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To fall in love is the first step in pair formation in humans and is a complex process which only recently has become the object of neuroscientific investigation. The little information available in this field prompted us to measure the levels of some pituitary, adrenal and gonadal hormones in a group of 24 subjects of both sexes who had recently (within the previous six months) fallen in love, and to compare them with those of 24 subjects who were single or were part of a long-lasting relationship. The following hormones were evaluated by means of standard techniques: FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione. The results showed that estradiol, progesterone, DHEAS and androstenedione levels did not differ between the groups and were within the normal ranges. Cortisol levels were significantly higher amongst those subjects who had recently fallen in love, as compared with those who had not. FSH and testosterone levels were lower in men in love, while women of the same group presented higher testosterone levels. All hormonal differences were eliminated when the subjects were re-tested from 12 to 24 months later. The increased cortisol and low FSH levels are suggestive of the "stressful" and arousing conditions associated with the initiation of a social contact. The changes of testosterone concentrations, which varied in opposite directions in the two sexes, may reflect changes in behavioural and/or temperamental traits which have yet to be clarified. In conclusion, the findings of the present study would indicate that to fall in love provokes transient hormonal changes some of which seem to be specific to each sex.
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Psychoneuroendocrinology (2004) 29, 931–936
www.elsevier.com/locate/psyneuen
Hormonal changes when falling in love
Donatella Marazziti
a,*
, Domenico Canale
b
a
Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa,
via Roma, 67, 56100 Pisa, Italy
b
Dipartimento di Endocrinologia, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Received 9 May 2003; received in revised form 25 August 2003; accepted 27 August 2003
KEYWORDS
Pair bonding; To fall in
love; Humans; FSH; LH;
Estradiol; Progesteron;
DHEAS; Cortisol;
Testosterone;
Androstenedione
Summary To fall in love is the first step in pair formation in humans and is a com-
plex process which only recently has become the object of neuroscientific investi-
gation. The little information available in this field prompted us to measure the
levels of some pituitary, adrenal and gonadal hormones in a group of 24 subjects of
both sexes who had recently (within the previous six months) fallen in love, and to
compare them with those of 24 subjects who were single or were part of a long-last-
ing relationship. The following hormones were evaluated by means of standard tech-
niques: FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate
(DHEAS), cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione.
The results showed that estradiol, progesterone, DHEAS and androstenedione
levels did not differ between the groups and were within the normal ranges. Cortisol
levels were significantly higher amongst those subjects who had recently fallen in
love, as compared with those who had not. FSH and testosterone levels were lower
in men in love, while women of the same group presented higher testosterone
levels. All hormonal differences were eliminated when the subjects were re-tested
from 12 to 24 months later. The increased cortisol and low FSH levels are suggestive
of the ‘‘stressful’’ and arousing conditions associated with the initiation of a social
contact. The changes of testosterone concentrations, which varied in opposite
directions in the two sexes, may reflect changes in behavioural and/or tempera-
mental traits which have yet to be clarified. In conclusion, the findings of the
present study would indicate that to fall in love provokes transient hormonal chan-
ges some of which seem to be specific to each sex.
#2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
The formation of pair bonding is relevant in sev-
eral animal species, and particularly in mammals
since, in some cases, it ensures not only that a
new couple is formed which can thus generate
offsprings, but also that a safe and stable environ-
ment is set up wherein the newborn can receive
sufficient care to enable them to mature and
become capable of surviving alone (Bowlby, 1969;
Kleiman, 1977; Carter et al., 1997a, 1997b).
The process of pair bonding in humans begins
with the subjective experience of falling in love,
which sometimes leads to the establishment of
long-lasting relationships: for this reason, its func-
tion exceeds that of reproduction alone and, given
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +39-050-835412; fax: +39-050-
21581.
E-mail address: dmarazzi@psico.med.unipi.it (D. Marazziti).
0306-4530/$ - see front matter #2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2003.08.006
its relevance to the survival of the species, it
would not be surprising if it were regulated by
precise and longstanding neural mechanisms
(Uvna
¨s-Moberg, 1997, 1998; Carter, 1998).
Indirect evidence of the biological process
involved in falling in love is provided by cross-cul-
tural studies which suggest that it is present in
virtually all societies and is, perhaps, genetically-
determined (Jankowiak and Fischer, 1992). Fur-
thermore, common features of this process can be
identified in studies from all over the world and
include: perception of an altered mental state,
intrusive thoughts and images of the other, sets of
behavioural patterns aimed at eliciting a recipro-
cal response and a definite course and predictable
outcome (Leckman and Mayes, 1999).
One of the first biological hypotheses with
regard to falling in love associates this state to
increased levels of phenylethylamine, on the basis
of the similarities between the chemical structure
of this neurotransmitter and that of ampheta-
mines which provoke mood changes resembling
those typical of the initial stage of a romance;
however, no empirical data have been gathered to
support this theory (Liebowitz, 1983). The strong
suggestion is that different mechanisms may be
involved (Panksepp, 1982; Jankoviak, 1986; Hazan
and Shaver, 1987; Fisher, 1992; Porges, 1998;
Insel and Young, 1997) and it has been recently
demonstrated that the intrusive thoughts of the
early, romantic phase of a falling in love are
underlaid by a decreased functionality of the sero-
tonin transporter (Marazziti et al., 1999).
The complexity of the process would seem,
therefore, to be understood better when we con-
sider falling in love as a basic emotion, such as
anxiety or fear, due to the activation of the amyg-
dala and related circuits and neurotransmitters
(Bartels and Zeki, 2000; LeDoux, 2000). Consistent
with this hypothesis is the observation that stress
and threatening situations may facilitate the
onset of new social bonds and intimate ties
(Bowlby, 1973; Reite, 1985; Kraemer, 1992; Pank-
sepp et al., 1994). The review of animal data is
beyond the scope of this paper, however it should
perhaps be noted also that stress and corticoster-
one have been demonstrated to promote pair
bonding formation in different species (DeVries et
al., 1995, 1996; Hennessy, 1997; Levine et al.,
1997; Mendoza and Mason, 1997). Furthermore,
these elements induce the synthesis and release
of neuropeptides, such as oxytocin, which are
involved in the subsequent processes, including
sexual and maternal behaviours and, more in gen-
eral, positive social contacts, which reduce anxi-
ety (McCarthy et al., 1992; Numan, 1994; Carter,
1998). The literature relevant to humans in this
regard is meagre, albeit in agreement with animal
findings and suggests that the activation of the
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis due to
stressful experiences or, more in general, to arou-
sal, may trigger the development of different
kinds of social attachment, possibly also that
which begins with falling in love (Milgram, 1986;
Chiodera et al., 1991; Simpson and Rhole, 1994).
Given the paucity of data in this field and the
unexplored questions regarding the possible role
of gonadal hormones, our study aimed at evaluat-
ing the levels of some pituitary, adrenal and gona-
dal hormones in a homogenous group of subjects
of both sexes who were in the early, romantic
phase of a loving relationship, and to compare
them with those of subjects who were single or
were already in a long-lasting relationship.
2. Subjects and methods
2.1. Subjects
Twenty-four subjects (12 male and 12 female,
mean age SD: 27 4 years) who declared that
they had recently fallen in love, were recruited
from amongst residents (17) and medical students
(7), by means of advertisement. They were selec-
ted according to the criteria already applied in a
previous study (Marazziti et al., 1999), in parti-
cular: the relationship was required to have begun
within the previous 6 months (mean SD: 3 1
months) and at least four hours a day spent in
thinking about the partner (mean SD: 9 3
hours), as recorded by a specifically designed
questionnaire.
Twenty-four subjects (12 female and 12 male,
mean age SD: 29 3), belonging to the same
environment and with similar educational levels,
with either a long-lasting (mean SD: 67 28)
months or no relationship, served as the control
group.
No subject had a family or personal history of
any major psychiatric disorder or even sub-thresh-
old symptoms, or had ever taken psychotropic
drugs, except for three who occasionally took
benzodiazepines because of difficulties in sleeping
at night, as assessed by a detailed psychiatric
interview conducted by one of the authors (DM).
In addition, all subjects were undergone the fol-
lowing rating scales: the Hamilton Rating Scale for
Depression (Hamilton, 1960), the Hamilton Rating
Scale for Anxiety (Hamilton, 1959) and the Yale-
Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Rating Scale (Good-
man et al., 1986), with the results that all total
scores fell within the normal range.
D. Marazziti, D. Canale932
All subjects, except for four singles (three
women and one man), were indulging in a normal
and regular sexual activity, as assessed by self-
report questionnaires and, during the psychiatric
interview, no differences were noted between the
romantic lovers and the control subjects.
The women had regular menstrual cycles and
were not taking contraceptive pills. Their blood
samples were drawn in the early follicular phase
(between the third and the fifth day of the men-
ses); the men had no history of genital disease or
hypogonadism. All subjects were free of physical
illness, were neither heavy cigarette smokers nor
belonged to high-risk HIV individuals and all
underwent a general and detailed check-up, car-
ried out by one of the authors (DC).
All gave their informed written consent to their
inclusion in the study.
2.2. Hormonal measurements
Venous blood (10 ml) was collected between 8 and
9 a.m. from fasting subjects and centrifuged at
low-speed centrifugation (200 g, for 20 min, at
22 C) to obtain serum which was stored at 20 C
until the assays, which were performed within a
few days.
The following hormones were evaluated by
means of standard techniques in duplicate for
each point, by biologists who were blind to each
subjects conditions: FSH, LH, estradiol, pro-
gesterone (chemioluminiscent immuno-assay,
CMIA, Architect, Abbott, Abbott Park, USA), dehy-
droepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) (Spectria,
Orion Diagnostic, Essoo, Finland), cortisol (CMIA,
DPC, Immulite, Los Angeles, USA), testosterone
and androstenedione (RIA, Testo-CTK, Diasorin
Biomedica, Saluggia, Italy).
2.3. Statistics
The differences in hormone levels between sub-
jects of the two sexes who recently had or had
not fallen in love were measured by means of the
Student t-test (unpaired, two-tailed). The possible
effects of the length of the relationship or of the
time devoted to thinking about the partner on the
hormonal levels were assessed according to Pear-
sons analysis. All analyses were carried out using
the SSPS version 4.0, by means of personal com-
puter programs (StatView V) (Nie et al., 1998).
3. Results
Table 1 shows that cortisol levels (ng/ml) were
significantly higher in the subjects who had
recently fallen in love, as compared with control
subjects (239 39 vs 168 31, p<0:001), with
no difference between women and men.
The levels of LH, estradiol, progesterone,
DHEAS and androstenedione did not differ
between the groups and were within normal ran-
ges according to the sex and the follicular phase
of the women.
On the other hand, testosterone levels (ng/ml)
in men who had recently fallen in love were sig-
nificantly lower than in singles or individuals with
a long-lasting relationship (4:11:0vs6:82:1,
p>0:003); the results in women were the
opposite, that is, higher levels in the women from
the first group, as compared with those from the
second (1:20:4vs0:60:2, p<0:001).
FSH levels were significantly lower in men who
had fallen in love than in those from the control
group (p<0:0001).
When the cortisol, testosterone and FSH levels
were re-tested in 16 out of the total of 24 sub-
Table 1 Hormonal levels in subjects in the early stage of falling in love and in control subjects
Subjects in love Control subjects
MF MF
FSH 3.21.1^ 8.14.2 9.33.8 9.13.1
LH 6.92.3 12.33.4 7.12.8 104.3
Estradiol <50 17023 <50 14532
Progesterone <0.2 0.570.3 <0.2 0.550.3
Testosterone 4.11.0* 1.20.4** 6.82.1 0.60.2
DHEAS 27361122 2232986 24501000 2315980
Cortisol 2242124341 16521 17244
Androstenedione 2.01.0 2.10.7 2.10.7 1.90.7
M, male; F, female.
^Significant: p<0.0001; *Significant: p<0.003; **Significant: p<0.001; Significant: p<0.001; Significant: p
<0.0001.
933Falling in love and hormones
jects in-love, from 1228 months later, no differ-
ences from control subject levels were detected.
Hormonal measurements were also repeated in 15
out of the total of 24 control subjects after the
same time interval, but no significant differences
from those of the first assessment were noted
(data not shown).
The length of the relationship and the time
spent in thinking about the partner did not affect
hormonal levels.
Singles or subjects with a long-lasting relationship
did not differ in any of the parameters evaluated.
4. Discussion
The main bias of this study is probably repre-
sented by the criteria used for selecting the sub-
jects who had fallen in love since, despite our
best efforts, no definite indication was available.
Since the altered mental state associated with
falling in love seems to have a precise time
course, with an average duration of between 18
months and 3 years (Tennov, 1979; Marazziti
et al., 1999), we chose the length of the relation-
ship as one criterion which, furthermore, can eas-
ily be recorded. The other main criterion adopted
was the time spent in thinking about the partner
which, according to various authors, represents a
core feature of this phase (Tesser and Paulhus,
1976; Tennov, 1979; Shea and Adams, 1984). One
might perhaps infer that the subjects who are in
love suffer from a moderate form of OCD, or have
an obsessive-compulsive personality, a positive
family history of OCD or even obsessive-compul-
sive subthreshold symptoms: however, we exclu-
ded all these possibilities by means the psychiatric
interview and specific questionnaires. It might
also be judged questionable that our hormonal
evaluation was performed on a single sample;
however this could represent a bias for LH
measurement only, for which a pulsatile pattern is
well-recognized.
However, in spite of this limitation, our study
led to some intriguing and innovative findings, in
particular that healthy subjects of both sexes who
had recently fallen in love did show some hor-
monal changes.
The first finding was that the cortisol levels
were higher in subjects in love, as compared with
those from the control group. This condition of
‘‘hypercortisolemia’’ is probably a non-specific
indicator of some changes which occur during the
early phase of a relationship, reflecting the stress-
ful conditions or arousal associated with the
initiation of a social contact which helps to over-
come neophobia. Such conditions appear to be
fundamental, as a moderate level of stress has
been demostrated to promote attachment and
social contacts in both animals and humans (DeV-
ries et al., 1995, 1996; Hennessy, 1997; Levine
et al., 1997; Mendoza and Mason, 1997). In
addition, different data indicate an association
between HPA activation following stressful experi-
ences and the development of social attachment
which, in turn, promotes physiological states
which reduce anxiety and related negative sensa-
tions (Hinde, 1974; Milgram, 1986; Simpson and
Rhole, 1994; Legros, 2001). We observed no dif-
ference in cortisol levels between women and
men, but this is perhaps not surprising, given indi-
cations that they represent rather an unspecific
reaction to different triggers.
On the other hand, while LH, estradiol, pro-
gesterone, DHEAS and androstenedione levels did
not differ between men and women, the testos-
terone concentrations showed some sex-related
peculiarities: in both men and women who were
at the early stage of a relationship, they were
lower and higher, respectively, than those in men
and women from the control group. Although none
reached pathological levels, all subjects pre-
sented this finding, as if falling in love tended
temporarily to eliminate some differences
between the sexes, or to soften some male fea-
tures in men and, in parallel, to increase them in
women. It is tempting to link the changes in tes-
tosterone levels to changes in behaviours, sexual
attitutes or, perhaps, aggressive traits which
move in different directions in the two sexes
(Zitzmann and Nieschlag, 2001), however, apart
from some anedoctal evidence, we have no data
substantiating this which would justify further
research. Similarly, we have no explanation for
the decreased level of FSH in male subjects who
were in love, apart from the suggestions that it
may represent another marker of hypothalamic
involvement in the process of falling in love.
It is noteworthy that when we measured the
cortisol, testosterone and FSH levels for a second
time, 1218 months later, in those 16 (out of the
total of 24) subjects who had maintained the
same relationship but were no longer in the same
mental state to which they had referred during
the first assessment and now reported feeling cal-
mer and no longer ‘‘obsessed’’ with the partner,
the hormone levels were no different from those
of the control group. This finding would suggest
that the hormonal changes which we observed are
reversible, state-dependent and probably related
to some physical and/or psychological features
typically associated with falling in love.
In conclusion, our study would suggest that fall-
ing in love represents a ‘‘physiological’’ and tran-
D. Marazziti, D. Canale934
sient condition which is characterized (or under-
laid) by peculiar hormonal patterns, one of which,
involving testosterone, seems to show a sex-
related specificity.
Studies are now in progress to establish whether
the noted hormonal changes may be related to
the modifications of specific behaviours, such as
aggression or sexual or attachment attitudes.
Acknowledgements
We thank Prof. Lucia Grasso and the technical
staff of the Hormone laboratory of the ‘‘Diparti-
mento di Endocrinologia’’ of the University of Pisa
for performing the hormone assay. We express
our gratitude to Prof. Aldo Pinchera and Prof.
Enio Martino of the same Department for the
fruitful discussion during the preparation of
the manuscript, and to Dr. Elena Di Nasso from
the ‘‘Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia,
Farmacologia e Biotecnologie’’ who was helpful
in selecting the subjects included in the study.
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D. Marazziti, D. Canale936
... Indeed, what distinguishes established relationships from new couples is that the latter are in the initial phase of the relationship, better known as the falling in love phase. This phase is characterised by a strong sense of joy, euphoria, excitement, a constant almost obsessive need for the presence of the other [13], a state of intense energy, physiological hyperactivation (increase in levels of dopamine, noradrenaline and phenylethylamine), from a constant search for closeness to the other, but also from the fear of losing the loved one [14,15]. In addition, a reduction in testosterone levels in men and an increase in women was noted during this phase. ...
... This hormonal variation would lead to changes in the behavioural style of both sexes: in women it would increase the occurrence of more extroverted and aggressive behaviours, on the contrary in men it would attenuate the more impetuous behavioural characteristics. It would therefore seem that the phase of falling in love allows for the temporary smoothing of gender differences, attenuating some characteristics in men and increasing the same in women [15]. In the end, the initial stages of the relationship are characterized by high levels of sexual desire, functional to the enhancement of intimacy and the formation of the couple bond [16]. ...
... The social limits and an unpredictable future due to the sudden change of rules and constraints, generated in the participants a sense of doubt about the couple time ahead and consequently the fear of not being able to see each other led to a greater search for the proximity of the partner and a deeper bond. The literature shows how, in conditions of distress and stress, individuals seek the closeness of the attachment figure to receive comfort and reassurance [15,[34][35][36][37]. Quantitative results showed that there were no gender differences in the different sexual and relationship parameters, confirming that in the falling love period gender differences are levelled [15]. ...
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For almost 25 years, the predominate evolutionary theory of romantic love has been Fisher’s theory of independent emotion systems. That theory suggests that sex drive, romantic attraction (romantic love), and attachment are associated with distinct neurobiological and endocrinological systems which evolved independently of each other. Psychological and neurobiological evidence, however, suggest that a complementary theory requires attention. A theory of co-opting mother-infant bonding sometime in the recent evolutionary history of humans may partially account for the evolution of romantic love. I present a case for this theory and a new approach to the science of romantic love drawing on human psychological, neurobiological, and (neuro)endocrinological studies as well as some animal studies. The hope is that this theoretical review, along with other publications, will generate debate in the literature about the merits of the theory of co-opting mother-infant bonding and a new evolutionary approach to the science of romantic love.
... 2022, 12, 551 2 of 11 involved. Studies have shown that oxytocin, vasopressin, cortisol, serotonin, dopamine, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone are involved in romantic love [18][19][20][21][22]. In addition, the caudate, putamen, ventral tegmental area, insula, amygdala, cingulate cortex, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, raphe nucleus, cerebellum, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and various parts of the cortex have been shown to play a role in romantic love [23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. ...
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Science is starting to unravel the neural basis of romantic love. The goal of this literature review was to identify and interpret the electrophysiological correlates of romantic love. Electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP) studies with a design that elicits romantic love feelings were included. The methods of previous EEG studies are too heterogeneous to draw conclusions. Multiple ERP studies, however, have shown that beloved stimuli elicit an enhanced late positive potential (LPP/P3/P300), which is not due to familiarity, positive valence, or objective beauty. This effect occurs in Western and Eastern cultures and for pictorial and verbal information, and results from bottom-up rather than top-down factors. Studies have also shown that beloved stimuli elicit an early posterior negativity (EPN), which also does not seem to be due to familiarity or positive valence. Data on earlier ERP components (P1, N1, P2, N170/VPP, N2) is scarce and mixed. Of course, the enhanced LPP and EPN are not specific to romantic love. Instead, they suggest that the beloved captures early attention, within 200-300 ms after stimulus onset that is relatively resource-independent, and subsequently receives sustained motivated attention. Future research would benefit from employing cognitive tasks and testing participants who are in love regardless of relationship status.
... Nevertheless, no significant difference was detected in E2 in this investigation. The current findings suggest that there are transient hormonal changes when people fall in love (Marazziti & Canale, 2004). Scholars have found that the E2 concentration fluctuates during the estrus cycle in both vertebrates and invertebrates (Rota et al., 2007;Sharma et al., 2014;Singh FIGURE 4 | RT-PCR analysis of DEGs. ...
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Given the difficulty in identifying individuals with different degrees of ovarian development, we developed a new device utilizing the hypothesis of mutual attraction behavior between male and female crabs with mature gonads by releasing the sexual pheromone so they could be examined. From a total of 40 female crabs, 10 were isolated within half an hour. Histological analysis showed that the ovaries of crabs in the isolated group were in stage IV, while those of the control groups were in stage III. In addition, progesterone (PROG) in experimental groups was significantly reduced compared with the control group (p < 0.05), but no significant difference was detected in estradiol (E2). In response to the different developmental stages, hemolymph biochemical indices and the determination of gonadal fatty acids profiles were explored. The results indicated only C18:4 showed a significant difference between these two groups. A transcriptome was generated to determine the genes involved in the mutual attraction process; differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly related to gonadal development. Therefore, the device can be used to isolate Chinese mitten crabs with stage IV ovarian development.
... When evaluating the neurobiological aspects [16] release of Volume 11 : Issue 2 : February 2022 hormones (Testosterone, oestrogen and increased level of Dopamine) related to sexual activity acts as a reward system [17] which reinforces the twisted relationship. [18] This reinforcement will act for a while or until the next abusive episode to remain female submissive or to repress the effects of violence by male partner. ...
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India, a country with manifold multicultural bonds and relationships often witnesses a gross number of conflicted marital relationships. The plight in the frequency of marital abuse reporting in India has called gross public health attention globally. Multiple factors contribute to this arena in which, when we analyse can find out females submissiveness to report and or react to such kind of abusive incidences. The objective of this article is to review recent literature on female submissiveness in marital abuse. This narrative review is carried out to depict various perspectives that initiate abusive relationships and certain factors that prevent women from being subjected to rapid response. Literature relevant to the topic which was published within twenty years in prominent journals, newspapers, and websites has been reviewed thoroughly while writing this paper. Keywords for literature search included terms such as domestic violence, intimate partner violence/abuse, spouse abuse, married woman/female submissiveness, abusive marital relationships, and marital abuse. There is a paucity of studies analysing psychological and socio-demographic determinants of this submissiveness within such relationships in India. Several factors such as cultural, psycho-social, environmental attributes may prompt submissiveness among females in abusive marital relationships, which often leads to psychopathology and physical ailments. It is important to understand the need for a multidisciplinary approach to preventing marital abuse as a public health issue. By preventing and modulating such factors public health and women's well-being can be preserved in various domains.
Chapter
This chapter “Socio-biological Models of Love” describes the basic principles, levels, and processes which are pertinent to evolutionary models of love. It shows how the evolution of biological, genetic, ecological, technological, and cultural parameters characterizing human species and societies shapes corresponding models of love. The chapter reviews the sexual reproduction, social bonding, and pair-bonding models of love.KeywordsBiological models of loveSocial models of loveCultural models of loveEvolutionary models of loveEvolution of loveEcology of loveLove as attractionNeurophysiology of loveGenetics of loveLove as sexual reproductionLove as matingMate preferencesSexual attractionCultural variability of attractionLove as bondingCommunity bondingPair bonding
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Elméleti háttér A szerelem egy komplex érzelem, amely a legtöbb emberi kultúrában ismert pszichológiai jelenség. Evolúciós szempontból a szerelem egy pszichológiai adaptáció, amely a túlélés és a szaporodás speciális problémáinak megoldására alakult ki. A szerelmi stílusok a romantikus kapcsolatokkal összefüggő attitűdök: Eros (szenvedélyes, erotikus szerelem); Ludus (játszmázó szerelem); Storge (baráti szerelem); Pragma (pragmatikus, logikus szerelem); Mania (birtokló, függő szerelem) és Agapé (önfeláldozó, önzetlen szerelem). A Szerelmi Attitűdök Kérdőív rövid változata (LAS SF) (Hendrick és mtsai, 1998) alapján Meskó és kollégái (2021) létrehozták az eszköz magyar változatát (LAS-HSF). Módszer Jelen kutatásban a 24 tételes (4 item faktoronként) változat alapján létrehoztuk a 18 tételes (3 item faktoronként) változatot, és azt pszichometriai szempontból elemeztük egy 800 fős magyar mintán (439 nő, átlagéletkor = 38,6 év). Eredmények Az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy mind a 18, mind a 24 tételes magyar LAS-SF megbízható és érvényes mérőeszköz, amely lehetővé teszi a kultúrák közötti összehasonlítást. Mindkét változat egymással megegyező faktorstruktúrával rendelkezik, és mind a nemi különbségek, mind az életkorral való korrelációk tekintetében igen hasonló. Következtetések A szerelmi attitűdök kérdőív magyar rövid változata (LAS-HSF) az eredetivel megegyező faktorszerkezetű, magas belső megbízhatósági mutatókkal rendelkező valid eszköz, amely alkalmas lehet a magyar nyelvű kutatásokban a szerelmi attitűdök mérésére. A 18 és a 24 tételt magában foglaló megoldás is nagyon hasonló mutatókkal rendelkezik, mindkettő egyaránt jól használható eszköznek tekinthető.
Preprint
In this non-systematic review, we consider the sample reporting practices of 42 studies up to and including 2021 investigating the biological mechanisms of romantic love (i.e., 31 neuroimaging studies, nine endocrinological studies, one genetics study, and one combined neuroimaging and genetics study). We summarize how they report sex/gender, age, romantic love, relationship duration/ time in love, and sample descriptors. We then outline the case for promoting comparability and the ability to determine generalizability in future studies. We conclude by presenting ideas about how best to report sex, age, romantic love characteristics, relationship status, relationship duration, time in love, type of unrequited love, sexual activity, cultural characteristics, student status, and method-relevant descriptors. If our ideas are adopted, in part or in whole, we expect the comparability of studies to increase. Adopting our ideas will also make it easier to make an assessment of the generalizability of findings.
Chapter
Research on testosterone has long been dominated by a focus on “high testosterone” behaviors, such as aggression, competition, and dominance. The vast majority of this work, including in humans, has also been conducted in exclusively male samples, based in part on presumed links between testosterone and masculinity. Yet testosterone is implicated in many psychological and interpersonal processes for both men and women, and “low testosterone” behaviors may be particularly critical for ongoing close relationships. This fairly narrow focus on high testosterone, in men, leaves major gaps in our understanding of the social neuroendocrinology of close relationships, particularly as related to positive processes like caregiving, support-seeking, and intimacy. The goal of this review is to integrate the literature on testosterone in close relationships, in both men and women, with an eye toward closeness, intimacy, and other positive processes that likely contribute to and are supported by individual differences in testosterone and changes in testosterone over time. I focus on testosterone in the context of romantic and parent-child relationships, and highlight directions for future research that can help to fill important gaps in this literature. Further, I argue that, because close relationships are inherently dynamic and dyadic, longitudinal research that includes both men and women, and ideally both couple members, is critical for a complete understanding of the role of testosterone in close relationship processes.
Article
This review considers the behavioral, ecological, and reproductive characteristics of mammals exhibiting monogamy, i.e., mating exclusivity. From a discussion of the life histories of selected species of monogamous primates, carnivores, rodents and ungulates, several trends emerge. Two forms of monogamy occur, Type I, facultative, and Type II, obligate. The selective pressures leading to these two forms of monogamy may have been different. Facultative monogamy may result when a species exists at very low densities, with males and females being so spaced that only a single member of the opposite sex is available for mating. Obligate monogamy appears to occur when a solitary female cannot rear a litter without aid from conspecifics, but the carrying capacity of the habitat is insufficient to allow more than one female to breed simultaneously within the same home range. Within both types of monogamy, the following traits are typically seen: (1) adults show little sexual dimorphism either physically or behaviorally: (2) the adult male and female exhibit infrequent socio-sexual interactions except during the early stages of pair bond formation. Additional trends specific to mammals exhibiting obligate monogamy are: (1) the young exhibit delayed sexual maturation in the presence of the parents, and thus only the adult pair breeds; (2) the older juveniles aid in rearing young siblings; and (3) the adult male (father) aids in the rearing of young by any or all of the following: carrying, feeding, defending, and socializing offspring.
Article
This article explores the possibility that romantic love is an attachment process--a biosocial process by which affectional bonds are formed between adult lovers, just as affectional bonds are formed earlier in life between human infants and their parents. Key components of attachment theory, developed by Bowlby, Ainsworth, and others to explain the development of affectional bonds in infancy, were translated into terms appropriate to adult romantic love. The translation centered on the three major styles of attachment in infancy--secure, avoidant, and anxious/ambivalent--and on the notion that continuity of relationship style is due in part to mental models (Bowlby's "inner working models") of self and social life. These models, and hence a person's attachment style, are seen as determined in part by childhood relationships with parents. Two questionnaire studies indicated that relative prevalence of the three attachment styles is roughly the same in adulthood as in infancy, the three kinds of adults differ predictably in the way they experience romantic love, and attachment style is related in theoretically meaningful ways to mental models of self and social relationships and to relationship experiences with parents. Implications for theories of romantic love are discussed, as are measurement problems and other issues related to future tests of the attachment perspective.
Article
This article describes a neurobiological basis for the "first attachment" of the primate infant to its caretaker. The infant normally internalizes a neurobiological "image" of the behavioral and emotional characteristics of its caregiver that later regulates important features of its brain function. Current models of sensorimotor analysis and its relation to emotion suggest that sensorimotor stems are also habit and memory systems, their functional status and lability regulated in part by biogenic amine systems. The intertwined development of neural and social functions can sometimes go awry. If the attachment process fails or the caregiver is incompetent, the infant may become socially dysfunctional. This helps explain the developmental psychopathology and later vulnerability to adult psychopathology that result from disruptions of social attachment.