (both in the perceived animal and in the perceiver) influence the aesthetic attractivity of a given butterfly species. The test is divided in 5 sections (personal data, ranking, single morphological features, emotional engagement, dispositional variables) aimed at profiling the relation each participant has with the species examined. In the long-term, evaluating butterflies' aesthetic attractivity could facilitate the critical assessment of current conservation strategies, such as the process of selection of flag and umbrella species by research institutions, environmental associations and Non Governative Organizations. This is expected to provide the much-needed evidence to set up unbiased biodiversity conservation strategies and counteract the selective anthropogenic pressure which favours the extinction of unattractive species, being no or less protected compared to charismatic species.
Chapter
This book explores the development of cognitive skills related to reasoning and creativity, two strands that can intertwine to work together at times but may also be at odds. Spontaneity and freedom from constraint, characteristic of the thinking of young children, may be essential to creativity, which has prompted many to question how much we lose as we progress through childhood. Research and common sense tell us that effort, practice, and study are necessary for the highest levels of creative accomplishment, yet such intentional exertions seem antithetical to these hallmarks of creativity. In this revised and expanded second edition, leading scholars shed new light on creativity's complex relationship to the acquisition of domain-based skills and the development of more general logical reasoning skills. Creativity and Reason in Cognitive Development will be an essential reference for researchers, psychologists, and teachers seeking to better understand the most up-to-date work in the field.
Chapter
This book explores the development of cognitive skills related to reasoning and creativity, two strands that can intertwine to work together at times but may also be at odds. Spontaneity and freedom from constraint, characteristic of the thinking of young children, may be essential to creativity, which has prompted many to question how much we lose as we progress through childhood. Research and common sense tell us that effort, practice, and study are necessary for the highest levels of creative accomplishment, yet such intentional exertions seem antithetical to these hallmarks of creativity. In this revised and expanded second edition, leading scholars shed new light on creativity's complex relationship to the acquisition of domain-based skills and the development of more general logical reasoning skills. Creativity and Reason in Cognitive Development will be an essential reference for researchers, psychologists, and teachers seeking to better understand the most up-to-date work in the field.
Chapter
This book explores the development of cognitive skills related to reasoning and creativity, two strands that can intertwine to work together at times but may also be at odds. Spontaneity and freedom from constraint, characteristic of the thinking of young children, may be essential to creativity, which has prompted many to question how much we lose as we progress through childhood. Research and common sense tell us that effort, practice, and study are necessary for the highest levels of creative accomplishment, yet such intentional exertions seem antithetical to these hallmarks of creativity. In this revised and expanded second edition, leading scholars shed new light on creativity's complex relationship to the acquisition of domain-based skills and the development of more general logical reasoning skills. Creativity and Reason in Cognitive Development will be an essential reference for researchers, psychologists, and teachers seeking to better understand the most up-to-date work in the field.
Chapter
This book explores the development of cognitive skills related to reasoning and creativity, two strands that can intertwine to work together at times but may also be at odds. Spontaneity and freedom from constraint, characteristic of the thinking of young children, may be essential to creativity, which has prompted many to question how much we lose as we progress through childhood. Research and common sense tell us that effort, practice, and study are necessary for the highest levels of creative accomplishment, yet such intentional exertions seem antithetical to these hallmarks of creativity. In this revised and expanded second edition, leading scholars shed new light on creativity's complex relationship to the acquisition of domain-based skills and the development of more general logical reasoning skills. Creativity and Reason in Cognitive Development will be an essential reference for researchers, psychologists, and teachers seeking to better understand the most up-to-date work in the field.
Chapter
Two CSCL activities (online learning community for questions and answers, short for QA; group works on collaborative writing with blind peer assessment, short for GW) are designed and implemented in an undergraduate class (with more than 200 students) to investigate the impact of CSCL on quality teaching in large classes. Data were collected from the survey of learning experience, in-depth interview, forum logs, and students’ exam score. The results were: first, CSCL helped to achieve quality teaching in large classes for it not only enhanced students’ motivation and engagement in the learning process but also facilitated students to deepen their understanding through the teacher-student interaction and student-student interaction beyond the classroom. Second, students participation in QA was a significant predictor for students academic performance. Third, different forms of CSCL had both some common benefits for teaching quality and some different effects on learning. Since the different effects were influenced by the activity design, so it is worth studying how to help instructors to design collaborative activities in order to maximise the benefits of CSCL and to minimise the problems of CSCL in the future work.
Chapter
This book explores the development of cognitive skills related to reasoning and creativity, two strands that can intertwine to work together at times but may also be at odds. Spontaneity and freedom from constraint, characteristic of the thinking of young children, may be essential to creativity, which has prompted many to question how much we lose as we progress through childhood. Research and common sense tell us that effort, practice, and study are necessary for the highest levels of creative accomplishment, yet such intentional exertions seem antithetical to these hallmarks of creativity. In this revised and expanded second edition, leading scholars shed new light on creativity's complex relationship to the acquisition of domain-based skills and the development of more general logical reasoning skills. Creativity and Reason in Cognitive Development will be an essential reference for researchers, psychologists, and teachers seeking to better understand the most up-to-date work in the field.
Chapter
This book explores the development of cognitive skills related to reasoning and creativity, two strands that can intertwine to work together at times but may also be at odds. Spontaneity and freedom from constraint, characteristic of the thinking of young children, may be essential to creativity, which has prompted many to question how much we lose as we progress through childhood. Research and common sense tell us that effort, practice, and study are necessary for the highest levels of creative accomplishment, yet such intentional exertions seem antithetical to these hallmarks of creativity. In this revised and expanded second edition, leading scholars shed new light on creativity's complex relationship to the acquisition of domain-based skills and the development of more general logical reasoning skills. Creativity and Reason in Cognitive Development will be an essential reference for researchers, psychologists, and teachers seeking to better understand the most up-to-date work in the field.
Article
There is substantial evidence for the association between higher early life IQ and better cognition in late life. To advance knowledge on potential pathways, the present study tested whether Five-Factor Model personality traits in adulthood mediate the association between adolescent IQ and later-life cognition. Participants were from the Graduate sample of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study on Aging (WLS; N = 3585). IQ was assessed in 1957 (about age 17), personality was assessed in 2003–2005 (age = 64), and cognition was assessed in 2011 (age = 71). Controlling for demographic factors, higher IQ in adolescence was related to higher openness, lower neuroticism, lower extraversion, lower agreeableness and lower conscientiousness in adulthood. Higher openness partially mediated the association between higher IQ and better cognition. Additional analyses indicated that the pattern of associations between IQ, personality and cognition was similar when the polygenic score for cognition was included as an additional covariate. Although effect size were small, this study provides new evidence that openness in adulthood is on the pathway between early life IQ and later-life cognition.
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Resumen Introducción: El examen de acceso a la especialización médica en España, conocido como prueba MIR, se convoca anualmente desde 1978 y se realiza simultáneamente en diversas sedes distribuidas por toda España. El acceso a las distintas especialidades médicas está condicionado por el baremo académico o puntaje conseguido en el grado de Medicina, entendiendo como tal el promedio de las calificaciones obtenidas durante la carrera en medicina, así como por el resultado de dicha prueba. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el análisis los resultados de los médicos presentados a las pruebas MIR de 2019 y 2020, en función de su puntaje. Método: Para este estudio se hizo uso de la información publicada por el Ministerio de Sanidad relativa a los resultados definitivos de las convocatorias de la prueba MIR de 2019 y 2020. Dicha información incluye la nota media del baremo académico o puntaje de todos los médicos que realizaron el examen, así como el número de orden obtenido en la prueba. Resultados: Aunque la nota media del expediente de los opositores tiene un peso únicamente del 10% sobre la puntuación que da lugar a su ordenación en la prueba MIR, existe una correlación importante entre el puntaje y el número de orden obtenido que permite escoger entre las diferentes plazas de formación sanitaria especializada ofertadas en la convocatoria. Conclusiones: En la mayor parte de los casos, los individuos que obtuvieron una mejor nota media en el grado de Medicina son los que obtienen los mejores resultados en la prueba MIR. Esto se debe a un mayor nivel de conocimientos de partida al inicio de la preparación de la prueba, junto con un mejor aprovechamiento de dicho tiempo de preparación, ligado a su capacidad y hábito de trabajo, entrenados previamente a lo largo de los seis cursos del grado.
Article
Purpose Recently, the role of consumers in firms' innovation processes has increased. Prior literature asserts that qualitative aspects of consumers serve as crucial factors shaping the even competitiveness of a specific industry. This study focuses on measuring home demand conditions that enhance local firms' innovation. Design/methodology/approach The present study describes the development of a 12-item measure to assess consumer sophistication in the food industry. The items assess the general knowledge, experience, skills and abilities needed to purchase a specific food category. A second-order construct with three distinct first-order constructs emerged, which were termed opinion formulation, sensitivity and exposure with variety. The reliability and validity of the scale were assessed with pilot survey data using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The developed measure was tested to investigate its effect on individuals' grocery buying behaviors using grocery receipt panel data from 723 consumers. Findings The results indicate that consumer sophistication has a positive effect on new and the variety of grocery purchases. The more sophisticated a consumer is, the more they buy new and a variety of products. The newly developed consumer sophistication measure has a variety of potential applications to predict consumers' variety-seeking and new product purchase behavior. Originality/value This study is the first to develop a measure for assessing demand quality, namely, consumer sophistication of a specific food product. This approach may offer insights to practitioners regarding the relevant consumer sophistication levels to target when launching a new product or service in the food industry.
Article
Objective/Background: Personality traits are regarded as risk factors for cognitive impairment in older adults, while sleep disturbance and physical inactivity are also considered as modifiable risk factors. Therefore, it could be beneficial to investigate the effects of those modifiable risk factors on the relationship between personality traits and cognitive functions, to prepare appropriate strategies for mitigating cognitive impairment. Participants: A total of 155 cognitively unimpaired older adults were included. Methods: All participants underwent cognitive function tests using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery and examinations for personality traits using the Big Five Inventory. Individual physical activity and sleep quality were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. A hierarchical linear multiple regression analysis was performed to demonstrate the direct association between personality traits and cognitive functions, and the multiple moderator analysis was used to analyze the moderating effects of lifestyle factors on this association. Results: Among the five personality traits, only neuroticism was negatively associated with the frontal executive and visuospatial functions after controlling age, sex, and years of education. Interestingly, the negative relationship between neuroticism and frontal executive function was alleviated in older adults with higher sleep quality. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that higher sleep quality has significant moderating effects on the negative association between neuroticism and frontal executive functions in older adults, which suggests intervention for improving sleep quality such as cognitive behavioral therapy can be considered in older adults who have personality traits associated with a high risk of cognitive impairment.
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Aim. The cross-cultural comparison of the relationships between intelligence and other components of intellectual-personal potential (Big Five traits and tolerance of uncertainty) in Russian and American students. Methodology. The ICAR (International Cognitive Ability Resource) test was used, as well as Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), and Bunder’s Questionnaire. The intercorrelations between these measures in two student samples - Russian (n = 364) and American (n = 209) were compared. Results. Tolerance of uncertainty showed positive correlations with openness to experience in both student samples; in the American sample it correlates positively with fluid intelligence. Intolerance of uncertainty showed negative correlation with openness to experience and positive correlation with conscientiousness in the Russian sample. In the American sample intolerance of uncertainty negatively correlated with accord. In the Russian sample accord correlates negatively with verbal intelligence. Research implications. The findings contribute to the knowledge on cross-cultural similarities and differences between the American and Russian students on the relationships between intelligence, personality traits, and attitudes towards uncertainty.
Book
Współcześnie psycholodzy skłaniają się ku postrzeganiu inteligencji zaledwie jako jednego z czynników znaczących dla osiągnieć szkolnych, nie wyczerpującego jednak puli możliwości do poszukiwania potencjalnych determinantów osiągnięć szkolnych. Myśląc o podobnych czynnikach pozazdolnościowych powiązanych z ocenami, badacze zwracali się w stronę wielu obszarów stanowiących tradycyjne przedmioty zainteresowania psychologii, w tym – cech osobowości. Na możliwość powiązania obszaru funkcjonowania osobowościowego i intelektualnego zwracają uwagę tak badania naukowe, jak i niektóre teorie inteligencji, w tym – teorie inwestycji, analizujące rozwój intelektualny aktywności przejawianej w tym obszarze z poziomu kilku grup czynników, w tym również osobowości.
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Today, although educational circles accept individual differences and the uniqueness of the individual, it is not economically workable or possible to reveal the differences between individuals in educational environments. Being aware of the personality traits of individuals to distinguish them according to their personality traits and, as a result, to guide them in creating the desired behaviors of individuals is crucial. On the understanding that students know their personality traits, they realize their potential, to realize themselves. It will lead the family, school, and students to set goals they can reach and thus improve themselves. This situation affects the whole life of the individual, including lifelong learning processes, based on the continuity of education and training. With this study, we aimed that education program specialists and educators can get to know the target audience of students, and parents can get to know their children more closely, to be aware of their differences to strengthen their existing aspects and to develop their insufficient aspects, if any. Since we couldn’t find any scale in the literature review regarding student personality traits developed in Turkey and the world, we tried to develop a scale that has proven validity and reliability. In the research, we used a scanning design with the quantitative method. The research population comprises the parents of 16 million 505 thousand 271 students between the ages of 6-18 who are studying in schools affiliated with the Ministry of National Education in the 2020-2021 academic year. The research sample comprises 2750 parents, accessed with the appropriate sampling method. With the data got at the literature review, we prepared a 356-item question pool, by consulting three experts we reduced it to 185 items, and we prepared 5-point Likert type draft scale questionnaires and delivered to 2750 parents both by hand and with Google Form via WhatsApp. We transferred 2229 parents’ data, who fully responded to the first scale to the SPSS 26 program and subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA). During the EFA, we included the items with a minimum (0.30) item load in the analysis, then we excluded the items with a low item load from the analysis with the overlapping items at least (0.10), and we ended the analysis, and its reliability (.942), Cronbach Alpha value (.948). We got A 61-item scale named “Scale for Determining Student Personality Traits According to Parents’ Views”. We started the second data collection process for the scale because subjecting the scale obtained from the EFA analysis to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with a new data set would yield a more valid result. In the second data collection process, we reached 916 parents, transferred their data to the AMOS 24 program and started CFA. Since the data of 122 parents in the data set in the CFA process deviated from normality, we reduced the number of the sample group to 794. NFI (0.921), NNFI/TLI (0.925), AGFI (0.86) and RMSEA (0.052) values are acceptable, and RMR (0.043) values are in good agreement. The factor loads of the scale items are between 0.37-0.82. As a result, the “Student Personality Determination Scale According to Parents’ Views” is a valid and reliable measurement tool comprising 46 items and 16 sub-dimensions. We recommend to the researchers who will apply the scale to test the test-retest reliability of the study with a different sample and by redistributing it two weeks after the first application, where the sample size is small. We think researchers will get more stable, valid, and reliable results if they determine the item load of 0.60 and above in the data analysis they will make about this scale. We recommend that you to apply the scale abroad to show the international validity level of the scale.
Article
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Correlations between single-item self-reports of intelligence and IQ scores are rather low (.20-.25) in college samples. The literature suggested that self-reports could be improved by three strategies: (1) aggregation, (2) item weighting, and (3) use of indirect, rather than direct, questions. To evaluate these strategies, we compared the validity of aggregated and unaggregated versions of direct measures with four indirect measures (Gough's Intellectual efficiency scale, Hogan's Intellect composite scale, Sternberg's Behavior Check List, and Trapnell's Smart scale). All measures were administered to two large samples of undergraduates (Ns = 310, 326), who also took an IQ test. Although results showed some success for both direct and indirect measures, the failure of their validities to exceed .30 impugns their utility as IQ proxies in competitive college samples. The content of the most valid items referred to global mental abilities or reading involvement. Aggregation benefited indirect more than direct measures, but prototype-weighting contributed little.
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the openness which cannot be understood as the culture that is acquired through education or good breeding, not as intellect or any other cognitive ability. Openness must be viewed in both structural and motivational terms. Openness is seen in the breadth, depth, and permeability of consciousness and in the recurrent need to enlarge and examine experience. Openness also suggests a passive or uncritical receptivity, which is clearly inappropriate. Open people actively seek out experience and are apt to be particularly reflective and thoughtful about the ideas they encounter. A structural account of openness may be necessary, but it does not seem to be sufficient. Open people are not the passive recipients of a barrage of experiences they are unable to screen out; they actively seek out new and varied experiences. Openness involves motivation, needs for variety cognition sentience, and understanding. The heritability of openness might be explained by the heritability of intelligence. Psychologists have spent more time and effort studying intelligence, than any other trait by adopting the term “Intellect.” Personality psychologists could claim this vast literature as their own. Openness could be construed as intelligence itself or as the reflection of intelligence in the personality sphere.
Article
Full-text available
Correlations between single-item self-reports of intelligence and IQ scores are rather low (.20–.25) in college samples. The literature suggested that self-reports could be improved by three strategies: (1) aggregation, (2)item weighting, and (3) use of indirect, rather than direct, questions. To evaluate these strategies, we compared the validity of aggregated and unaggregated versions of direct measures with four indirect measures (Gough’s Intellectual efficiency scale, Hogan’s Intellect composite scale, Sternberg’s Behavior Check List, and Trapnell’s Smart scale). All measures were administered to two large samples of undergraduates (Ns = 310, 326), who also took an IQ test. Although results showed some success for both direct and indirect measures, the failure of their validities to exceed .30 impugns their utility as IQ proxies in competitive college samples. The content of the most valid items referred to global mental abilities or reading involvement. Aggregation benefited indirect more than direct measures, but prototype-weighting contributed little.
Article
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The strength of the relationship between anxiety and performance varies from study to study with correlations from extreme negative to positive values. In order to reveal the sources of this inconsistency, a series of meta-analyses was conducted using the Schmidt-Hunter algorithm for effect sizes r.One hundred and twenty-six studies published from 1975 to 1988, based on a total sample of 36,626 subjects, were located after a comprehensive literature search. They include 156 independent samples. An overall analysis with the 156 effect sizes yielded a population effect size of r = −.21. Further analyses aimed at exploring moderator variables that would account for the residual variance, but tests of gender, culture (USA, West Germany and others), and anxiety stability (state/trait) failed to unveil the expected moderator impact. However, analyses with the anxiety components worry and emotionality, kinds of anxiety such as general and test anxiety, and the anxiety measurement point in time yielded systematic differences: the more cognitively determined and the more specific the anxiety measure, the closer was its association with academic performance. A closer relationship was also found if anxiety was measured after the performance situation compared to being measured before.
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From among five tests of fluid intelligence employed in this study, two (Swaps and Triplet Numbers) were designed to investigate increases in complexity and difficulty. This was accomplished by manipulating the number of steps needed to reach a solution. The increase in task difficulty is related to changes in the overall performance levels that are reflected in arithmetic means. The complexity of a task is related to the increase in correlation with measures of fluid intelligence or in the increase in factor loadings on a fluid intelligence factor. Both these tendencies are present in the results of this study.A metacognitive process of self-confidence was assessed by asking participants to indicate how confident they were that the item they have just answered was correctly solved. A metacognitive process of self-evaluation was assessed by estimating the number of correctly solved items at the end of each test. The analyses of the overall performance also indicate that an “easy/difficult” distinction provides a reasonable account of the calibration data that show over- and underconfidence. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses indicate the presence of a relatively strong self-confidence factor. Confirmatory analysis also indicates the presence of a self-evaluation factor.
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This chapter discusses the cognitive science of extraversion–introversion. The chapter develops detailed information-processing theories of extraversion effects and outlines an adaptive explanation that considers the functional significance of individual differences in processing in supporting extraverted and introverted behaviors. Both the affective and the performance correlates of extraversion may derive from individual differences in processing. The processing characteristics associated with extraversion provide the foundation for the acquired skills needed in certain overload environments, those associated with multiple information sources and social interaction. The chapter highlights that the extraversion effects on performance are highly contingent upon information-processing demands, internal emotional state, and external contextual factors such as level of stimulation and motivational signals. Extraversion relates to individual differences both in cognitive architecture and to strategy. Connectionism provides a powerful tool for modeling architectural differences between extraverts and introverts that may vary with arousal level.
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In this groundbreaking handbook, more than 60 internationally respected authorities explore the interface between intelligence and personality by bringing together a wide range of potential integrative links drawn from theory, research, measurements, and applications.
Article
This paper reports on two studies, each concerned with sex differences in the estimates of Gardner's 'seven basic types of intelligence'. In the first study, 180 British adults were asked to estimate their own intelligence on the seven intelligence factors. Only one (mathematical/logical) showed a significant sex difference, with males believing they had higher scores than females. Factor analysis of these seven scales yielded three interpretable higher-order factors. There was a similar sex difference on only one factor (mathematical/spatial intelligence), which showed males rating themselves higher than females. In the second study, 80 student participants completed the same seven estimates of intelligence,plus a standard sex-role inventory, in order to separate sex and sex role in the self-estimation of intelligence. A series of sex x sex-role ANOVAs showed some effects, particularly for mathematical, musical, and spatial intelligence, bur nearly always for sex and not sex role. Results suggest that previous studies which found consistent sex differences in self-estimates of overall intelligence ('g') may have over-exaggerated the issue as the difference is clearly confined to a limited number of factors of intelligence. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Personnel selection research provides much evidence that intelligence (g) is an important predictor of performance in training and on the job, especially in higher level work. This article provides evidence that g has pervasive utility in work settings because it is essentially the ability to deal with cognitive complexity, in particular, with complex information processing. The more complex a work task, the greater the advantages that higher g confers in performing it well. Everyday tasks, like job duties, also differ in their level of complexity. The importance of intelligence therefore differs systematically across different arenas of social life as well as economic endeavor. Data from the National Adult Literacy Survey are used to show how higher levels of cognitive ability systematically improve individual's odds of dealing successfully with the ordinary demands of modern life (such as banking, using maps and transportation schedules, reading and understanding forms, interpreting news articles). These and other data are summarized to illustrate how the advantages of higher g, even when they are small, cumulate to affect the overall life chances of individuals at different ranges of the IQ bell curve. The article concludes by suggesting ways to reduce the risks for low-IQ individuals of being left behind by an increasingly complex postindustrial economy.
Book
Preface List of illustrations A word about correlation 1. To see 'g' or not to see 'g': How many types of intelligence are there? 2. Ageing and intelligence - senility or sagacity? What happens to mental abilities as we grow older? 3. Brainy? Why are some people cleverer than others? 4. 'They **** you up your Mum and Dad': Are intelligence differences a result of genes or environments or both? 5. The (b)right man for the job: Does intelligence matter? 6. The lands of the rising IQ: Is intelligence changing generation by generation? 7. Twelve angry men: Getting experts to agree about human intelligence differences Further reading Index
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This study investigated individual differences in self-estimated IQ, psychometrically assessed IQ (measured by three aptitude tests), and personality trait differences. It attempted to see if self-estimates were significant, accurate predictors of ability test scores and whether personality traits related to self-estimates. One hundred participants were given a questionnaire on which they estimated their IQ on each of Gardner's (1983) seven intelligences. They were then asked to complete the Gordon Personality Profile Inventory (Gordon, 1998), as well as verbal, numerical, and spatial aptitude tests. No significant sex differences were found in terms of overall self-estimates of IQ, yet there was an often reported sex difference on ratings of spatial IQ. The extra version factor was most strongly associated with higher self-rated intelligence estimates. Personality traits were most related to estimates of social and artistic intelligence. Estimates of verbal intelligence were significantly correlated with verbal ability scores (r= .26); estimates of mathematical intelligence were correlated with numerical ability test scores (r = .35) but there was no association between estimates and test scores of spatial ability. Results confirm previous findings showing little relationship between personality and intelligence test scores. However, results show that personality is systematically linked to self-estimated intelligence.
Chapter
Intelligence and personality are fundamental to understanding children’s performance in schools. The first practical intelligence test was developed by Binet and Simon for use in Parisian public schools, and schools have remained the primary source for research and application regarding theories of intelligence. Although research regarding personality has generally evolved in clinical settings and then been transferred to schools, educators continue to develop and apply theories and techniques drawn from personality research.
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Convergent evidence from the diverse lines of research reported in the present special issue of this journal attests to the explanatory and predictive generality of self-efficacy theory. This commentary addresses itself to conceptual and empirical issues concerning the nature and function of self-percepts of efficacy.
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Entwicklung von Gc nach der Schule (S. 143, siehe auch Ackerman, 1996, 234f): , One must not forget that nine-tenths of generalizations and theorizing about intelligence and intelligence tests are based on observations in school (p. 142)
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A series of previous studies with studentparticipants has shown that females' self-IQ estimatesare significantly lower than those of males. In thisstudy, 184 mostly white British adults estimated their own IQ and that of their children. The resultswere in line with previous studies, in that males ratedtheir IQ higher than females (108 vs. 104). Both sexesrated their male children higher than their female children (109 vs. 102). Males tendedmore than females to believe there is a greaterdifference between the intelligence of female and malechildren, but this was not significant. Results wereconsidered in terms of the current sociobiological andsociocultural explanations for sex differences inability.
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This study looks at the relationship between personality traits (Big Five personality traits), fluid (Gf) and subjectively-assessed (SAI) intelligence. British university students together (N = 100) completed the NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992), five intelligence tests, a measure of Emotional Intelligence (EQ) and estimated their intellectual ability on a normal distribution followed by six specific abilities. The Wonderlic Personnel Test score was a significant predictor of three estimates: EQ of two; and Openness to Experience of five of these estimates. The most variance accounted for was 16 per cent when regressing intelligence the Big Five personality traits and emotional intelligence onto SAI scores. The five intelligence tests correlated significantly with each other. Males give higher overall IQ self-estimates (114.4 vs 106.4) and higher overall vocabulary scores (116.0 vs 106.5). Regressing the six specific abilities onto the overall estimate showed three to be significant (Vocabulary, Ability to learn new things, Cultural Knowledge).
Article
This study investigated the relation of the "Big Five" personality di- mensions (Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Consci- entiousness, and Openness to Experience) to three job performance criteria (job proficiency, training proficiency, and personnel data) for five occupational groups (professionals, police, managers, sales, and skilled/semi-skilled). Results indicated that one dimension of person- ality. Conscientiousness, showed consistent relations with all job per- formance criteria for all occupational groups. For the remaining per- sonality dimensions, the estimated true score correlations varied by occupational group and criterion type. Extraversion was a valid pre- dictor for two occupations involving social interaction, managers and sales (across criterion types). Also, both Openness to Experience and Extraversion were valid predictors of the training proficiency criterion (across occupations). Other personality dimensions were also found to be valid predictors for some occupations and some criterion types, but the magnitude of the estimated true score correlations was small (p < .10). Overall, the results illustrate the benefits of using the 5- factor model of personality to accumulate and communicate empirical findings. The findings have numerous implications for research and practice in personnel psychology, especially in the subfields of person- nel selection, training and development, and performance appraisal.
Article
Following J. Reilly and G. Mulhern (1995), the authors examined the relationship between self-estimated and psychometrically measured IQs in men and women. In this study, 53 male and 140 female British undergraduates estimated their overall IQs. About 4 months later, they completed a spatial-intelligence (mental-rotation) test. The men estimated their scores significantly higher (120) than the women did (116) and also obtained significantly higher test scores (6.94) than the women did (4.43). There was a very modest but significant correlation between self-estimated IQ and actual IQ score (r = .16). The correlation was significant for the men (r = .27, n = 53) but not for the women (r = .09, n = 140). Removal of a small number of outliers had no significant effect on the results.
Article
The origins and development of the concept of aptitude complexes are reviewed. Initial empirical success in demonstrating interactions between aptitude complexes and instructional complexes by Richard E. Snow and his students is followed by an inductive approach to finding broader trait complexes. Three empirical studies of college students and adults up to age 62 are described, where trait complexes were correlated with domain knowledge and ability measures. Differentiated profiles of trait complex-knowledge-ability correlations were found and replicated across the 3 studies. Evidence for trait complexes that are supportive or impeding for the development of domain knowledge is reviewed. The aptitude complex-trait complex approach is viewed as an important means toward researching and reevaluating the nature of aptitude-treatment interactions.
Article
Zusammenfassung: Studien zur selbst eingeschatzten Intelligenz belegen, dass Manner ihre Intelligenz hoher einschatzen als Frauen. In der vorliegenden Studie wurden Geschlechtsdifferenzen in der selbst eingeschatzten Intelligenz bei Kindern und Jugendlichen anhand einer Stichprobe von 124 Grundschulkindern im Alter zwischen acht und zehn Jahren sowie einer Stichprobe von 243 Gymnasiastinnen und Gymnasiasten im Alter von 12-15 Jahren untersucht. Die eigene Intelligenz wurde in 11 verschiedenen Bereichen eingeschatzt, die neben den sieben Thurstoneschen (1938) Primarfaktoren die musikalische, korperlich-kinasthetische, intra- und interpersonale Intelligenz des Gardnerschen (1983) Intelligenzkonzepts umfassten. Die Ergebnisse belegen die Angemessenheit eines differenzierten Intelligenzmases, da keine generell hohere Einschatzung der Jungen im Vergleich zu Madchen bestatigt werden konnte. Jungen schatzen uber beide Altersstufen hinweg ihre mathematische und raumliche Intelligenz, ihre Wahrnehmungsgeschwindigk...
Article
This study is directed towards an integration of intellectual ability, learning style, personality and achievement motivation as predictors of academic success in higher education. Correlational analyses partly confirmed and partly disconfirmed our expectations in a sample of 409 first-year psychology students. Consistent with the literature, intellectual ability and achievement motivation were associated positively with academic success. For the meaning directed, reproduction directed and application directed learning style, no positive association with academic success could be detected. The undirected learning style, however, appeared to be a consistent negative predictor. For the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience), a consistent, positive association for conscientiousness with academic success was found. The very first examination at the university came out as the most important predictor for academic success, even after two and three years of study. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the literature and the policy of the Dutch Ministry of Education.
Article
Fifty-four male and 51 female German students estimated their own and their parents' IQ scores on each of Thurstone's [Thurstone, L. L. (1938). Primary mental abilities. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.] seven primary mental abilities (verbal fluency, verbal comprehension, numerical ability, spatial visualization, memory, perceptual speed and reasoning) and four additional types of intelligence proposed by Gardner [Gardner, G. (1983). Frames of mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.], namely musical, body-kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. Gender differences were identified for only some of the intelligence domains. Males rated their mathematical, logical and spatial intelligence higher than females, while females gave higher scores than males for musical and interpersonal intelligence. Furthermore, there was some direct evidence for the assumption that estimates of intelligence are susceptible to gender stereotypes. When controlling for gender stereotypes, sex-related differences in self-estimated types of intelligence were confined to mathematical abilities and memory with higher ratings of males in the former and higher ratings of females in the latter one. Finally, factor analyses suggested gender differences in the conceptualization of some aspects of intelligence.
Article
Two intakes of first year students (N = 54 and N = 60) were given the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985) soon after arriving at university. Three years later they wrote their final examinations consisting of seven three-hour papers. Results showed that students high on Neuroticism were more likely to write their examinations in the health center or to provide a doctor's note than were students low on Neuroticism. There was no difference in Extraversion, Psychoticism or Lie scale scores in their final grades.
Article
Describes a "proof-of-concept" study conducted by the author and E. L. Rolfhus (e.g., 1998) of adult knowledge structures, ability, and nonability traits. Ability and self-report batteries were completed by undergraduates and Ss at least 30 yrs of age and younger than 60 yrs of age. The older Ss performed better than the younger Ss on the verbal ability tests and the mechanical knowledge test, less well on the numerical ability tests. Results provide additional support for the theory, in that the older adults had higher mean performance in all of the knowledge categories that were assessed, although the largest differences between older–younger groups were found in the arts and literature domain, and the smallest differences in knowledge were on the natural and physical sciences. Discussion following the chapter started with inquiries about the relationship between typical intellectual engagement and need for cognition. Subsequent discussion concerned all the differences between the author's approach to knowledge as intelligence and other approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
present selected examples in 4 areas: where personality and intelligence theory and research have overlapped (these examples will involve interrelationships based on techniques, constructs, and, within the factor analytic research, how research on the structure of personality has included intelligence factors) / what problems have been encountered in attempts to arrive at an integrated view of persons (the emphasis here will be primarily on personality theory because of the assumption that personality theory is a more inclusive term / the examples will be aimed at posing problems that provide meaningful—that is, testable—hypotheses for research at the interface of intelligence and personality) / [offer] a brief look at personality theory and research within the context of the general history of psychology . . . and the philosophy of science / [provide] suggestions to help personality theory achieve an integrated view of persons (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined sex differences in the attribution of IQ scores. 161 female and 84 male (21–34 yrs old) psychology students completed a questionnaire and were asked to estimate their own, their parents', their grandparents', and 15 occupational groups' average IQs. Results show that males rated their IQs higher than females and both sexes rated their fathers' IQs as higher than their mothers'. Grandfathers received higher IQ estimates than grandmothers. There was a wide distribution of IQ scores among occupational groups from cleaner, bricklayer and hairdresser, to lawyer, doctor and professor. Thus, despite the fact that psychology attaches no significant gender differences to general intelligence, psychology students appeared to believe in the superiority of males. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[This book] is written for students of cognitive psychology, and also for clinicians and researchers in the areas of cognition, stress and emotional disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Relations between personality and intelligence were investigated in the context of the distinction between intelligence as typical engagement and intelligence as maximal engagement. The traditional approach to investigating the association between intelligence as maximal performance and personality was reviewed, and suggestions were made, including the suggestion that intelligence as typical engagement results in clearer understanding of personality–intelligence relations. 13 personality/interest constructs hypothesized to surround a core construct of typical intellectual engagement and related to typical intellectual performance were operationalized. Relations found were modest, yet several personality scales differentially related to fluid and crystallized classes of intelligence. Relations between the personality constructs surrounding typical intellectual engagement and the broad personality domain are investigated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
T. Rocklin (see record 1994-29650-001) examined the relations between M. Goff and P. L. Ackerman's (see record 1993-13529-001) measure of typical intellectual engagement (TIE) and a personality test measure of Openness. Rocklin's arguments are examined in the context of 3 themes: philosophical issues, TIE and Openness from a facet perspective, and the bandwidth-fidelity dilemma. Although Rocklin raised important issues about these constructs, it is demonstrated that measures of TIE and Openness, although significantly related, are theoretically and empirically distinguishable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors describe an approach to adult intellect on the basis of content, unlike the traditional approach, which is mostly based on process. Thirty-two academic knowledge scales were rated by 202 college students, who also completed ability, vocational interest, and personality scales. Analyses of knowledge clusters and individual scales were used to evaluate commonality across ability constructs (verbal and spatial ability), vocational interests (realistic, investigative, and artistic), and personality (typical intellectual engagement and openness). The results support knowledge differentiation across fluid and crystallized abilities, show a pattern of positive correlations of arts and humanities knowledge with typical intellectual engagement and openness, and show correlations between math and physical sciences knowledge and realistic and investigative interests. Implications for the study of adult intelligence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The concept of intelligence includes several factors. The cognitive ability such as abstract reasoning, verbal, spatial, numerical and other specific factors. The conative functions like drive, persistence, will, and/or some aspects of temperament. The non-intellective factors which include capacities and traits which are really factors of the personality per se. The discrepancy today lies in the fact that the clinical psychologist purports to measure mental abilities by psychometric tests; however, in his interpretation of the IQ or MA wide social, psychological and biological interpretations are made. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)