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Trust in the Workplace: Factors Affecting Trust Formation Between Team Members

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Abstract

The authors used survey data from 127 professional-level employees working in 8 industries to assess the effects of respondent's trusting stance and (a) the trustee's organization membership (internal or external), (b) the hierarchical relationship (supervisor or peer), and (c) the gender of the trustee, on initial trust level for a new project team member. The authors found that trusting stance was positively related to initial trust level. The authors also found an interaction effect between respondent gender and trustee gender on initial trust. Specifically, male initial trust level was higher for a new male team member and lower for a new female team member. The present study provided additional understanding of the formation of initial trust levels and its importance for team functioning.
Address correspondence to Gwen E. Jones, Department of Management, 285 Madison
Avenue, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, NJ 07940; gjones@fdu.edu (e-mail).
311
The Journal of Social Psychology, 2004, 144(3), 311–321
Trust in the Workplace: Factors Affecting
Trust Formation Between Team Members
MICHELE D. SPECTOR
GWEN E. JONES
Fairleigh Dickinson University
Madison, NJ
ABSTRACT. The authors used survey data from 127 professional-level employees work-
ing in 8 industries to assess the effects of respondent’s trusting stance and (a) the trustee’s
organization membership (internal or external), (b) the hierarchical relationship (super-
visor or peer), and (c) the gender of the trustee, on initial trust level for a new project
team member. The authors found that trusting stance was positively related to initial trust
level. The authors also found an interaction effect between respondent gender and trustee
gender on initial trust. Specifically, male initial trust level was higher for a new male
team member and lower for a new female team member. The present study provided
additional understanding of the formation of initial trust levels and its importance for
team functioning.
Key words: gender trust, team trust, workplace trust
KARL (2000) noted that trust among organizational members is at an all-time
low, and Morris (1995) found that 56% of nonmanagement employees in 57 ser-
vice and manufacturing organizations viewed a lack of trust as a problem in their
respective organizations. A comprehensive review of the trust literature (Whiten-
er, Brodt, Korsgaard, & Werner, 1998) showed that personal trust is linked to
cooperation, performance, and quality of communication in organizations. Work-
ing well together requires some degree of trust, and the type of work encounters
that occur in today’s organizations require trust to be formed rather quickly
(McKnight, Cummings, & Chervany, 1998).
Investigators can view trust as an attitude held by one individual, the truster,
toward another individual, the trustee. Trust in individuals is an expectation or
belief that actions from another party will be motivated by good intentions.
Moreover, individuals take a risk in this belief because the other party may not
act out of benevolence (Whitener et al., 1998). A critical time for the develop-
ment of trust for another person in an organizational context is the beginning of
the relationship. Models of trust levels (Creed & Miles, 1996) and initial trust
(McKnight et al., 1998) among employees show that trust is based on an indi-
vidual’s propensity to trust (trusting stance) and on variables associated with the
situation. The present study empirically tested initial trust formation
antecedents, including a trust formation variable and several situational variables
that are relatively common among the increasingly diverse composition of work-
force teams.
Trusting Stance
Trusting stance is the degree to which an individual consistently deals with
people as if they are well-meaning and reliable across situations and persons. It
is a conscious choice to trust people until they prove untrustworthy (McKnight
et al., 1998). The indications of empirical research have been mixed on whether
trusting stance leads to the development of interpersonal trust, and a link has not
yet been established. However, McKnight et al. asserted that in new relationships
among organizational members, an individual’s trusting stance will positively
impact the degree of initial trust for another individual.
Hypothesis 1: Individuals with a high trusting stance are more likely to have a high-
er initial trust for coworkers than are individuals with a low trusting stance.
Organizational Affiliation
Because of the burgeoning consultant workforce, it is becoming more and
more prevalent that project workers may be composed of individuals who are
either internal or external to the organization. The ability of an organization to
effectively develop and maintain strategic partnerships between internal employ-
ees and external employees has become a critical competence (Lewicki, McAl-
lister, & Bies, 1998). Yet little research has been done on initial trust levels
between internal and external employees in the workplace. Investigators could
speculate that an organization would give “insiders” a greater degree of initial
trust because the organization assumes that they operate under their rules and
norms but that the organization would consider “outsiders” as more unknown and
therefore possibly less trustworthy.
Kramer (1999) called this type of trust that the organization gives to insid-
ers category-based trust, which occurs when individuals from a specific group of
an organization might place high trust on each other simply because of their
shared membership within this group.
Hypothesis 2: Individuals will exhibit higher initial levels of trust for employees from
their own organization than for employees from a different organization.
312 The Journal of Social Psychology
Hierarchical Relationship
The hierarchical position that a person possesses within an organization can
influence the initial trust levels that a coworker has for that person. Kramer (1999)
stated that role-based trust is influenced by the knowledge that a person’s occu-
pation of a specific role can determine the trust level that one has for various
employees within organizations because knowledge of the role can substitute for
personalized knowledge of the individual. Some researchers (e.g., Butler, Cantrell,
& Flick, 1999; Wells & Kipnis, 2001; Whitener et al., 1998) have studied the
behaviors that enable coworkers and supervisors to earn each other’s trust, but no
researcher has experimentally tested initial differences between trusting a super-
visor and trusting a coworker. Wells and Kipnis reported a statistically significant
relationship between dependency and trust. Often there is more dependency on a
supervisor (e.g., for performance reviews, promotions, skill development, task
assignments, etc.) than on a coworker, supporting the following hypothesis.
Hypothesis 3: Individuals will exhibit higher levels of initial trust for employees who
are superiors than for employees who are peers.
Trustee Gender
The present study examined whether the gender of the trustee plays a role in
initial trust. With the advancement of women into professional positions, work
teams are more likely to include both male and female employees. Two studies
(Keller, 2001; Williams, 2001) have asserted that trust levels are higher within
the same gender, while another study (Wells & Kipnis, 2001) did not report a
gender difference. Tyler and Kramer (1996) discussed the idea that ethics and
morals are highly related to trust, and Kipnis (1996) noted that the terms ethical
and moral are used to describe trusting behaviors. Some research in the area of
ethics indicates that survey respondents perceived women to be more ethical or
trustworthy than men (Jones & Kavanagh, 1996; Paterson & Kim, 1991).
Hypothesis 4: Individuals will have higher levels of trust for employees who are
women than employees who are men.
Method
Participants
Participants were professional employees (N = 127) who were working reg-
ularly in an office environment of 19 major corporations in the northeast Unit-
ed States. According to self-reported demographics, the mean age of respon-
dents was 34 years (SD = 9.19). They had a mean of 12 years of work experience
(SD = 9.87). Of all participants, 46% were men, and 54% were women. Of all
Spector & Jones 313
participants, 76% were white, 11% were Asian, 8% were African American, 2%
were Hispanic, and 3% were of other ethnic origins. Participants represented a
variety of industries, including—in order of descending percentage—the phar-
maceutical industry (32.3%), information technology (20.5%), advertising
(18.9%), and consulting (18.1%). The remaining 10.3% were from finance, pub-
lishing, and insurance. Of the 32% of the participants who were consultants, 88%
had previously worked in a client-consultant relationship.
Procedure
Participation in the study was voluntary. We either approached participants
in person in their offices or e-mailed them the survey on a one-on-one basis. We
explained that the study was for research purposes only and involved the partic-
ipant’s attitudes and experiences regarding trust in the workplace. Study materi-
als with instructions were distributed to consenting participants with random
assignment to experimental conditions. Participants were told that their surveys
would be collected on a particular future date and that they could complete them
at their own leisure before that time.
The survey consisted of three sections. First, we asked participants to read
and sign a consent agreement explaining the study and assuring anonymity. Sec-
ond, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their trusting
stance and to then play the role of an employee in a hypothetical work scenario
while reading one of eight organizational scenarios depicting trust issues. Third,
we asked participants to complete a questionnaire that we had designed to assess
reactions to the scenario, manipulation checks, and biographical information.
Once the surveys had been completed and collected, the participants were
thanked and debriefed regarding the purpose of the study.
Manipulations
General. The appendix shows the full text of the scenario. All participants were
asked to play the role of a coworker and read a scenario depicting the situation
of a new member of their project. The first paragraph of the scenario described
the organization. The second paragraph described a critical project that the
respondent (truster) had been asked to participate in. The deadline for the project
was fixed, and the current number of resources that was assigned to this project
prevented them from meeting the deadline. So, the organization brought in an
additional team member to assist the team with getting the project completed on
time. Finally, the new team member was described in the scenario as a real “take
charge” employee who felt that the critical deadline was no problem.
We embedded the three manipulations in the scenario. We manipulated orga-
nizational affiliation by stating whether the new employee was from the same
organization (internal condition) or came from an outside organization (external
314 The Journal of Social Psychology
condition). We depicted hierarchical relationship in the scenario by stating
whether the new employee was a coworker or a supervisor on the project team.
We manipulated trustee gender in the scenario by stating whether the new
employee was a man or a woman and by using the corresponding gender-based
pronouns (either “he” and “him” or “she” and “her”) throughout the scenario.
Manipulation checks. We used three items to check the manipulated variables.
The items were in multiple-choice form, including the correct response and two
distracters. The majority of respondents endorsed their correct manipulations for
the three variables: for organizational affiliation, 94% were correct, for hierar-
chical relationship, 93% were correct, and for trustee gender, 83% were correct.
Measures
Trusting stance. We measured trusting stance using the Interpersonal Mistrust-Trust
Measure (IMTM) that McLennan and Omodei (2000) had developed. Participants
rated 18 items on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to
7 = strongly agree. Through the items, we asked, for example, whether the par-
ticipant believed that a stranger had sinister motives, believed that his or her
workmate had a headache, and believed that an attendant’s recommendations in
a department store was accurate.
The present researchers scored items in such a way that the higher scores
indicated a more trusting stance. McLennan and Omodei (2000) showed that the
measure exhibits reliability and construct validity. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha
reliability estimate for the scale in the present study was .76.
Initial trust level. We measured initial trust level in the workplace, the dependent
variable, using a 15-item scale in response to the workplace scenario presented.
We developed this scale for the present study. Participants rated the items on 7-
point Likert-type scales ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree.
We scored items in such a way that the higher scores indicated a higher ini-
tial trust level. Examples of items are “Your first impression of this person is of
low trust,” “You could confide in everyone except this new person,” and “You
could depend on this new person for getting the job done.” Cronbach’s coeffi-
cient alpha reliability estimate for this scale was .93.
Design
We used a 2 × 2 × 2 experimental design to examine the effects of trusting
stance and the three manipulated variables on the participant’s initial trust level
for the new project team member. The three manipulated variables were (a) the
trustee’s organization membership (internal or external), (b) the hierarchical rela-
tionship to the participant (supervisor or peer), and (c) the gender of the trustee.
Spector & Jones 315
Results
The mean score for trusting stance was M = 5.04 (SD = .68), indicating that,
on average, this sample was toward the trusting end of the continuum. The mean
score for the dependent variable, initial trust level, was M = 3.82 (SD = 1.06),
which is just below the midpoint of the 7-point scale. The correlation between
the two was r = .35 (p < .001), supporting Hypothesis 1. Table 1 shows the means
and standard deviations for initial trust across the manipulated variables. We did
a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test Hypotheses 2–4 as shown in
Table 1. We found no main effects for trustee’s organizational membership, par-
ticipant’s hierarchical relationship, or gender of the trustee, thus demonstrating
no support for Hypotheses 2–4.
We found an interaction effect between respondent gender and trustee gender.
Trust levels varied among male respondents, who indicated low initial trust levels
316 The Journal of Social Psychology
TABLE 1. Means and Standard Deviations of Initial Trust Across Levels of
the Manipulated Variables (Summated Scales), Univariate F(15, 111)
Statistics, and Effect Sizes
Effect
Independent Univariate size
variables MSDNFtest p (η
2
)
Organization .72 .20 .01
Internal 58.62 16.59 63
External 56.03 15.18 64
Relationship .33 .29 .00
Peer 56.17 13.72 63
Superior 58.44 17.80 64
Trustee gender 1.66 .10 .01
Male 59.37 15.15 64
Female 55.22 16.45 63
Respondent gender .40 .27 .00
Male 58.86 16.35 58
Female 55.48 15.24 69
Respondent gender ×
Trustee gender 4.04 .02 .04
Respondent gender–male 6.42 .01 .10
Trustee gender–male 61.25 15.43 24
Trustee gender–female 51.41 13.93 34
Respondent gender–female .13 .36 .00
Trustee gender–male 58.25 15.06 40
Trustee gender–female 59.69 18.23 29
Note. R = 399. Higher (summated scale) means indicate higher levels of trust.
for a new female employee on the team and higher initial trust levels for a new
male employee on the team. There were no effects among female respondents.
Discussion
Our results indicate that trusting stance is positively related to initial trust
level in the workplace, thus supporting prior theory (McKnight et al., 1998).
Hence, the more an individual has a propensity toward trusting others, the more
likely he or she will attribute trustworthiness to a new work associate.
We found no main effects for the manipulated variables. However, one inter-
action among the variables was found: that men possess a higher initial trust level
for other men than they do for women. Women, however, showed no differences
in trust level across gender. Finding higher trust levels for members of an indi-
vidual’s own demographic group is consistent with prior theory (Creed & Miles,
1996; Keller, 2001; Williams, 2001). Williams asserted that social categorizations
are the mechanisms through which group membership influences trust develop-
ment and that perceptions of trustworthiness are based on cognitive shortcuts
such as stereotyping. In studies of cross-functional groups (by age, gender, and
ethnicity), Keller found that demographic similarities among group members
tend to increase the formation of interpersonal trust and relations. Both Keller
and Williams have asserted that future research is needed on what particular mix
of functional backgrounds and demographics specifically affects trust develop-
ment. Although prior research supports an interaction effect—in that men will
trust men, and women will trust women, more than they will people of the oppo-
site gender—the present study found this difference to be the case for men only,
yielding a main effect for one gender only.
Interestingly, we found no effects for two of the manipulated variables, orga-
nizational affiliation and hierarchical relationship. These results indicate that
whether the new team member is from another, external organization or from with-
in the organization does not affect the initial trust level. Moreover, trust is not
affected by whether the new team member is a peer or a superior. Possibly the rea-
sons for attributing trust to an external team member are different from those to
an internal team member, and possibly the reasons for attributing trust to a peer
are different from those to a supervisor. For example, one might trust an internal
team member because of kinship or camaraderie but also trust an external team
member because of the attribution of higher (specialized) expertise and compe-
tence. Investigators need further research to examine these possible differences.
Limitations of the present study exist. Although data were collected from
adults working in a variety of organizations, the participants were reacting to
a simulated role-play rather than to a real situation. Investigators have accept-
ed role-play as a surrogate in experimental research (Greenberg & Folger,
1988) on attitudes of sensitive topics such as relationship situations in the work-
place (e.g., Jones, 1999). Moreover, the participants’lack of actual involvement
Spector & Jones 317
in the situation most likely lessens the effects that investigators would find in
a real witnessed situation (Stone & Kotch, 1989). Investigators who add more
realism while still manipulating and controlling experimental variables, possi-
bly using videotape or virtual-reality technology, could observe more accu-
rately the causal relationships that the present study indicates (Pierce & Agui-
nis, 1997). Very promising but technically sophisticated tools for the future
study of trust are Microworlds (DiFonzo, Hantula, & Bordia, 1998), which are
computer-generated environments that simulate real-world conditions.
An additional limitation of the present study, which is associated with its
nature and methodology, is due to possible demand characteristics or social desir-
ability. These might have caused errors in our measures of any main effects that
we found, such as those for trusting stance, but are less likely to have caused
errors in our measures of interaction effects.
Finally, although the sample of the present study included adults working in
a variety of industries, all were in white-collar jobs in the northeastern part of the
United States. Generalizability of these results is limited to this population.
Understanding initial trust levels is important for the improvement of team
functioning. Work groups are more commonly composed of both genders than
before, and team members of each gender need to be aware of a possible ten-
dency to be less trusting of the opposite gender, so that they can overcome these
biases. While investigators can argue that some degree of skepticism is healthy,
Keller (2001) has found that trust levels tend to stay in their initial direction,
either upward or downward. Thus, initial trust levels are highly important because
they may start a negative trend.
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APPENDIX
Scenario Text
The text of the scenario that we used in the present study follows. The terms “AND,” “OR,
“<,” and “>” indicate the alternatives that we used to vary the scenario.
Please read the following carefully and picture yourself in the situation described.
Ace Inc. is a typical mid-size corporation where you have been working for over 4 years.
Your department consists of 20 individuals with diverse and varied backgrounds. The com-
petition is fierce and fast-paced, therefore, the team must be highly creative, competent,
and work together well.
Earlier in the week, you and eight other coworkers were selected to work on a new project
with a critical deadline. A memo went out yesterday stating officially that this project must
be completed by the end of this upcoming July, which is only three months from now. Yes-
terday, you and your new team members got together to discuss this new project. Your
team felt that meeting this deadline with only eight people seemed impossible. Your team
presented this information to your Project Sponsor to justify a request for two to three
additional members on your team. The Project Sponsor said that he would see what he
could do.
A few days pass, and you and your team are beginning to worry because you need the
additional team members soon so they can be brought up to speed and begin working.
This morning, you were introduced to a man/woman that was selected to join you and your
team on the project.
<This man/woman has been with your company for a few years, yet you have never
worked with him/her>
OR
<This man/woman is from an outside firm and was brought in to work on this
project>
AND
<You will be working with this man/woman on the project as coworkers both re-
porting to the same manager.>
OR
<You will be directly reporting to this man/woman on the project>
Later that afternoon, a kickoff meeting was held for the project team to discuss the pro-
ject milestones and deadlines. The Project Sponsor opened up the meeting by having
everyone in the room introduce themselves and say a few words.
The new man/woman that just joined the team today had a very take-charge attitude.
He/She stated that his/her prior experiences should be a good asset to the success of the
project. Furthermore, he/she emphasized that he/she felt that the deadline was no problem
with the current total of nine team members. The Project Sponsor then thanked him/her
for his/her insightful comments and opened up the floor to the rest of the team to get their
Spector & Jones 321
input. Nobody said anything to the contrary (although yesterday the general consensus
from the team was that we needed two to three additional people–not just one person).
After the meeting, some of your team members gathered around the watercooler to dis-
cuss the meeting that they just attended. The team starting discussing their opinions of this
new person and what that person said regarding that the deadline was “no problem. You
didn’t say anything and left the kitchen with your coffee in hand, and began thinking about
your feelings about this new person. On your way out, you saw this new person whisper-
ing in a corner to the Project Sponsor and you wondered what they were talking about.
Received June 4, 2001
Accepted July 28, 2003
... Untuk bekerja sama, salah satu elemen kritisnya adalah adanya kepercayaan anggota terhadap anggota yang lain serta kepercayaan pada tim itu sendiri (Shen & Chen, 2007). Bekerja bersama dalam sebuah tim memerlukan kepercayaan (Spector & Jones, 2004). ...
... Bekerja bersama dalam sebuah tim memerlukan kepercayaan (Spector & Jones, 2004). Bagaimana Anda bisa mengatakan kalau kepercayaan sudah tidak ada lagi di organisasi Anda? ...
... 61). In particular, when gender is the category of interpersonal similarity, higher levels of trust are found among individuals of the same gender (Levin, Whitener, & Cross, 2006;Spector & Jones, 2004), and organizational communication research finds that employees have more trust in a leader's abilities and interpersonal exchanges when the leader is of the same gender (Berkovich, 2018). Additionally, gender similarity is a strong predictor of performance (Tsui & O'Reilly III, 1989) because it builds trust, enhances social support, increases the willingness of employees to help one another, and facilitates the attainment of collective goals (Chen Yi-Feng, Huang, & Tjosvold, 2008). ...
... Additionally, gender similarity is a strong predictor of performance (Tsui & O'Reilly III, 1989) because it builds trust, enhances social support, increases the willingness of employees to help one another, and facilitates the attainment of collective goals (Chen Yi-Feng, Huang, & Tjosvold, 2008). Even further, women are generally perceived as more trustworthy than men (Spector & Jones, 2004), and their communication often reflects their willingness to share resources (Douglas, 2012;Xie et al., 2020). Given the resource constraints in emerging markets that more adversely affect women (Hechavarría & Ingram, 2019), women often depend more on the resources accessed through their relational networks, which suggests that, in this context, women are more likely than men to rely on trust, reciprocity, and cooperative relationships (Carpenter, Daniere, & Takahashi, 2004). ...
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Our study provides novel insights into how women influence SME innovation in emerging markets, despite the resource‐constrained and gender‐restrictive contexts in which they are embedded. Building from transactive memory theory and using data from 741 SMEs in 33 emerging markets, we develop and test a contextualized framework of SME innovation that considers gendered effects in ownership, workforce composition, and communication. Findings indicate that in emerging markets, female‐led SMEs employ more women than male‐led SMEs, and more women in SMEs (even at modest levels) enhance and enable the transactive memory system to deliver more innovation outcomes. Findings also suggest that emerging‐market SMEs can be innovative through differing configurations of women in ownership and workforce composition, underscoring the importance of gendered and contextual considerations in innovation research. Innovation is vital to the social progress and economic development of emerging markets. Even though institutionalized gender bias in emerging markets tends to constrain (rather than empower) women's entrepreneurial activities, our study reveals how women can be an important source of innovation. We find that women in emerging markets are stronger together: women in ownership advocate for and support other women by employing them in their SMEs, and in turn, as women's representation increases in SMEs, women are empowered to collectively share and leverage their endowed resources for innovation. Thus, our study challenges the general perception that men are more innovative than women by revealing that the presence of women in emerging‐market SMEs yields greater innovation outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Indeed, workplaces are an indispensable part of any organization, and organizations are the carriers and operators of workplaces (Bal & Izak, 2020;Barley, 1996;Dittes, Richter, Richter, & Smolnik, 2019;Yuan & Woodman, 2010). However, workplaces are composed of social actors and thus has considerable social attributes, including social cognition of the collectives (Gibson & Earley, 2007;Spreitzer, 1995;Wilson, 2013), social network and interpersonal relationship of workers (Pillemer & Rothbard, 2018;Podolny & Baron, 1997;Spector & Jones, 2004;, and individual emotion and affect (Ashkanasy & Daus, 2002;Klotz & Bolino, 2020;Morris & Feldman, 1997). To some extent, the social and human parts are interconnected with most organizational fields. ...
... Therefore, the changes in the workplace are interwoven with the social identity and subconscious of people there, making it difficult to extract the organizational influence from the individual traits and social backgrounds (Edelman & Larkin, 2014;Spector & Jones, 2004). ...
Thesis
Contemporary workplaces are undergoing enormous changes, including visible and invisible forms of transformation. The visible working environments of modern workplaces incorporate more playful interior design and open-plan office layouts and remove physical boundaries between organizations to accommodate the new workforce and working culture. This trend is especially manifested and fueled by the growing number of the workforce embracing coworking-spaces. A more invisible transformation in the workplace points to the ubiquitous adoption of digital technologies. Digital transformation induces the emergence of the digital workforce, redefines the workplace to be more flexible and connected, and modifies the ways and processes in which work is done. Both forms of transformation are interwoven with the concept of sharing, which creates platforms to share resources and promote connectivity. The extant literature on workplaces investigates the phenomena, discusses the ongoing changes, and presents the advantages of embracing these changes. However, the lack of an overview on the impacts and the mechanisms of the workplace evolution might blur the directions of future research and cloud organizations’ strategic decisions concerning workspace design, technology upgrades and talent acquisition. This thesis aims to shed light on the overall changes in today’s workplace and the underlying mechanisms by analyzing the impacts of the sharing economy, spatial settings, and digital transformation. The three parts in this thesis address each of the three mentioned topics, respectively. Part one includes two published research articles and examines how the sharing economy and the induced platforms modify value configurations in organizations, including the operating environment and guiding framework of workplaces. Part two digs into the workplace transformation concerning spatial settings, especially applying coworking-spaces as the research context. Three papers in part two employ distinct theoretical lenses to unravel the structures, processes, and mechanisms of coworking-spaces. Part three seeks to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of organizational changes from digital transformation through a systematic review of empirical studies on this topic. By doing so, this thesis contributes to the extant literature on contemporary workplaces by developing a more integrated view, incorporating the general sharing concept, changes in spatial settings, and digital transformation. The findings develop an understanding of changing modern workplaces and provide references for organizations to harness the opportunities.
... Trust stance is concerned with the approach that one develops to serve as guidance across social or business interaction in society (Yu et al., 2014). Spector and Jones (2004) evaluated the trust stance amidst 127 employees at the professional level employed across eight industries. The study examined employees' organisational membership hierarchical relationship (supervisor or peer), trustee gender and (internal or external) on initial trust in a new member of the project team. ...
Article
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This study explores the influence of dispositional dimension of trust, including propensity to trust, faith in humanity, and trust stance in the banking sector. The research was performed in banks located within the Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. A questionnaire was distributed to 500 account holders from 10 commercial banks, where respondents were allowed to pick their preferences on the basis of a 5-point Likert scale, and an analysis was carried out using PLS-SEM version 3.2. The findings indicated that propensity to trust, such as experience acquired overtime, religious belief, and positive feelings; faith in humanity, such as dependability, suitability, and confidentiality; and trust stance, such as reliability and quality of information delivered to individual positively influence customer interaction with the banking sector. The findings raise awareness to the bank executive and policymakers of factors influencing customer confidence in a bank and also contribute to retaining and attracting them within the system.
... These effects may be more pronounced in intercultural relationships because the feeling of sharing organizational membership reduces "outsider" perceptions of a culturally dissimilar co-worker. Indeed, from an in-group and out-group perspective, in a shared context, an out-group member shares at least the same (organizational) values and rules as in-group members (Spector & Jones, 2004). ...
Article
The COVID‐19 pandemic has accelerated trends of globalization and digitalization, making geographically dispersed teams a common practice in firms. Despite benefits derived from the members' diversity, such teams are also prone to trust deficiency. Advancing prior research, this study focuses on links between multiple referents of trust. We draw on halo and priming effects to suggest that employees' trust toward their organization could trickle‐down to trust in their co‐workers. Moreover, we highlight the moderating role of cultural dissimilarity and relationship length. Analyzing 317 relationships between Turkish employees and their co‐workers of Turkish and German cultural background, we present evidence for a trickle‐down effect of organizational trust on trust in co‐workers. We also find that the trickle‐down effect of trust is stronger when cultural dissimilarity is high than when it is low, suggesting that trust in the organizations may outweigh cultural barriers that could hamper trust between co‐workers.
... Similarity in demographic characteristics leads to better liking (Goldberg, 2005), greater trust (Jarvenpaa et al., 2004;Spector & Jones, 2004;Williams, 2001), stronger group cohesion (C. Lee & Farh, 2004;Webber & Donahue, 2001), and fewer conflicts (Jehn, Northcraft, & Neale, 1999;J. Li & Hambrick, 2005;Pelled, Eisenhardt, & Xin, 1999). ...
Thesis
Teams in different areas are increasingly adopting robots to perform various mission operations. The inclusion of robots in teams has drawn consistent attention from scholars in relevant fields such as human-computer interaction (HCI) and human-robot interaction (HRI). Yet, the current literature has not fully addressed issues regarding teamwork by mainly focusing on the collaboration between a single robot and an individual. The limited scope of human-robot collaboration in the existing research hinders uncovering the mechanism of performance gains in teams that involve multiple robots and people. This dissertation research is an effort to address the issue by achieving two goals. First, this dissertation examines the impacts of interaction between human teammates alone and interaction between humans and robots on outcomes in teams working with robots. Second, I provide insight into the development of teams working with robots by examining ways to promote a team member’s intention to work with robots. In this dissertation, I conducted three studies in an endeavor to accomplish the aforementioned goals. The first study, in Chapter 2, turns to theory trust in teams to explain outcome gains in teams working with robots. This study reports result from a lab experiment, in which two people fulfilled a collaborative task using two robots. The results show that trust in robots and trust in teammates can be enhanced by a robot-building activity and team identification, respectively. The enhanced trust revealed unique impacts on different team outcomes: trust in robots increased only team performance while trust in teammates increased only satisfaction. Theoretical and practical contributions of the findings are discussed in the chapter. The second study, in Chapter 3, uncovers how team member’s efficacy beliefs interplay with team diversity to promote performance in teams working with robots. Results from a lab experiment reveal that individual operator’s performance is enhanced by team potency perception only when the team is ethnically diverse. This study contributes to theory by identifying team diversity as a limiting condition of performance gains for robot operators in teams. The third study, in Chapter 4, focuses on factors leading to the development of teams working with robots. I conducted an online experiment to examine how surface-level and deep-level similarity contribute to trust in a robotic partner and the impact of the trust on a team member’s intention to work with the robot in varying degrees of danger. This study generally shows that the possibility of danger regulates not only the positive link between the surface-level similarity and trust in robot and but also the link between intention to work with the robot and intention to replace a human teammate with the robot. Chapter 5, as a concluding chapter of this dissertation, discusses the theoretical and practical implications drawn from the three studies.
... Social trust research in psychology posits that trust can be viewed as the truster's attitude toward the trustee (Spector & Jones, 2004). In management, trust can be defined as the willingness of the truster to be vulnerable to the actions of the trustee based on the expectation of their future behaviors (Mayer, Davis, & Schoorman, 1995). ...
Article
An online clinic appointment system (OCAS) is an example of health information technology (HIT) innovation in the healthcare industry. An OCAS can help healthcare organizations to improve the efficiency of information exchange for patients and transform a clinic-centered practice into patient-centered practice. This research uses an enhanced trust model to investigate the trust formation mechanism in the HIT context using OCAS as a proxy. We collected survey data from young adults to study the patients' perspectives and assess the proposed research model. The results support that five trusting base constructs have a statistically significant influence on the development of trusting beliefs in the use of OCAS, including situational normality, structural assurance, cognitive trusting base, perceived ease of use, and self-efficacy. We discuss theoretical contributions to trust formation in HIT and practical insights for healthcare organizations to utilize in developing and implementing patient focused HIT.
Article
Purpose This research aims to study the relationship between trust and knowledge sharing intention. Furthermore, the overarching objective of this study also determines the moderating effect of Perceived Behavioral Control on this relationship. Design/methodology/approach Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied using Smart PLS 3.3 to analyze the data. Findings The results of this study reveal that Perceived Trustworthiness and Propensity to Trust positively affect Explicit and Tacit knowledge sharing intention. Perceived behavioral control was also found to positively moderate the relationship between perceived trustworthiness and tacit knowledge sharing intention. Originality/value This study has provided evidence that trust among the construction project team members leads to an increase in the knowledge sharing intention among project team members.
Article
This study examined the influence of socio-demographics on the relationship between employee organisational trust and organisational commitment. The study’s participants were 255 South African public service employees (female = 58%; black = 82%; permanently employed = 84%), between the ages of 30 to 39 years. The participants responded to validated measures of organisational trust and commitment. We analysed the data using non-parametric inferential statistics to examine the association between their organisational trust and commitment statuses by their socio-demographics. Findings indicate that older employees and separated/divorced or widowed employees had higher organisational commitment. Younger employees and contract workers had marginally higher organisational trust. Public servants’ demographic information should guide the tailoring of organisational trust and commitment support interventions by human resources managers.
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Arguably, the most critical time frame for organizational participants to develop trust is at the beginning of their relationship. Using primarily a cognitive approach, we address factors and processes that enable two organizational parties to form relatively high trust initially. We propose a model of specific relationships among several trust-related constructs and two cognitive processes. The model helps explain the paradoxical finding of high initial trust levels in new organizational relationships.
Article
Using a 2 x 2 x 2 experimental design and data from 158 subjects, this study assessed the effects of three romance participant characteristics and respondent gender on reactions to working with team members involved in a hierarchical workplace romance. The romance participant characteristics included: (a) marital status of the team leader (married versus single); (b) marital Status of a coworker (married versus single); and (c) gender of the team leader-coworker dyad (male-female versus female-male). Significant effects were found for team leader; marital status, coworker marital status, and gender of the respondent. This study also examined attributions of blame and attributions of motive (job-related, ego, or love) to the romantic couple for engaging in the workplace romance. Results indicated:that the team leader was more frequently attributed blame, yet attribution of blame was:affected by the marital status of both the team leader and the coworker. Both the team leader and the coworker were most frequently attributed an ego motive for the involvement. Implications for work teams and managerial policies are discussed. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
A model of cross-functional project groups was developed and hypotheses were tested in a study of 93 research and new product development groups from four companies. The results showed that functional diversity had indirect effects through external communication on one-year-later measures. Technical quality and schedule and budget performance improved, but group cohesiveness diminished. Functional diversity also had an indirect effect through job stress on group cohesiveness, which was again reduced. Implications for the development of conceptual models of cross-functional groups and their effective management are discussed.
Article
Examining the ways in which affect impacts the trust that develops between members of dissimilar groups broadens the study of trust development. People's perceptions of their own interdependence with other groups influence both their beliefs about group members' trustworthiness and their affect for group members. I propose that this affect, in turn, influences interpersonal trust development through multiple paths: cognitive, motivational, and behavioral. Using literature on social information processing, emotion, and intergroup behavior, I elucidate the social and affective context of trust development.
Article
Conventional research methodologies that use written vignettes to present stimuli have been criticized as lacking in realism. We propose the use of highly immersive virtual reality (VR) technology to overcome limitations of written vignettes and other traditional methodologies. We also illustrate how VR technology can be effectively used to investigate various topics in organizational behavior and industrial/organizational psychology. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This mobility track aims to look at mobile computing--not just in the narrow sense of portable access to favorite applications and systems, but also in the sense of how it can help people and machines on the move. Mobile computing has arrived, but as with the rest of computing, it evolves as technology progresses. The technologies in this case are the computer itself, the communictions infrastructure, and the sensors that gather information. This track will look at what is being done with these technologies, and where they might go in the future.
Article
Using a 2 × 2 × 2 experimental design and data from 158 subjects, this study assessed the effects of three romance participant characteristics and respondent gender on reactions to working with team members involved in a hierarchical workplace romance. The romance participant characteristics included: (a) marital status of the team leader (married versus single); (b) marital status of a coworker (married versus single); and (c) gender of the team leader–coworker dyad (male–female versus female–male). Significant effects were found for team leader marital status, coworker marital status, and gender of the respondent. This study also examined attributions of blame and attributions of motive (job-related, ego, or love) to the romantic couple for engaging in the workplace romance. Results indicated that the team leader was more frequently attributed blame, yet attribution of blame was affected by the marital status of both the team leader and the coworker. Both the team leader and the coworker were most frequently attributed an ego motive for the involvement. Implications for work teams and managerial policies are discussed. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.