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Therapeutic Constituents and Actions of Rubus Species

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Abstract

Rubus species (family Rosaceae) have been cultivated for centuries for their fruits. These and other parts of the plants have been used traditionally for therapeutic purposes. This article highlights these and the potential they can offer. The constituents reported in the various species and those demonstrated to exhibit pharmacological properties have been reviewed. In the search for biologically active compounds, one of the most frequently documented species of the genus is the raspberry plant R. idaeus, the leaves of which have been used traditionally as a uterine relaxant and stimulant during confinement, for the treatment of diarrhoea and similar enteric disorders and as an astringent. Investigations of other Rubus species have been conducted in the last twenty-five years, and have shown possible application for a wide range of indications, including bacterial infections, anxiety, pain and inflammation.
... It is listed in top 10 wild edible medicinal plant (Uprety et al. 2011;Pandey and Bhatt 2016). The plant is used for wound healing, gastralgia, dysentery, ulcer, diabetes mellitus, antifertility, analgesic, antimicrobial, epilepsy, fever, typhoid, cough, sore throat, kidney tonic and anti-diuretic, and coronary heart diseases (Vadivelan et al. 2009;Parihaar et al. 2014;Pandey and Bhatt 2016;Patel et al. 2004;George and Parimelazhagan 2013). The fruit (edible part) is a rich source of natural antioxidants, which helps in reducing the oxidative stress and protects the body against degenerative diseases including cancer upon the direct consumption. ...
... It is utilized in food product development, i.e., jams, squash, wine, vinegar, juice, etc. (Sharma et al. 2019). It plays a vital role to providing free energy packets for the people (Bhakumi et al. 1987;Patel et al. 2004;George and Parimelazhagan 2013;Badhani et al. 2015). Its fruits are used to produce a purplish-blue dye. ...
Chapter
Rubus ellipticusSm.: Rubus ellipticus Sm.; Rubus ellipticus var. ellipticus.; Rubus ellipticus subsp. fasciculatus (Duthie) Focke; Rubus ellipticus var. obcordatus (Franch.) Focke; Rubus ellipticus f. obcordatus Franch.; Rubus ellipticus f. denudatus Hook.; Rubus flavus D. Don.
... It is known that plants previously used in folk medicine represent a suitable beginning to discover new potent drugs to treat various human disorders [15]. Sanguiins (Figure 1), naturally occurring ET, have been isolated chiefly from Rubus species and are used as a traditional drug to cure, e.g., diarrhea, menstrual pain, menopause disorders, liver diseases, aphtha, gingivitis, as well as fever, angina, enteritis, hepatitis, concretion, eczema, rheumatism, enterocolitis, bronchitis, prostate disorders, pain, cold, cough, and fever (Table 1) [16,17]. Moreover, SH6 seems to be the most widespread within plants of the Rubus and is present in 22 species of this genus. ...
... alba [18]. isolated chiefly from Rubus species and are used as a traditional drug to cure, e.g., diarrhea, menstrual pain, menopause disorders, liver diseases, aphtha, gingivitis, as well as fever, angina, enteritis, hepatitis, concretion, eczema, rheumatism, enterocolitis, bronchitis, prostate disorders, pain, cold, cough, and fever (Table 1) [16,17]. Moreover, SH6 seems to be the most widespread within plants of the Rubus and is present in 22 species of this genus. ...
Article
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Compounds of natural origin, an infinite treasure of bioactive chemical entities, persist as an inexhaustible resource for discovering new medicines. In this review, we summarize the naturally occurring ellagitannins, sanguiin, which are bioactive constituents of various traditional medicinal plants, especially from the Rosaceae family. In-depth studies of sanguiin H-6 as an antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and osteoclastogenesis inhibitory agent have led to potent drug candidates. In addition, recently, virtual screening studies have suggested that sanguiin H-6 might increase resistance toward SARS-CoV-2 in the early stages of infection. Further experimental investigations on ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) supplemented with molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation are still needed to fully understand sanguiins’ mechanism of action. In sum, sanguiins appear to be promising compound for additional studies, especially for their application in therapies for a multitude of common and debilitating ailments.
... In summer it is used to promote sweating as a diaphoretic, and as a diuretic, and as the fruit is fibrous it aids the digestive processes. Due to useful medicinal properties of Rubus species, it has been used in folk medicine (Patel et al., 2004). Roots and young shoots of the plant are used for colic pain (Bhakuni et al., 1987). ...
Technical Report
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The project was aimed to explore the nutritional status of five wild edible fruits of Garhwal Himalaya by profiling their nutritional and phytochemical characteristic as well as their multifunctional antioxidant activity. Fruits of selected wild plant species namely Rhus parviflora, Rubus ellipticus, R. niveus, Ficus palmata, and Coriaria nepalensis were investigated for their physicochemical attributes (extractable juice content, moisture content, ash values, TSS, and OM), nutritional profile (crude fat, crude protein, total carbohydrate, and crude fibre), ualitative and quantitative phytochemical composition (phenoilic, flavonoid, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid), and multifunctional antioxidant property. The study led to the conclusion that fruits of all the investigated wild fruits contain varying but considerable amount of nutritional constituents and diverse of bioactive phytochemicals. Further, high phenolic content and remarkable antioxidant activity of all the fruits ascertain these wild fruits as better candidates for potential use in functional foods and nutraceuticals. The physicochemical values like moisture content, ash values, etc. and phytochemical profile of all the five fruits have been established to substantiate the standardization data on the plants. The knowledge of the nutritional properties of studied wild fruits may be useful as dietary information. The result of proximate analysis of fruits revealed that these wild edible fruits may be good substitute to cultivated fruits for their substantial nutrient content. The extractive values of fruits in solvents of different polarity have shown that extract obtained with solvents of higher polarity have notable antioxidant capacity which might be associated with the high value of TPC, TFC, TAC and AA recorded in these extracts. In the present study methanol and aqueous methanol has been found as best extractant for most advantageous extraction of phytochemical having immense biological and protective functions. The relationship between total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents with the antioxidant activities of all the five fruits was established by correlation analysis. Further, higher correlation with values of free radical scavenging assays suggested most likely hydrophilic antioxidant constituents of extracts/fraction contribute to the antioxidant capacity. The edible fruits of Rhus parviflora, Rubus ellipticus, R. niveus, Ficus palmata, and Coriaria nepalensis can be considered a source of important phytochemicals with bioactive properties, thus may be explored for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. Utilization of these wild fruits for production of bioactive extracts/fractions/compounds and their applications in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries, could be a practical proposition that could also benefit rural and forest-dependent communities.
... The tannins in blackberry leaves are responsible for some beneficial effects for diarrhea treatment and similar enteric disorders and as an astringent. However, tannins can cause liver damage if ingested in large amounts over long periods [12]. Blackberry leaves are known to eliminate free radicals that damage cells, and as antioxidants, they can help prevent lifestyle diseases. ...
Article
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Blackberry fruits are recognized as functional foods while blackberry leaves are outside this classification and they also contain active compounds with health-promoting potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was the phytochemical analysis of blackberry leaves of varieties (Chester, Loch Ness, Loch Tay and Ruczaj) and screening of their biological activity (antioxidant potential, possibility of inhibition of enzymes, anti-inflammatory and microbial activity). The following compounds from selected groups: phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid), flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol) and their glycosides (rutin, isoquercetin, hyperoside) and flavon-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin) were chromatographically determined in the aqueous and hydroalcoholic leaves extracts. All tested blackberry leaves extracts showed antioxidant effects, but the highest compounds content (TPC = 101.31 mg GAE/g) and antioxidant activity (e.g., DPPH IC50 = 57.37 μg/mL; ABTS IC50 = 24.83 μg/mL; CUPRAC IC50 = 62.73 μg/mL; FRAP IC50 = 39.99 μg/mL for hydroalcoholic extracts) was indicated for the Loch Tay variety. Blackberry leaf extracts’ anti-inflammatory effect was also exceptionally high for the Loch Tay variety (IC50 = 129.30 μg/mL), while leaves extracts of the Loch Ness variety showed a significant potential for microbial activity against Lactobacillus spp. and Candida spp. Summarizing, the best multidirectional pro-health effect was noted for leaves extracts of Loch Tay variety.
... Berries are a rich source of various biologically active compounds which makes them popular both in the food and pharmaceutical industries. [1][2][3][4]. Rubus is recognized as one of the largest genera in the family Rosaceae Juss., it is widespread in the Northern hemisphere [5]. Raspberry, blackberry and arctic raspberry are some representatives of this genus. ...
Article
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The work is devoted to improving clonal micropropagation methods of the genus Rubus representatives. When cultivating R. arcticus L. cultivars, the optimal concentration of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) was 0.3 mg L ⁻¹ . Significant effect of FeEDTA concentration in the nutrient medium on multiplication of R. idaeus L. cultivars was established. The interaction of auxin type and plant genotype was revealed during rooting of blackberry cultivars and raspberry-blackberry hybrids. The nutrient medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 indoleacetic acid contributed to the highest percentage of rhizogenesis in R. arcticus representatives (82%). The optimal growth regulator for conservation of raspberry explants was 6-BAP at a concentration of 0.3 mg L-1. One of the most representative in vitro collections of Rubus cultivars has been created.
... It was first collected and identified as a new species by Nakai from a region called Hongno (near Cheonjiyeon Falls, Seogwipo), which is located on Jeju Island [2]. Rubus species have been used in traditional medicine for their many medicinal properties [3]. Components isolated from representatives of the genus have been reported to exhibit various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer activity [4]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of light quality on R. hongnoensis growth, physiology, and antioxidant properties. Five light conditions were employed, including white (control), red (R), blue (B), combined LED of R, green (G), and B at 7:1:2 (RGB), as well as combined LED of R, G, B, and far-red (Fr) at 7:1:2:1 (RGBFr). R light had the greatest growth promoting effect based on plant height, leaf length, leaf width, stem diameter, and leaf area. However, leaf width and root length exhibited the greatest growth under RGB. The fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were highest under R and RGB light. Photosynthesis was highest under RGB and lowest under B. Transpiration was highest in RGBFr. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic water use efficiency were greatest under RGBFr. Total phenol content and radical scavenging activity were highest under R, while total flavonoid content was highest under RGB. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were upregulated underW, whereas guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity was highest under RGB. The present results suggest that, among the tested light treatments, R light was most conductive for vegetative growth and antioxidant capacity in R. hongnoensis.
... 53 Such activity may promote coordinated uterine contractions and dilatation of the cervix through effect on the lower uterine segment. 54 Such activity is likely influential in cervical remodeling in late gestation. Taken together, these compounds may promote parturition; the effect of other RI phytochemicals is unknown. ...
Article
The trigger for human labor is a scientific mystery. This research examined Rubus idaeus (RI), commonly referred to as red raspberry, which is widely purported to be efficacious in promoting parturition processes and favorable birth outcomes. This randomized controlled trial sought to determine the influence of RI consumption during gestation on C57BL/6N Tac mice and their offspring. The aims of this study were to (1) determine differences in the length of gestation, gestational weight gain, and litter size where RI is consumed daily at varied strengths and (2) determine differences in offspring characteristics and behavior where maternal RI consumption occurred. Once paired, mice were randomly assigned to one of three groups: placebo (n = 10) receiving plain water, RI aqueous extract fluid of 1.78 mg/mL (n = 10), or RI aqueous extract fluid of 2.66 mg/mL (n = 10). All received the same standardized diet throughout gestation. Pregnant mice were weighed with chow intake and fluid consumption determined daily. Gestation length and litter size were recorded at the time of birth. Differences in offspring characteristics were also determined and included physical characteristics (weight, physical development) and neuromotor reflexes and behaviors (locomotive abilities, geotaxis reflex, cliff avoidance reflex, and swimming development). When compared with controls, high-dose RI ingestion resulted in shorter length of gestation and smaller litter size (P ≤ .05). There was also an increase in fluid consumption and a decrease in pup weights on postnatal day 4 and 5 with RI treatment (P ≤ .05). Altogether, results suggest that RI influences parturition and fecundity processes with transplacental exposure impacting offspring characteristics.
... Leaves and fruits of Rubus species have been used in numerous countries as natural medicines to treat a number of diseases like diabetes, many types of infections, colic, and burns. The leaves of some species also have been administrated in traditional folk medicine as antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory for oral and throat diseases, anti-morning sickness, anti-headache, uterine relaxant, insecticidal, and wound treatment agent [19,[21][22][23]. ...
Article
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Rubus hyrcanus Juz. (Rosaceae), known as Caspian blackberry, is wildly distributed around the Caspian Sea. This study focused on antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antibacterial activities of total extracts and different fractions from the roots and leaves of this species. The total phenolics and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. Finally, the phenolic profiles of selected fractions were determined using HPLC–DAD and LC–MS/MS. The results indicated that the total phenolics content (TPC) of root total extract (RTE) was 3.5 times that of leaves (340.4 and 102.7 mg GAE/g, respectively). The TPC of three root fractions ranged from 226.6 to 392.9 mg GAE/g, while in leaves fractions, it ranged between 68.3 and 101.8 mg GAE/g. The total extract of leaves had higher contents of total flavonoids than roots (70.5 and 8.9 mg QE/g, respectively). The methanol fractions of both parts had the highest amounts of flavonoids. The root methanol fraction (RMF) had the best antioxidant effect in both DPPH radical scavenging assay (IC 50 : 9.16 μg ml ⁻¹ ) and total antioxidant capacity test (1010.5 mg ɑTE/g). The RMF and RTE had potent antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 1.5 mg ml ⁻¹ ). In the MTT assay, ethyl acetate fractions of roots and leaves exhibited the best cytotoxicity (IC 50 247 and 227 μg ml ⁻¹ , respectively) and the highest selectivity indexes (4.73 and 5.31, respectively). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid in leaves ethyl acetate fraction, chlorogenic acid in leaves methanol fraction, and gallic acid in the root ethyl acetate fraction.
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Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an important tropical oilseed crop whose oil has versatile, practical value, especially in industries. The present study aimed to estimate the nature and magnitude of variability in the castor germplasm concerning yield and its component traits and physico-biochemical characters. Seed yield per plant and oil content ranged from 80.90 g (ICS-165) to 248.30 g (RG-3216), and 34.7% (ICS-172) to 58.7% (JI-277), respectively. The iodine value of oil ranged from 76.36 (JI-370) to 89.84 (P2-135) with an average value of 83.02. The mean saponification value of oil 182.24. The genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for acid value, capsules on the main raceme, seed yield per plant, and total length of the main raceme. A positive association of porosity, average unit volume, and total length of the main raceme with seed yield per plant show that these characters are directly attributed to the improvement of seed yield. Manhattan distances grouped the 30 genotypes into three clusters. Genetic diversity was elucidated using SSR and SRAP markers. SRAP marker produced higher mean number of total bands (5.71), polymorphic bands (4.57), percentage polymorphism (83.10%), PIC (1.72), RP (5.90), mean RP (1.02), MR (5.71), EMR (4.57) and MI (1.44) values when compared to SSR (2.89, 2.11, 79.63%, 0.61, 1.90, 0.72, 2.89, 2.11 and 0.49, respectively) marker. The highest genetic distance (0.77) was between 48-1 and JI-370, which indicates that these genotypes can be used in biparental mating schemes, QTL map development, and hybridization programmes to increase oil content and quality for industrial purposes.
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Over the past few decades, much effort has been devoted to the study of known food products for medicinal applications. Among these, citrus fruits play a key role in providing a wide range of health-beneficial effects but it generates a huge amount of waste products. In an attempt to recover those wastes, peel of six citrus species (C aurantium, C limetta,C limon, C reticulata, C Sinensis osbeck, and C Sinensis thomson) was evaluated for yield, physicochemical properties, phenolic constituents and antioxidant activities. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the flavonoids neoeriocitrin, luteolin-7-O-neohesperidoside, scoparin and neohesperidin were chemical markers for C limetta, whereas apigenin-6,8-di-C-glycoside was only detected in C Sinensis Osbeck. PCA analysis revealed significant correlations between antioxidant activities and phenolic contents, highlighting a large interspecific variability. These results suggest that Citrus peel by-products may be valuably recycled by industries due to their high yield and transformed into value-added products, with potential interest for the development of functional foods, cosmetics or preventive therapies for some diseases.
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Leaves from named cultivars of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and black raspberry (R. occidentalis) from plants grown both in the field and in a greenhouse environment were harvested, air dried and extracted in a Likens-Nickerson apparatus. The resulting volatiles were analyzed by GC/MS. With red raspberry, 20 peaks were noted for the field grown sample while only 10 peaks were observed with the greenhouse sample. In both red raspberry samples, the major volatile components were 1-octene-3-ol, geraniol and linalool. With field grown red raspberry, decanal was also a major component while no decanal was detected in the greenhouse grown sample. With the black raspberry samples, 20 compounds were observed in each with the major volatiles being (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, l-octene-3-ol and geraniol.
Article
SUMMARY Leaves from named cultivars of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), black raspberry (R. occidentalis) and blackberry (R. laciniatus) from plants grown in a greenhouse environment were harvested, air dried and extracted in a Likens-Nickerson apparatus. The resulting volatiles were analyzed by GC/MS. A total of 20 peaks was observed with blackberry, whereas red and black raspberry had 10 and 12 peaks, respectively. The major volatiles in all three cultivars were 1-octene-3-ol, linalool and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. Other compounds identified included hexanal, n-butanol, myrcene, α-terpinene, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-8-ocimene, octanal, terpinolene, decanal, benzaldehyde, dihydrolinalool, 6-methylheptanol, octanol and (E)-2-nonenal.
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From leaves of Rubus suavissimus, two minor ent-kaurane type diterpene glucosides were isolated in addition to the major sweet principle, rubusoside (1). Of these glucosides, the bitter glycoside (2) was identified as sugeroside which has been isolated from leaes of Ilex sugerokii var. Brevipedunculata etc. The new glucoside (3) named suavioside-A tastes sweet and the structure was elucidated as 17-O-β-D-glucoside of ent-kaurane-3α, 16β, 17-triol.
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No diterpene glycoside was isolated from the roots of Rubus suavissimus S. LEE, in contrast to its leaves, which taste sweet and contain a large amount of the sweet diterpene glucoside named rubusoside. Instead, a new 28-β-gluchopyranosyl ester of 2α, 3β, 19α-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-23, 28-dioic acid named suavissimoside F1 was isolated from the roots of this plant, along with niga-ichigoside F1 (28-β-glucopyranosyl ester of 19α-hydroxyasiatic acid) which has already been obtained from leaves of other Rubus spp.
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A new linalool disaccharide glycoside (1a) was isolated from raspberry fruit (Rubus idaeus, cv. Héritage) and characterized as S-(+)-linalool 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside by means of spectroscopic studies.
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From a methanolic extract of raspberry fruit the 9-O-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside of (6R,9R)-α-ionol was isolated. Its structure was established on the basis of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The absolute configuration of the aglycone was determined by direct chiral analysis using MDGC-mass spectrometry as well as 1H NMR analysis of its (R)-(-)-α-phenylpropionic acid ester.