It is unclear how brief postoperative delirium (DEL) affects functional outcomes. In this study, we sought to determine if patients with brief postoperative DEL (<6-wk duration) have different living situations when compared with non-DEL patients after hip fracture repair. In a prospective study, patients admitted to the geriatric hip fracture service were assessed every postoperative day for the presence of DEL using the confusion assessment method (CAM) score. Patients were reassessed at 6 wk and 3 mo postoperatively for CAM score, current living situation, and activities of daily living. Group comparisons were tested after dividing patients into two groups: DEL (DEL; [+] CAM at any time during the postoperative period while in the hospital); no-DEL (no DEL; [-] CAM throughout the postoperative period while in the hospital). The study included 92 patients of whom 26 (28%) were CAM (+) after surgery. At 6 wk follow-up, n = 81; at 3 mo follow-up, n = 76. Eight patients died during the study. At 6 wk and 3 mo, a larger percentage of DEL patients were not living with a family member (27% versus 8% patients not living with a family member at 3 mo follow-up in DEL and no-DEL, respectively). There was no difference in activities of daily living by 3 mo. We conclude that brief postoperative DEL lasting <6 wk is a determining factor for poor long-term functional outcome after hip fracture repair, because it significantly impacts the ability to live independently. IMPLICATIONS: Brief postoperative delirium lasting <6 wk is a determining factor for poor long-term functional outcome after hip fracture repair, because it significantly impacts the ability to live independently.
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"POD and POCD complications can be significant because such adverse outcomes can result in an increased length of hospital stay and medical complications (prolonged acute care hospitalization), unmet postoperative analgesic needs, unplanned discharge to a skilled care facility, and even premature death . Patients with POCD are at an increased risk of death in the first year after surgery   and economic impact(s) of delirium is also considerable, adding costs to hospitalization, including billions in additional Medicare charges. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background. Elderly patients have unique age-related comorbidities that may lead to an increase in postoperative complications involving neurological, pulmonary, cardiac, and endocrine systems. There has been an increase in the number of elderly patients undergoing surgery as this portion of the population is increasing in numbers. Despite advances in perioperative anesthesia and analgesia along with improved delivery systems, monotherapy with opioids continues to be the mainstay for treatment of postop pain. Reliance on only opioids can oftentimes lead to inadequate pain control or increase in the incidence of adverse events. Multimodal analgesia incorporating regional anesthesia is a promising alternative that may reduce needs for high doses and dependence on opioids along with any potential associated adverse effects. Methods. The following databases were searched for relevant published trials: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed. Textbooks and meeting supplements were also utilized. The authors assessed trial quality and extracted data. Conclusions. Multimodal drug therapy and perioperative regional techniques can be very effective to perioperative pain management in the elderly. Regional anesthesia as part of multimodal perioperative treatment can often reduce postoperative neurological, pulmonary, cardiac, and endocrine complications. Regional anesthesia/analgesia has not been proven to improve long-term morbidity but does benefit immediate postoperative pain control. In addition, multimodal drug therapy utilizes a variety of nonopioid analgesic medications in order to minimize dosages and adverse effects from opioids while maximizing analgesic effect and benefit.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Pain Research and Treatment
"Various studies concerning functional outcome of operative treatment of hip fractures have been performed [7, 9,1213141516171819 most of them with less than 5 years follow-up. Several studies identiWed predictors of this functional outcome [16,192021222324. For an elderly patient with a femoral neck fracture, the ability to mobilize in their own home, and their community, would determine their ability to live indepen- dently . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To study the association between potential prognostic factors and functional outcome at 1 and 5 year follow-up in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with an arthroplasty. To analyze the reliability of the Harris hip score (HHS).
A multicenter analysis which included 252 patients who sustained a femoral neck fracture treated with an arthroplasty. Functional outcome after surgery was assessed using a modified HHS and was evaluated after 1 (HHS1) and 5 (HHS5) years. Several prognostic factors were analyzed and reliability of the HHS was assessed.
After 1 year the presence of co-morbidities was a significant (p = 0.002) predictor for a poor functional outcome (mean HHS1 71.8 with co-morbidities, and 80.6 without co-morbidities). After 5 years none of the potential prognostic factors had significant influence on functional outcome. Internal consistency testing of the HHS showed that when pain and function of the HHS were analyzed together, the internal consistency was poor (HHS1 0.38 and HHS5 0.20). The internal consistency of the HHS solely in function (without pain) improved to 0.68 (HHS1) and 0.46 (HHS5). Analyzing the functional aspect exclusively, age and the existence of co-morbidities could be defined as predictors for functional outcome of femoral neck fractures after 1 and 5 years.
After using the HHS in a modification, age and the existence of pre-operative co-morbidities appeared to be predictors of the functional outcome after 1 and 5 years. The HHS, omitting pain, is a more reliable score to estimate the functional outcome, than HHS analyzing pain and function in one scoring system.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
"In hip fracture surgery, spinal anaesthesia may decrease short-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction (evidence level II–III) [29, 45, 64, 66, 83], indicating that postoperative confusion is transient and there is no major impairment in either group after 7 days (evidence level II–III) [2, 25, 64, 66]. Postoperative delirium usually resolves within 48 h of onset . Nevertheless, one observational study showed profound depression postoperatively to be lower in patients, who underwent spinal anaesthesia (evidence level II) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The influence of the mode of anaesthesia on outcome of geriatric patients with hip fractures is a controversial issue in the medical literature. In the light of an ageing society, a conclusive answer to this question is of growing importance. The purpose of this review was to assess the effect of neuroaxial and general anaesthesia on mortality and morbidity in geriatric patients sustaining a hip fracture. Following a current literature search within the Pubmed and Cochrane database (1967-2010), 34 randomised controlled trials, 14 observational studies and eight reviews/meta-analysis publications were included. Potentially outcome-influencing factors such as mortality, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, postoperative confusion and other anaesthesia-related outcomes were evaluated. After analysing the current literature with 56 references, covering 18,715 patients with hip fracture, it can be concluded that spinal anaesthesia is associated with significantly reduced early mortality, fewer incidents of deep vein thrombosis, less acute postoperative confusion, a tendency to fewer myocardial infarctions, fewer cases of pneumonia, fatal pulmonary embolism and postoperative hypoxia. General anaesthesia has the advantages of having a lower incidence of hypotension and a tendency towards fewer cerebrovascular accidents compared to neuroaxial anaesthesia. Otherwise, general anaesthesia and respiratory diseases were significant predictors of morbidity in hip fracture patients. These data suggest that regional anaesthesia is the preferred technique, but the limited evidence available does not permit a definitive conclusion to be drawn for mortality or other outcomes. For hip fracture surgery, the choice of anaesthesia (general or neuroaxial) is made by the anaesthesiologist and is based on the patient's preference, comorbidities, potential general postoperative complications and the clinical experience of the anaesthesiologist. The overall therapeutic approach in hip fracture care should be determined jointly by the orthopaedic surgeon, the geriatrician and the anaesthesiologist (multidisciplinary approach).
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Osteoporosis International