Remembering our past: Functional neuroanatomy of recollection of recent and very remote personal events. Cerebral Cortex, in press

Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, 3560 Bathurst St., Toronto, Ontario, M6A 2E1, Canada.
Cerebral Cortex (Impact Factor: 8.67). 12/2004; 14(11):1214-25. DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhh082
Source: PubMed


Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study brain regions implicated in retrieval of memories that are decades old. To probe autobiographical memory, family photographs were selected by confederates without the participant's involvement, thereby eliminating many of the variables that potentially confounded previous neuroimaging studies. We found that context-rich memories were associated with activity in lingual and precuneus gyri independently of their age. By contrast, retrosplenial cortex was more active for recent events regardless of memory vividness. Hippocampal activation was related to the richness of re-experiencing (vividness) rather than the age of the memory per se. Remote memories were associated with distributed activation along the rostrocaudal axis of the hippocampus whereas activation associated with recent memories was clustered in the anterior portion. This may explain why circumscribed lesions to the hippocampus disproportionately affect recent memories. These findings are incompatible with theories of long-term memory consolidation, and are more easily accommodated by multiple-trace theory, which posits that detailed memories are always dependent on the hippocampus.

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Available from: Morris Moscovitch, Jul 06, 2014
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    • "The current analysis examined effects of internal and external vividness on recruitment during memory search, modeled as a two-second block beginning at stimulus onset 2 . This analysis focused on search processes to facilitate comparisons with autobiographical memory studies examining hippocampal recruitment at stimulus onset (e.g.,Addis et al., 2004;Gilboa et al., 2004), as well as traditional episodic memory studies that do not distinguish between search and elaboration phases. The first level fMRI analysis examined the effect of vividness on neural activity during accurate ''old " responses to studied items (i.e., ''hits " ). "
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    ABSTRACT: Successful memory for an image can be supported by retrieval of one’s personal reaction to the image (i.e., internal vividness), as well as retrieval of the specific details of the image itself (i.e., external vividness). Prior research suggests that memory vividness relies on regions within the medial temporal lobe, particularly the hippocampus, but it is unclear whether internal and external vividness are supported by the hippocampus in a similar way. To address this open question, the current study examined hippocampal connectivity associated with enhanced internal and external vividness ratings during retrieval. Participants encoded complex visual images paired with verbal titles. During a scanned retrieval session, they were presented with the titles and asked whether each had been seen with an image during encoding. Following retrieval of each image, participants were asked to rate internal and external vividness. Increased hippocampal activity was associated with higher vividness ratings for both scales, supporting prior evidence implicating the hippocampus in retrieval of memory detail. However, different patterns of hippocampal connectivity related to enhanced external and internal vividness. Further, hippocampal connectivity with medial prefrontal regions was associated with increased ratings of internal vividness, but with decreased ratings of external vividness. These findings suggest that the hippocampus may contribute to increased internal and external vividness via distinct mechanisms and that external and internal vividness of memories should be considered as separable measures.
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    • "Other regions identified in this analysis are associated with processes that are also likely to be involved in generating dialogic scenarios. For example, right MTG has been associated with accurate and confident recall (Chua et al., 2006, Giovanello et al., 2010), while the right precuneus has been associated with retrieval of verbal episodic memory (Fernandes et al., 2005), context-rich autobiographical memories (Gilboa et al., 2004) and first-person perspectives memories (sometimes called 'field' memories; Nigro and Neisser, 1983; Eich et al., 2009). The activation of cingulate gyrus for vividness ratings, though likely not specific to this process, has been linked previously to a right anterior insula network involved in affective engagement (Touroutoglou et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Inner speech has been implicated in important aspects of normal and atypical cognition, including the development of auditory hallucinations. Studies to date have focused on covert speech elicited by simple word or sentence repetition, while ignoring richer and arguably more psychologically significant varieties of inner speech. This study compared neural activation for inner speech involving conversations ('dialogic inner speech') with single-speaker scenarios ('monologic inner speech'). Inner speech-related activation differences were then compared with activations relating to Theory-of-Mind (ToM) reasoning and visual perspective-taking in a conjunction design. Generation of dialogic (compared to monologic) scenarios was associated with a widespread bilateral network including left and right superior temporal gyri, precuneus, posterior cingulate, and left inferior and medial frontal gyri. Activation associated with dialogic scenarios and ToM reasoning overlapped in areas of right posterior temporal cortex previously linked to mental state representation. Implications for understanding verbal cognition in typical and atypical populations are discussed. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
    • "First, we sought to confirm activity of memory and rewardrelated areas during nostalgia. That is, we specifically assessed HPC activity during nostalgic experiences, given that a previous fMRI study (Trost et al., 2012) reported the involvement of HPC and that this region is crucial for the retrieval of autobiographical events (Fink et al., 1996; Ryan et al., 2001; Maguire and Frith, 2003; Markowitsch et al., 2003; Addis et al., 2004; Cabeza et al., 2004; Gilboa et al., 2004; Piolino et al., 2004; Svoboda et al., 2006; Cabeza and St Jacques, 2007; Schacter and Addis, 2007; Viard et al., 2007). Concerning reward-related areas, we investigated VS, VMPFC and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/ VTA) activity, because positive affect should be associated with these reward-system activations, which has already been demonstrated with numerous research paradigms (Diekhof et al., 2012; Kuhn and Gallinat, 2012). "
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