Influence of epidermal growth factor and gonadotrophin on the in vitro maturation of human oocytes
To study the effect of epidermal growth factor(EGF) and different concentrations of gonadotrophin (Gn) on the in vitro maturation of human oocytes.
EGF was added to the vitro culture medium in order to observe the effect of Gn combined with or without EGF on the result of in vitro maturation. The concentrations of hCG and FSH were changed respectively to observe the difference between the results.
Adding EGF to the culture medium improved the maturation rate of oocyte significantly (P < 0.05). There was no difference between the results with different concentrations of hCG and FSH in the culture medium.
EGF can improve the results of the in vitro maturation of human oocytes by increasing the maturation rate significantly. Increasing the concentration of Gn does not influence the results of in vitro maturation.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "There are several formulas for human IVM but, with few exception , they all contain serum, and efforts to produce an optimal medium, and preferably chemically-defined, have been thwarted by the lack of research material. Culture medium supplemented with steroids and growth factors, including oestradiol, progesterone, EGF, IGF-1 and VEGF, have been reported to improve maturation and developmental competence in various animal species [45-50]. However, optimal conditions probably vary between species and even at different phases of the 36 h incubation period, reflecting the evolving physiological state of the preovulatory follicle. "
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ABSTRACT: In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes followed by fertilization in vitro (IVF) and embryo transfer offers an alternative to conventional IVF treatment that minimises drug administration and avoids ovarian hyperstimulation. However, the technique is less efficient than maturation in vivo. In the present study, a non-human primate model was used to address the hypothesis that the number of oocytes is increased and their nuclear and cytoplasmic maturity after IVM are improved when maturation is initiated in vivo by priming with hCG.
Young, adult cynomolgus monkeys were given recombinant human (rh) gonadotropins to stimulate the development of multiple follicles, and oocytes were aspirated 0, 12, 24, or 36 h after injection of an ovulatory dose of rhCG. The nuclear status of oocytes was determined at the time of recovery and after culture for a total elapsed time of 40-44 hours after hCG.
Priming with hCG significantly increased the number of oocytes harvested, especially after delaying aspiration for 24 h or longer. Nuclear maturation after the full period in culture was also enhanced by priming: 71.5, 83.6, and 94.6% of oocytes collected at 0, 12, and 24 h hCG had progressed to MII by the end of the culture period, compared to 87.8% of oocytes that were retrieved at 36 h. A large proportion of oocytes reaching the MII stage had either or both abnormal spindles (>40%) and misaligned chromosomes (>60%), judging by immunofluorescence microscopy, but these abnormalities were independent of culture time. The mitochondria were evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm at all stages of maturation. Importantly, there was no microscopic evidence that the duration of culture had any injurious effects on the cells.
In conclusion, the evidence supports this non-human primate as a model for human IVM and the practice of priming with hCG to promote developmental potential.
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ABSTRACT: Reduced atmospheric oxygen concentration is beneficial to embryo development; however, optimal oxygen concentration for oocyte maturation remains undetermined. Likewise, there is no consensus of appropriate medium supplementation during maturation. The objective of this study was to determine whether oxygen tension (20% or 5% O2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) affect oocyte metabolism and subsequent embryo development. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from 28-day-old equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) primed or unprimed F1 (C57BL/6xCBA) mice. COCs were matured in defined medium in one of four groups: 20% O2, 20% O2 + EGF, 5% O2, 5% O2 + EGF. In vivo matured COCs were also collected for analysis. COCs from unprimed mice, matured in 5% O2 +/- EGF or 20% O2 + EGF had higher metabolic rates than COCs matured in 20% O2 (P < 0.05). COCs from primed mice had higher metabolic rates when matured in the presence of EGF, regardless of oxygen tension (P < 0.01). Oxygen uptake and mitochondrial membrane potential were higher for in vivo matured oocytes and oocytes matured under 5% O2 compared to oocytes matured under 20% O2 (P < 0.05). Blastocyst formation was not different between maturation groups (primed or unprimed); however, embryo cell numbers were 20-45% significantly higher when COCs were matured at 5% O2 (P < 0.05). Results suggest that oocytes matured in physiological concentrations of oxygen have improved development and metabolic activity, more closely resembling in vivo maturation. These findings have implications for oocyte maturation in both clinical and research laboratories.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of gonadotropins, either singly (Bravelle (B), Luveris (L), Menupur (M), Repronex (R), Gonal-F (G), Follism (F) and Norvarel (N)) or in combination (Menupur+Bravelle; Repronext+Bravelle; and Bravelle+Norvarel), on rates of oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryo development in vitro in an animal model. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were purchased commercially and cultured in TCM-199 with 10% fetal bovine serum supplemented with varying concentrations of gonadotropin (0, 5, 10, 20, 40IU or United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) mL-1) for 24 and 48h according to current IVF clinical stimulation protocols. All gonadotropins enhanced oocyte maturation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Individually, Gonal-F (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany), Follism (Merck Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA) and Repronext (Ferring, Parsippany, NJ, USA) promoted oocyte maturation; in combination, they effectively enhanced COC expansion and increased the maturation competence of MII oocytes. However, high concentrations of gonadotropins may result in maturation arrest. Specific combinations of gonadotropins may change the rate of early embryonic development (8-16-cells) and morula-blastocyst formation. These data provide support for the responsiveness of bovine oocytes to gonadotropins in vitro and the need to consider variations in the relative concentrations and ratio of combinations (FSH/LH or human chorionic gonadotropin) for optimisation of oocyte developmental competence. The results of the present study could be applied to therapeutic clinical stimulation protocols and help improve IVF success rates.
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