Essential Role of Bystander Cytotoxic CD122+CD8+ T Cells for the Antitumor Immunity Induced in the Liver of Mice by -Galactosylceramide

Department of Cell Regulation, Kagawa Medical University, Kagawa, Japan.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 07/2004; 172(11):6550-7. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.172.11.6550
Source: PubMed


We recently reported that NK cells and CD8(+) T cells contribute to the antimetastatic effect in the liver induced by alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer). In the present study, we further investigated how CD8(+) T cells contribute to the antimetastatic effect induced by alpha-GalCer. The injection of anti-CD8 Ab into mice 3 days before alpha-GalCer injection (2 days before intrasplenic injection of B16 tumors) did not inhibit IFN-gamma production nor did it reduce the NK activity of liver mononuclear cells after alpha-GalCer stimulation. However, it did cause a reduction in the proliferation of liver mononuclear cells and mouse survival time. Furthermore, although the depletion of NK and NKT cells (by anti-NK1.1 Ab) 2 days after alpha-GalCer injection no longer decreased the survival rate of B16 tumor-injected mice, the depletion of CD8(+) T cells did. CD122(+)CD8(+) T cells in the liver increased after alpha-GalCer injection, and antitumor cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T cells in the liver gradually increased until day 6. These CD8(+) T cells exhibited an antitumor cytotoxicity toward not only B16 cells, but also EL-4 cells, and their cytotoxicity significantly decreased by the depletion of CD122(+)CD8(+) T cells. The critical, but bystander role of CD122(+)CD8(+) T cells was further confirmed by adoptive transfer experiments into CD8(+) T cell-depleted mice. Furthermore, it took 14 days after the first intrasplenic B16/alpha-GalCer injection for the mice to generate CD8(+) T cells that can reject s.c. rechallenged B16 cells. These findings suggest that alpha-GalCer activates bystander antitumor CD122(+)CD8(+) T cells following NK cells and further induces an adaptive antitumor immunity due to tumor-specific memory CD8(+) CTLs.

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    • "Macrophages/Kupffer cells which endocytose α-GalCer not only activate themselves to produce IL-12 and TNF, but also present α-GalCer to the Vα14Jα18/Vβ8 T cell receptors of NKT cells with their CD1d molecules [18], [19]. The liver NKT cells activated with α-GalCer produce IFN-γ (as well as IL-4) to activate NK cells and CD8+ CD122+ T cells to acquire antitumor cytotoxicity, and tumor-specific CD8+ T cells are finally induced [4], [20]. On the other hand, NKT cells activated by the TNF produced by Kupffer cells express FasL and induce hepatocyte injury in a TNF/FasL/Fas-dependent manner [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have reported that the mouse hepatic injury induced by either α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) or bacterial DNA motifs (CpG-ODN) is mediated by the TNF/NKT cell/Fas-ligand (FasL) pathway. In addition, F4/80(+) Kupffer cells can be subclassified into CD68(+) subset with a phagocytosing capacity and CD11b(+) subset with a TNF-producing capacity. CD11b(+) subset increase if mice are fed high-fat and cholesterol diet (HFCD). The present study examined how a HFCD affects the function of NKT cells and F4/80(+) CD11b(+) subset and these hepatitis models. After the C57BL/6 mice received a HFCD, high-cholesterol diet (HCD), high-fat diet (HFD) and control diet (CD) for four weeks, the HFCD mice increased surface CD1d and intracellular TLR-9 expression by the CD11b(+) population compared to CD mice. Hepatic injury induced either by α-GalCer or CpG-ODN was more severe in HCD and HFCD mice compared to CD mice, which was in proportion to the serum TNF levels. In addition, liver cholesterol levels but not serum cholesterol levels nor liver triglyceride levels were involved in the aggravation of hepatitis. The FasL expression of NKT cells induced by both reagents was upregulated in HFCD mice. Furthermore, the liver mononuclear cells and purified F4/80(+) CD11b(+) subset from HFCD mice stimulated with either reagent in vitro produced a larger amount of TNF than did those from CD mice. Intracellular TNF production in F4/80(+) CD11b(+) cells was confirmed. The increased number of F4/80(+) CD11b(+) Kupffer cells/macrophages by HFCD and their enhanced TNF production thus play a pivotal role in TNF/NKT cell/FasL dependent hepatic injury.
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the role of mouse CD8+ CD122+ T cells, which increase in number with age, in the generalized Shwartzman reaction. This reaction was induced by IL-12 priming and subsequent LPS challenge (after 24 h) in mice of various ages (4-50 weeks of age). Although most young mice (4 or 6 weeks of age) survived, mortality essentially increased with increasing age of the mice, and all mice of 20 weeks of age or older died within 48 h. Serum TNF-alpha levels after LPS challenge also increased age dependently. The neutralization of either IL-12-induced IFN-gamma or LPS-induced TNF-alpha improved the survival of middle-aged (25-week-old) mice. Both IFN-gamma production after IL-12 priming and TNF-alpha production from the liver mononuclear cells after LPS challenge were also prominent in the middle-aged mice. CD8+CD122+ T cells cultured with IL-12 produced a much larger amount of IFN-gamma than CD8+CD122- T cells. Although the depletion of NK/NK T cells did not decrease the IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha production in the Shwartzman reaction of the middle-aged mice, an additional depletion of CD8+CD122+ T cells did decrease such production and also improved mouse survival. Furthermore, young mice transferred with CD8+CD122+ T cells from aged B6 nude mice showed an enhanced Shwartzman reaction.
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