Environmental engineering education for developing
countries: framework for the future
Z. Ujang*, M. Henze**, T. Curtis***, R. Schertenleib**** and L.L. Beal*****
* Institute of Environmental and Water Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai,
Johor Bahru, Malaysia (E-mail: email@example.com)
** Environment and Resources DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
*** Environmental Engineering Group, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University,
Newcastle NE1 7RU, UK (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
**** SANDEC, Swiss Federal Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133,
PO Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland (E-mail: email@example.com)
***** Environmental Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Centre of Sciences and Technology,
University of Caxias do Sul, Brazil (E-mail: LLBeal@ucs.br)
Abstract This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental
engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in
almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes.
There is an urgent need to address speciﬁc inputs that are particularly important for developing countries
with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future
will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-
demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3
should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner
production, wastewater minimisation and ﬁnancial framework.
Keywords Appropriate technology; developing countries; education; environmental engineering education;
Environmental engineering education (E3) is comparatively a new discipline in the civil
engineering domain, dedicated to water and wastewater engineering, solid waste manage-
ment, air pollution control, environmental quality and modelling, and environmental man-
agement. In the past three decades, E3 was better known as public-health engineering or in
some cases, environmental health engineering, focussed mainly on sanitary and municipal
waste management. However, since the 1990s the focus has changed to include industrial
waste control and processes retrofitting, particularly with the introduction of cleaner pro-
duction, and waste recovery in syllabus related to industrial waste control. In a few devel-
oped universities, the concept of integrated pollution control, which combines the pollution
medium i.e. water, air, soil and solid, is also part of E3.
Criteria of E3 for developing countries
E3 addresses the needs of various communities and regions. E3 has a variety of targets and
approaches depending on the community being served. Table 1 shows different category of
countries to which E3 is responding, particularly its focus on technology and research pro-
grammes. E3 for developing countries is a new dimension, with special focus on the needs
of developing countries in water supply, environmental sanitation, pollution control and
environmental management. Due to the specific socio-economic conditions prevailing in
Water Science and Technology Vol 49 No 8 pp 1–10 © IWA Publishing 2004
most developing countries, it has progressed gradually with emphasis on low-cost
technologies and simple management systems.
The main challenge of E3 for developing countries, as a field of professional education,
is the fact that 1.1 billion people still do not have access to safe drinking water, 2.4 billion
people lack access to adequate sanitation facilities, and less than half of the municipal
refuse in developing countries is being collected, and even less disposed of in an environ-
mentally compatible way. This leads to dramatic health consequences such as approxi-
mately 4 billion cases of diarrhoea each year causing 2.2 million deaths. This is equivalent
to one child dying every 15 seconds. About 10% of the population in the developing world
is infected by intestinal worms leading to malnutrition, anaemia and retarded growth.
Furthermore, it is estimated that 6 million people are blind from trachoma, and other dis-
ease directly linked to the lack of adequate water supply (WHO/UNICEF/WSSCC, 2000).
Other aspects of E3 such as industrial pollution control, ecological problems and environ-
mental management issues could be listed as the second item in the priority list.
Delivery of E3 for developing countries
In general, the delivery of E3 at university level can be divided into three categories, based
on the concern, understanding, expertise and policy framework, as follows:
• Universities in industrialised countries
• Universities in developing countries
• Collaborating universities in both industrialised and developing countries
Z. Ujang et al.
Table 1 Comparison of E3 between industrialised, fast-industrialising and slowly-industrialising countries
Items Industrialised countries Fast-industrialising countries Slowly-industrialising countries
E3 main considerations Environmental protection Basic infrastructures Basic necessity
and economic growth for economic growth
Standards Meeting accreditation Meeting local Meeting local
boards; international accreditation boards accreditation boards
Local E3 programs PhD, MSc, BSc PhD, MSc, BSc BSc
Course contents Advancement in E3 as similar to Special emphasis
environmental engineering programs offered on low-cost solutions
in developed countries;
special related to various
Special requirements Advancement in Address local Address local
related to philosophy of E3 scientiﬁc progress issues, particularly issues, particularly
related to environmental related to related to basic
issues industrialization and infrastructures, and
urbanization management system
Special requirements Advancement in Course content Course content
related to course content course contents; should address should address the
ﬂexibility in course the local environmental local environmental
delivery; e-learning issues; low-cost issues; low-cost
Special requirement Highly qualiﬁed Qualiﬁed teachers Qualiﬁed teachers
related to teachers’ teachers (PhD with with wide exposure with wide exposure
qualiﬁcations several years of post- and high level of and high level of
doctoral research qualiﬁcation (PhD) qualiﬁcation (MSc)
Financial sponsors Students’ fees and Government Government grants
government grants grants and donor agencies
With regard to the first category, there are several universities and research centres in
Europe and in the United States that have been active for many years in E3 and research for
developing countries. Examples of such universities and research centres are the
Universities of Newcastle, Loughborough, Leeds and Surrey in England, the IHE-Delft in
the Netherlands and the Department for Water and Sanitation (SANDEC) at the Swiss
Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology in Switzerland. The main
emphasis in E3 is on the knowledge transfer on basic infrastructures, particularly in sanita-
tion, water supply and solid waste management. The degree of technologies is mainly low-
cost and simple, such as waste stabilization ponds and septic tanks for wastewater
treatment, and composting for solid waste management. In terms of deliverables, this cate-
gory provides good outputs because of the usage of modern knowledge transfer methods,
including lectures, seminars, role-play, video, internet, study tours, and field visits. Some
courses offered also include high-tech and low-cost technologies, by comparing case stud-
ies in both developed and developing countries.
Despite significant contributions made by many universities in developed countries, the
need and importance of the growth of the higher education sector in developing countries
has been widely recognised by major stakeholders in this field. Among other reasons, envi-
ronmental engineering has been considered as a strategic discipline for modernisation and
industrialisation by many governments, such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, South
Africa, Israel, Brazil, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and others. In Malaysia for example, three
major research public universities, i.e. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Universiti
Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Putra Malaysia are offering environmental engineer-
ing at bachelor level as a major, coupled with civil engineering or chemical engineering. E3
at graduate levels is also offered in these universities, and other five public universities. In
Brazil there are about 50 universities offering E3 at BS level. Most of these are private
institutions. With the new policies, the regional characteristics are privileged and so the
universities can establish better curricula to address the regional demand, respecting the
In the past few years, several universities from developing countries have been actively
promoting collaboration programmes in E3 with major universities and research centres in
Europe, the United States, Australia and Japan. The basis for the collaboration is on the
importance of sharing resources and synergy towards achieving better delivery of E3. For
instance, UTM has been actively participating with European partners, particularly
University of Newcastle, England and the Technical University of Denmark, and Aalborg
University, Denmark on exchange programmes, visiting professorships, credit transfer and
research collaboration. In the year 2000, the Malaysian University Consortium on
Environment and Development (MUCED) was established, funded by the Danish
Government to undertake collaborative effort on E3 at MSc level. Under this framework of
collaboration, the needs for both developing and developed countries on E3 have been con-
sidered and implemented, particularly on research direction and course contents (LUCED,
2003). In the case of MUCED, twelve modules on environmental science and engineering
have been produced, incorporating many case studies, to be used not only by the four par-
ticipating universities in Malaysia, but by others who might be interested. Similarly, the
School for Environment, Resources and Development (SERD) at the Asia Institute of
Technology (AIT) in Bangkok, Thailand, has been collaborating closely with SANDEC in
Switzerland in the field of environmental sanitation.
Between E3 and environmental status in developing countries
It is important to note that environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major
universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. In
Z. Ujang et al.
addition, the chemical engineering programme covers non-sanitary components of E3 such
as process engineering, industrial pollution control, waste and materials recovery and
process integration. Since these programmes started in many developing countries in the
1960s, it can be concluded that E3 has been part of the development of the major public and
private universities in developing countries. However, only a few of these programmes
have been taking into full consideration that the physical and especially the socio-econom-
ic situation in developing countries is quite different from that of industrialised countries.
Due to serious constraints in financial and human resources, most cities in developing
countries have not been able to implement full conventional urban water management sys-
tems including sewers and adequate wastewater treatment. They are mostly adopting and
implementing fragmented approaches, which might not be sustainable, to urban water
management with insufficient and inappropriate facilities for water supply and sanitation.
Through force of circumstance, the top priority is to meet short-term needs. Planning,
funds and capacity to adopt a long-term holistic and integrated approach are seemingly not
available. A further contributing factor is that in many instances, services are provided
through the intervention of external support in terms of funding and technology where the
focus was mainly on the present situation using technologies available from the donor
countries, without a mandate to involve the practitioners, planners and researchers in
broader technological and management issues. The result is that water supply, is perceived
as a “stand-alone” issue, far apart from integrated management of water resources, and
health and environmental control issues (Odendaal, 2000).
Between shortage of water resources and environmental degradation
Rapid growth in urbanization and industrialization
In future scenarios further depletion of water resources by a growing world population will
be coupled with environmental degradation due to poor pollution control, particularly in
the fast industrialising countries in the developing world (Schertenleib and Gujer, 2000;
Zehnder et al., 2003). At present numerous efforts have been initiated in many developing
countries to overcome environmental degradation. In Malaysia, for instance, beside new
regulations and policies, a significant amount of investment has been directed into proper
sewerage facilities, centralised hazardous waste treatment and disposal, incineration and
sanitary landfill for solid and hazardous wastes, and river rehabilitation. Other countries
such as South Africa and Thailand have similar programmes with special emphasis on the
implementation of sustainable environmental resources. Waste minimisation clubs, initiat-
ed by the University of Natal, South Africa are a good example of university–industry col-
laboration on pollution prevention and cleaner production (Barclay and Buckley, 2001). In
addition China has implemented new measures based on the Primary Law and Regulation
System on prevention and control of water pollution since 1984, with a revision in 1996
(Zhang et al., 2002). Indonesia is in the initial stage of managing water using a river basin
approach (Ujang and Buckley, 2002).
However, the environmental protection programmes such as the establishment of envi-
ronmental standards and pollution control measures are chronologically implemented fol-
lowing the examples from developed countries, such as Japan, the United States and some
European countries. Generally, the measures taken in developing countries are to replicate
the experience in developed countries without taking into consideration the development of
technological know-how and the progress of environmental awareness among the general
public. For example, in Japan the chronological development in environmental protection
was mainly due to the progress in understanding among the general public on the nature of
environmental and health problems, and the characterization of various pollutants. Thus
the introduction of environmental standards for various kinds of pollutants and pollution
Z. Ujang et al.
control measures were chronologically introduced, roughly once every decade, as shown in
Figure 1. To control organic pollution from domestic wastewater in the 1960s, for instance,
technologies such as activated sludge and biofilm systems were developed and properly
implemented. The subsequent pollutants such as industrial wastes, nutrients, and haz-
ardous chemicals were taken into consideration later in terms of environmental quality
standards and pollution control (Magara, 2002).
It is generally acceptable to say that the appropriate technologies are already available to
treat the series of pollutants as illustrated in Figure 1, in a “package” form without waiting
for the similar stages for implementation as experienced by Japan and other developed
countries, i.e. “technology leap”. At present many developing countries are experiencing
water pollution phenomena as shown in Figure 2, where the growth rate of urbanization and
industrialization has rapidly increased from the 1980s to the present. The four classes of
pollutants (domestic, industrial, nutrients and toxic) are occurring simultaneously and are
not being detected sequentially as in Figure 2. In this case, the environmental pollution con-
trol measures should not be limited to the chronological approach. The effluent treatment
sequence should not necessarily mirror the historical trend in the developed countries. The
conventional end-of-pipe approach should be replaced by an approach which is tackling the
problems at the source (Larsen and Gujer, 2000). Many “advanced” technologies are not
expensive if measured using a cost-benefit analysis taking into account the cost associated
with public health, environmental quality, eco-tourism potential and sustainability of water
resources. As the advantages of “cleaner production” are becoming more widely known,
the linkage between economic development and environmental degradation is being bro-
ken. Thus many developing countries are heading towards “high tech” solutions such as
developing and applying membrane technology for removal of micro-pollutants such as
Z. Ujang et al.
1960 1970 1980 1990
Figure 1 History of water pollution in Japan (Source: Magara, 2001)
1960 1970 1980 1990
Figure 2 Current situation in newly industrialised countries (Source: Magara, 2001)
heavy metals and endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and ultra-pure water production for the
Poor developing countries
On the other hand, many developing countries are facing a very difficult economic situation
with political instability and environmental degradation. In many situations, water
resources are limited and the water quality is deteriorating, particularly in urban areas of
Africa and South Asia. Water pollution issues, however, are not the main concern because
other issues are more pressing such as national or racial security, food availability and epi-
demic control (Ujang and Buckley, 2002).
In general, the problems in these developing countries can be summarised as follows:
• Lack of environmental awareness among the majority of policy makers and the general
public create a situation where water and wastewater management sectors are perceived
to be less important than other sectors such as military empowerment, road improve-
ment, electricity, mass education and health care facilities.
• Insufficient expertise, leading to gaps between ideal policies and implementation.
• Inappropriate policies on the conservation of water resources, such as no legal require-
ment for prohibition of deforestation activities in water catchment areas.
• Insufficient funding for water supply and sanitation programmes because of competing
public expenditures due to rapid urbanization and population growth rate.
• Insufficient water resources especially in arid and urban areas.
• Inappropriate management system and institutional support for providing water supply
and sanitation facilities.
Since conventional approaches to environmental engineering are obviously not able to
make a significant change to the backlog, which still exists in many developing countries
with regard to basic services, the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council has
recently called for a radical overhaul of conventional policies and practices in environmen-
tal sanitation (Schertenleib, 2001).
The importance of developing countries
It has been claimed that developing countries have no role to play in the solution of global envi-
ronmental degradation and depletion of water resources. There has also been a widespread
opinion that the focus of action and the source of reliable solutions lie with donor countries and
agencies, as well as with educational and research institutions in developed countries. Thus,
for the past 40 years or so, various activities towards solving the water and wastewater man-
agement problems of the developing countries have been mainly centred in Europe, the United
States and Japan. On the other hand, students and professionals from developing countries
have enjoyed their education and training in those countries (Ujang and Buckley, 2002).
Research and education
Since the 1990s, many developing countries have strengthened their research and educa-
tion programmes in universities and research institutions, partly in order to reduce the cost
of human resource development (HRD) by reducing the number of students sent to univer-
sities in the United States or Europe. In countries like Malaysia, South Africa, Indonesia,
Egypt, Brazil and Thailand, the main programme of HRD for environmental engineers and
scientists is no longer centred in the developed countries thus opening up an opportunity to
investigate the source of problems in water and wastewater management from within the
society. In Malaysia for instance, since 1995 the number of graduates at masters and
doctoral levels in water and wastewater management has been greater than 100 per year,
from the local public universities.
Z. Ujang et al.
Graduate programmes require students to undertake research. Therefore many new
universities in developing countries are heavily involved in theoretical and applied
research, and in some cases with substantial funding from donor countries mainly
European. This is very important development that has caused a paradigm shift in research
emphasis and direction in the field of water and wastewater management.
In the past, when most of the research programmes on developing countries were con-
ducted in developed countries, the paradigm was more towards helping out the developing
countries from a distance. However, the new paradigm is more on local capacity building in
research and technological know-how as shown in Table 2. Many research programmes
now are initiated based on local needs, targeting the most problematic and polluted sectors
such as, in the case of Malaysia, palm oil, rubber, textile and electroplating, while in
Thailand aquaculture and food-based industries have been targeted, and mining operation
in South Africa.
In this new paradigm, it is important for developing countries to set their own water and
wastewater management research and education priorities. It is definitely not appropriate
to blindly adopt the priorities prevailing in the industrialised countries of the North.
The way forward
E3 in developing countries should cover not only basic sanitation since many developing
countries are facing industrialisation and rapid urbanisation. The E3 program should also
include industrial pollution aspects, such as waste minimisation, industrial ecology and
cleaner production. However, in slowly industrialising countries, sanitation and water sup-
ply will remain as the key components of E3. And it is important to include in the course
content of E3 for that particular sector the existing problems and its problem-solving
To overcome problems faced by developing countries, the water supply and sanitation
programmes as proposed by many experts and agencies should be re-visited. Cairncross
(1992) reviewed the sanitation and water supply programme in developing countries and
suggested many practical lessons for the future. The review was based on the International
Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981–90) to provide low-cost waste dis-
posal facilities to poor communities in developing countries. The principal lesson was that
progress and continuing success depend most on responding to consumer demand and that
services should not be mainly supply oriented. This is also the basic philosophy behind the
Z. Ujang et al.
Table 2 Progress in E3 and research for developing countries (Ujang and Buckley, 2002)
Period Themes Objectives
1950–1970s • Low-cost technologies e.g. waste • Satisfying the requirements of donor
stabilization ponds, slow sand ﬁltration, agencies
septic tanks • International funding purposes
•Labour intensive systems • Basic public health infrastructures
•Ease of maintenance or upgrading
1980s •Optimisation and upgrading of low- • Rapid urbanization requirements
cost technologies • Satisfying the requirements of donor
• Public health improvement agencies
• Environmental protection • International funding purposes
1990s • Cost-effective-high-performance • Academic research programme
technologies e.g. SBR, membrane • Rapid industrialization
technology and adsorption • Rapid urbanization
• Management system for better • Meeting international standards
• Cleaner production for competitive edge
household-centred environmental sanitation approach (HCES), which has been endorsed
by the WSSCC (WSSCC/SANDEC, 2000).
Since customer demand should be the prime driver, awareness and community educa-
tion became central in providing water supply and sanitation facilities. Governments
should plan and strategise the services and facilities but the community should also take
part in decisions relating to the degree of complexity of the systems to be implemented
(should the payment of services be based on full rate or subsidised?) and the conservation
of the water resources from polluted and unsustainable development. In many places hand-
pumps are used extensively for water supply. Thus the community caretakers should be
trained to accept, use and maintain the equipment.
However, many studies and practical experiences in developing countries are based on
poor communities. Less emphasis is given to rapid growth countries such as Malaysia,
Thailand and South Africa. Since these are the countries where the water quality is serious-
ly degrading due to industrial discharges and non-point source pollution, special strategies
and models need to be developed here. The models tailored for poor countries are definitely
not appropriate, neither are those from the developed countries. The Danish Cooperation
for Environment and Development (DANCED) has vast experience of working in these
three countries, targeting a few key factors in environmental conservation and pollution
control, and vigorously promoting the concept of cleaner production and sustainable devel-
opment. At a lower scale, universities such as UTM, the University of Natal and AIT have
conducted studies to provide models for water quality management. However, more stud-
ies are needed to broaden the perspective and applicability.
Strategy of E3 for developing countries
To overcome the problems in developing countries in water and wastewater management,
some strategies should be carefully considered in E3 course contents and research direc-
tion, as follows.
Integrated urban water management (IUWM)
Integrated urban water management implies an integrated approach in planning and imple-
menting all water-related urban activities and components, includes water and wastewater
management, solid and hazardous waste, economic and social factors, as well as communi-
ty and governance. The urban environment constitutes an ideal platform for pioneering
integrated water management (Odendaal, 2000), and developing countries are well placed
to pioneer this concept. IUWM in practice has been cascaded down to the catchments level,
which is also known as integrated catchments management. Can developing countries
Sustainable sanitation could be defined as a sanitation system which is technically manage-
able, socio-politically appropriate, systematically reliable, economically affordable that
utilises a minimal amount of energy and resources with the least negative impacts, and
recovery of useable matters. The concept of sustainable sanitation emphasises three major
components: separation at source, decentralisation and reuse.
Some aspects of sustainable sanitation duplicate with the concept of appropriate tech-
nology. In general, appropriate means suitable and sustainable. Thus appropriate water and
wastewater technologies mean suitable and sustainable technologies, in this case, for
developing countries. However, what is appropriate in Thailand might not be appropriate in
Z. Ujang et al.
Nepal or Ghana. There are many factors which define the suitability and reliability, such as
financial, expertise, institutional, temporal and environmental factors. Twenty years ago,
waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) were the main sewage treatment processes in urban areas
in Malaysia. However due to financial and technical constraints, especially the cost of land
and insufficient nutrient removal, waste stabilisation ponds are no longer appropriate for
urban areas in Malaysia. The definition and application of appropriate technology, there-
fore, depend on timing, the locality and socio-economic factors.
Industrialization is vital for rapid economic growth. Therefore many developing country
governments have policies to encourage and hasten industrialization by inviting multina-
tional corporations to invest in their countries and setting up manufacturing plants. In this
situation it is important to adopt a policy of cleaner production in which only “clean” plants
can be allowed to operate. The ideal goal of cleaner production is zero pollution. In
practice, not all wastes can be easily prevented, treated, reused or recycled using the
state-of-the-art of environmental technology, and there is generally some waste for final
disposal. Thus the objective should be to minimise the volume and toxicity of this waste so
that it can be effectively managed in an environmentally safe manner. Special note must be
taken of local environmental concerns.
Industrial activities have traditionally consumed large amounts of resources and energy,
e.g. freshwater and raw materials, resulting in significant emissions to the environment.
These industrial emissions have led to local and global environmental pollution problems.
Therefore, the reduction of wastewater from industrial activities is paramount for the sur-
vival of human civilization (Ujang, 2000). Wastewater minimisation in an industrial set up
is a systematic attempt to achieve the following goals:
• Reduce freshwater consumption.
• Minimize wastewater discharges by reducing wastewater flow rates.
• Reduce costs in terms of wastewater management.
Many definitions of developing countries are based on financial grounds. Developing
countries are basically poor countries, and developed implies rich countries. Thus most of
the developing countries are not able to meet the financial requirement for water supply and
sanitation programmes. How can they overcome these financial problems? Soft loans are
not the answer for many countries. And foreign development aid is not sufficient in terms of
quantity and philosophy. Therefore, there is a need to devise a framework for financial sup-
port for developing countries for the 21st century.
It is also critical to explore the possibility of extending the delivery methods in E3 from
conventional to modern approaches. In principle the modern and contemporary approaches
include adopting information and communication technologies (ICT) to materialise the
concepts of e-learning or global campus. Such innovations will reduce the shortage of
qualified teachers particularly in poor countries. By adopting appropriate ICT, the quality
of E3 delivery will be sufficient, comparable to the materials commonly delivered in many
universities in developed countries.
Z. Ujang et al.
E3 as a professional discipline has developed rapidly, including in developing countries.
Focus and strategy of E3 for the future will significantly contribute to the effectiveness of
E3 in providing professionals, both quantity and quality, in solving environmental degrada-
tion due to rapid industrialisation and urbanisation processes.
Barclay, S. and Buckley, C. (2001). Promoting sustainable industry through Waste Minimisation Club. Wat.
Sci. Tech., 46(9), 79–88.
Cairncross, S. (1992). Sanitation and Water Supply: Practical Lessons from the Decade. DP No. 9, UNDP-
World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme, Washington DC.
Larsen, T. and Gujer, W. (2000). Tackling Problems at the Source – Even in the households. EAWAG News
No. 48e, Dubendorf, Switzerland.
LUCED (2003). Beyond the summit. The role of universities in the search for sustainable futures. University
of Natal Press (in press).
Magara, Y. (2002). Sustainable development of water services industry. Wat. Sci. Tech., 46(11–12), 1–6.
Odendaal, P. (2000). Integrated urban water management – A vision for developing countries. New World
Schertenleib, R. (2001). The Bellagio Principles and a household-centred approach in environmental
sanitation. Proc. International Symposium on “ecosan – closing the loop in wastewater management and
sanitation”. October 29–31 2000, Bonn, Germany.
Schertenleib, R. and Gujer, W. (2000). On the path to New Strategies in Urban Water Management.
EAWAG News No. 48e, Dubendorf, Switzerland.
Ujang, Z. (2000). Membrane technology for industrial pollution control in developing countries: A
paradigm shift from end-of-pipe-engineering to zero discharge. Proc. Int. Sem. on Industrial Waste
Pollution Control: Quo Vadis Surabaya River. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh, Indonesia.
Ujang, Z. and Buckley, C. (2002). Promoting sustainable industry through Waste Minimisation Club. Wat.
Sci. Tech., 46(9), 1–10.
Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (2000). Shared Vision to Shared Action. Report of the
5th Global Forum of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council in Iguacu, Brazil, 24–29
November 2000, pp. 33–37; Geneva, Switzerland.
WHO/UNICEF/WSSCC (2000). Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report. World
Health Organization, Geneva.
Zehnder, A.J.B., Hong, Y. and Schertenleib, R. (2003). Water issues: the need for action at different levels.
Aquatic Sciences, 65, 1–20,
Zhang, K., Wen, Z. and Zhang, X. (2002). China’s water environment in the beginning of the 21st century:
challenges and counter-measure. Wat. Sci. Tech., 46(11–12), 245–251.
Z. Ujang et al.