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Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population

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Abstract

The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources.

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... Exposure to such radiations could affect health and hearing specifically. The reported effects of EMR emitted from the mobile phone include memory problems, dizziness, [10] warmth around the ear, headache, and sleep disturbance. [11] The EMR was shown to be a potential risk for acoustic neuroma [12] and other brain tumors. ...
... In agreement with our findings, similar complaints were reported among mobile phone users in Saudi Arabia, even though the prevalence of the symptoms was higher (44.4%) than our study. [10] This may be explained by the fact that the average duration of mobile phone usage in this study was less and long-term usage of the mobile phone has been documented to be significantly associated with a decrease in hearing threshold. It was also reported that 34.6% of problems of mobile usage were related to hearing impairment, ear pain, or warmth around the ear. ...
... [16] However, this was higher than the percentage of headache reported in Sweden (2.5%), [24] Poland (4.9%), [25] and Norway (11.0%), [26] but lower than percentage of headache documented in Saudi Arabia (20.8%), [12] Egypt (43.0%), [26] and Iran (47.4%), [27] and in an India survey, headache was found to be the most common symptom (51.47%). [27] Furthermore, dizziness was seen in 5.2% of the respondents of this study; this was higher than the reports from Poland (0.5%), [25] Sweden (1.1%), [24] and Saudi Arabia (2.5%), [10] but it is less than the findings from Norway (8.1%) [24] and Iran (26.8%). [27] These differences in the manifestation of symptoms might be attributed to the pattern of mobile phone usage and probably individual resilience. ...
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Abstract Background: Globally, the use of mobile phones has increased considerably and as such there have been increasing concern about its effects on the ear. It was observed that university students used mobile phones excessively not only for communication purpose but also for leisure (such as listening to music/radio), thus possibly predisposing their ears to untoward effects. Aims: The aim was to determine the prevalence of self‑reported ear symptoms among mobile phone users. Materials and Methods: It was a cross‑sectional descriptive study, conducted among university students aged 16–40 years. Participants were recruited using multistage random sampling technique. A self‑administered, pretested, and validated questionnaire was used to collect the data, which were analyzed using Statistical Product and Service Solution version 20.0. Results: A total of 388 participants were recruited into the study. The duration of usage of mobile phone ranged between 1 and 17 years with a mean of 7 ± 3.5 years. The time spent on phone use per day ranged between 1 and 16 h with a mean of 2.6 ± 2.3 h. The overall prevalence of self‑reported ear symptoms was 29.1%. Eighty‑four (21.6%) of the respondents had ear pain, 68 (17.5%) had tinnitus, 44 (11.3%) had hearing impairment, 20 (5.2%) had vertigo, and 38 (9.8%) had other symptoms. The self‑reported ear symptoms were found to have a statistically significant association with the time spent on the phone per day (P = 0.001) and the duration of use of the phone in years (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of self‑reported ear symptoms among mobile phone users was low. More detailed studies on the association between mobile phone use and ear symptoms, particularly tinnitus and hearing impairment would be worthwhile. Keywords: Hearing impairment, mobile phone, self‑reported ear symptoms
... Exposure to such radiations could affect health and hearing specifically. The reported effects of EMR emitted from the mobile phone include memory problems, dizziness, [10] warmth around the ear, headache, and sleep disturbance. [11] The EMR was shown to be a potential risk for acoustic neuroma [12] and other brain tumors. ...
... In agreement with our findings, similar complaints were reported among mobile phone users in Saudi Arabia, even though the prevalence of the symptoms was higher (44.4%) than our study. [10] This may be explained by the fact that the average duration of mobile phone usage in this study was less and long-term usage of the mobile phone has been documented to be significantly associated with a decrease in hearing threshold. It was also reported that 34.6% of problems of mobile usage were related to hearing impairment, ear pain, or warmth around the ear. ...
... [16] However, this was higher than the percentage of headache reported in Sweden (2.5%), [24] Poland (4.9%), [25] and Norway (11.0%), [26] but lower than percentage of headache documented in Saudi Arabia (20.8%), [12] Egypt (43.0%), [26] and Iran (47.4%), [27] and in an India survey, headache was found to be the most common symptom (51.47%). [27] Furthermore, dizziness was seen in 5.2% of the respondents of this study; this was higher than the reports from Poland (0.5%), [25] Sweden (1.1%), [24] and Saudi Arabia (2.5%), [10] but it is less than the findings from Norway (8.1%) [24] and Iran (26.8%). [27] These differences in the manifestation of symptoms might be attributed to the pattern of mobile phone usage and probably individual resilience. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Globally, the use of mobile phones has increased considerably and as such there have been increasing concern about its effects on the ear. It was observed that university students used mobile phones excessively not only for communication purpose but also for leisure (such as listening to music/radio), thus possibly predisposing their ears to untoward effects. Aims: The aim was to determine the prevalence of self‑reported ear symptoms among mobile phone users. Materials and Methods: It was a cross‑sectional descriptive study, conducted among university students aged 16–40 years. Participants were recruited using multistage random sampling technique. A self‑administered, pretested, and validated questionnaire was used to collect the data, which were analyzed using Statistical Product and Service Solution version 20.0. Results: A total of 388 participants were recruited into the study. The duration of usage of mobile phone ranged between 1 and 17 years with a mean of 7 ± 3.5 years. The time spent on phone use per day ranged between 1 and 16 h with a mean of 2.6 ± 2.3 h. The overall prevalence of self‑reported ear symptoms was 29.1%. Eighty‑four (21.6%) of the respondents had ear pain, 68 (17.5%) had tinnitus, 44 (11.3%) had hearing impairment, 20 (5.2%) had vertigo, and 38 (9.8%) had other symptoms. The self‑reported ear symptoms were found to have a statistically significant association with the time spent on the phone per day (P = 0.001) and the duration of use of the phone in years (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of self‑reported ear symptoms among mobile phone users was low. More detailed studies on the association between mobile phone use and ear symptoms, particularly tinnitus and hearing impairment would be worthwhile. Keywords: Hearing impairment, mobile phone, self‑reported ear symptoms
... In a smart home or smart commercial building, the amount of exposure from EMR will be higher due to two plausible reasons, one, a multitude of smart or IoT devices will be connected, filling up the indoor space with excessive radiation (Atlam, Walters, and Wills, 2018) and, second, due to the high range of frequencies used for 5G (Russell 2018), that include millimeter frequency. Scientists and researchers believe both of these EMR sources cause health problems like dizziness, nausea (Al-Khlaiwi and Meo, 2004), gene (Chen et al., 2008) and DNA alteration (Panagopoulos, 2019), immunity issues (Gridley et al., 2006) besides cancer and brain tumor (Pakhomov et al., 1997;Hardell, 2017;Prasad et al., 2017). The World Health organization (WHO) declared that EMR produced from radiofrequency sources caused an increased risk occurrence of glioma (a type of brain tumor) and classified it as group 2B (probable carcinogenic) (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks toWorld Health Organizationand International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2002). ...
... All the simulation runs were performed with 2.45 GHz, and thus the EMR generated is small compared to the higher frequency range. Nonetheless, exposure from 2.45 GHz is also linked to health impairments (Al- Khlaiwi and Meo, 2004) and especially with the instruction of the governing authorities to increase the frequency to 28 and 58 GHz, the proliferation of EMR inside the smart indoor environment will be even more important. Since the wired simulation scenario using STP CAT 7 revealed almost zero EMR (validation section), it will be a viable option to consider while designing the indoor space. ...
Article
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The global Covid-19 pandemic caused a rapid transitioning to remote work settings, one likely to linger post-pandemic, resulting on people spending more time at home for work or study. The globalpandemic defined a new normal that is expected to be digital and heavily relying on technology. Smart buildings which are envisioned to be the next paradigm shift in the built environment are also foreseen as a response solution to aid in situations like pandemic. However, such a move yields benefits as well as risks, prompting wide debates on the priority to safeguard building occupants health, safety and well-being. Researchers, designers and engineers are seeking solutions to incorporate or modify design features in the indoor environment that prioritize the dwellers’ health and wellness. Though benefits of smart and IoT devices aid in monitoring health and wellness, radiation from these wireless devices may cause harm to human health, especially those with weaker health, as indicated by several research findings. Some of the negative impacts from wireless radiation include cell damage, cancer, tumor, change in hormonal levels, and neurological damage. Thus, this study seeks to determine the difference in radiation level inside a wired, hybrid and a wireless smart home through Computer Simulation Technology (CST) simulation. Such a quantification can help designers develop strategies to design smart buildings that cause low radiation for its occupants. Antenna field source was imported to CST to create the wireless and hybrid design scenario. The measurement for wired and hybrid were evaluated keeping the wired design as baseline. The results revealed that wireless produced 26.55% more radiation than wired scenario at 2.45 GHz, taken as baseline measurement. Further, the total Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and radiation patterns are dependent on several factors like proximity of IoT and smart devices to building walls and interior furnishings, frequency of operation. In order to create a safer indoor environment, this study recommends the use of both wired and hybrid design in lieu of totally wireless smart buildings.
... In Gulf Cooperation Countries, Saudi Arabia ranked first regarding the proportion of smartphone users [28,29]. Furthermore, research suggests that individuals with high levels of nomophobia have irregular eating habits, low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high consumption of processed and fast food [30][31][32][33]. With the growing popularity of ESports worldwide, and given that it has some similarities with traditional sport, it is high time for an in-depth exploration of the healthy lifestyle of eSP. ...
... Nomophobia involves not only bodily consequences, but also psychological and intellectual consequences. Sleep deprivation, worry, stress and sadness, all of which have been linked to Internet misuse, have also been linked to mobile phone overuse [30][31][32][33]. ...
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1) Background: ESports is a new trend of sports, which has gained considerable popularity worldwide. There is a scarcity of evidence that focuses on the lifestyle of ESports players (eSP) particularly on symptoms of nomophobia, level of anxiety, sleep quality, food consumption and physical activity. (2) Objective: to determine the prevalence and relationship between symptoms of nomophobia, psychological aspects, insomnia and physical activity of eSP in Saudi Arabia. (3) Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and April 2021 using a convenient self-selection adult sample. A total of 893 (216 eSP vs. 677 non-eSP (NeSP)) participants aged over 18 years were included. All participants answered a seven-part validated questionnaire that included: (i) sociodemographic questions; (ii) a symptoms of nomophobia questionnaire; (iii) general anxiety disorder questions, (iv) an insomnia severity index, (v) an Internet addiction scale, (vi) the Yale food addiction scale 2.0 short form and (vii) an international physical activity questionnaire. (4) Results: Among the entire population, the prevalence of moderate to severe nomophobia, anxiety , insomnia, Internet addiction and low physical activity were 29.8%, 13.9%, 63.3%, 27% and 2.8%, respectively. The eSP and NeSP differed significantly in nomophobia scale, anxiety and insomnia values. Compared to NeSP, eSP had a higher level of severe nomophobia p = 0.003, a severe level of anxiety p = 0.025 and symptoms of insomnia p = 0.018. Except for food addiction and physical activity , a positive correlation was identified between symptoms of nomophobia, anxiety and insomnia among eSP. (5) Conclusion: This study reported high prevalence of nomophobia, anxiety and insomnia among eSP compared to NeSP. Citation: AlMarzooqi, M.A.; Alhaj, O.A.; AlRasheed, M.M.; Helmy, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Ebrahim, A.; Hattab, S.; Jahrami, H.A.; Saad, H.B.
... These problems might be the result of staring at the screen of a small device for a long period of time and on a frequent basis, with strong light directed at the eyes. This association has been reported in previous studies in Saudi Arabia [33], Egypt [34], Turkey [35], India [36], and Poland [37]. In regard to brain seizures, for children who have been diagnosed with photosensitive epilepsy, the Epilepsy Society in the United Kingdom recommends avoiding the overuse of SP devices and reducing the frequent exposure to flashing and contrasting lights produced by the screens, which may trigger factors in the brain that cause abnormal nerve impulses and lead to convulsions [32]. ...
... The findings of this study revealed that the parents did not perceive their children's overuse of SPs to be negatively impacting their educational performance, which was consistent with the findings of previous studies [47,48]. However, a study in Saudi Arabia concluded that medical students should decrease their SP use, as it was found to affect their academic achievement [33]. ...
Article
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Background: Parents' awareness of the risks of the overuse of smartphones (SPs) among their children and parents' attitudes towards this societal phenomenon are crucial factors to consider when investigating the causes and effects of, as well as interventions to control, this public health issue. Objective: This study aimed to explore the awareness and attitudes of parents regarding SP overuse among their children and the detrimental impacts associated with it. Methods: The qualitative method of semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used to collect data from fathers and mothers of children aged 6-18 years. Results: One hundred and twenty parents agreed to participate in the study: there were more female (62.5%) than male (37.5%) respondents. Almost all of the participants (98.3%) were aware that the overuse of SPs could lead to their children becoming addicted to the devices; they were also aware that there could be side effects on their children's health (97.5%). Although the participants, mostly the mothers, supervised their children's use of SPs closely (88.3%), the majority could not control their children's length of time using SPs, as the children considered this a deprivation of their rights. Eye-related problems, headaches, and anger were the most common complaints among the children. Conclusions: Although the parents were aware of the detrimental impacts of SP overuse, the majority could not control the length of time their children spent using the devices. It was found that strong social bonds among family members can play a large role in controlling the use of SPs. Solutions are suggested. Clinicaltrial:
... However, in recent years, a diversity of problems arising from mobile devices have become prominent [4]. Adverse health effects of using mobile devices include repetitive strain injuries [5], muscle tension [6], headaches [7], decreased attention [8], anxiety [9], depression [10], poor concentration [11], sleep problems [12], and change in body weight [13]. Some investigations concluded that the use of mobile devices could lead to addictive, antisocial, and potentially dangerous behaviors [3,14,15]. ...
... Individuals with high levels of nomophobia are more likely to skip meals [7], have irregular eating habits [22], and consume fewer vegetables, fruits, and dairy products [23,24]. Excessive use of smartphones is related to disordered eating in young adults as indicated by increased consumption of processed and fast food, and increased body mass index [21,25]. ...
Article
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No previous research has examined the association between symptoms of nomophobia and food addiction. Similarly, only a few studies have examined the association between nomophobia and symptoms of insomnia. This exploratory study utilized an online self-administered, structured questionnaire that included: basic sociodemographic and anthropometrics; the nomophobia questionnaire (NMP-Q); the insomnia severity index (ISI); and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) in a convenience sample of young adults (18–35 years) in Bahrain (n = 654), 304 (46%) males and 350 (54%) females. Symptoms of severe nomophobia, moderate-severe insomnia, and food addiction were more common among female participants both for each disorder separately and in combination; however, differences did not reach statistical significance. For severe nomophobia, the rate for females was 76 (21.7%) and for males was 57 (18.8%) p = 0.9. For moderate-severe insomnia, the rate for females was 56 (16%) and for males was 36 (11.84%) p = 0.1. For food addiction, the rate for females was 71 (20.29%) and for males was 53 (17.43%) p = 0.3. A statistically significant association was present between nomophobia and insomnia r = 0.60, p < 0.001. No association was found between nomophobia and food addiction. Nomophobia is very common in young adults, particularly in females; nomophobia is associated with insomnia but not with food addiction.
... Mindaugas, personal communication; http:// www.ornit ela.com). Several studies indicate that this radiation may cause negative effects on the organism, like DNA breakage, abnormal brain functions, reduced sperm mobility or increased reactive oxygen species concentrations (Al-Khlaiwi and Meo 2004;Daniels et al. 2009;Mailankot et al. 2009;Kesari et al. 2013). However, authors like Ziegelberger (2009) question these general effects. ...
Article
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Background In this paper, we present evidence that biologging is strongly correlated with eye irritation, with sometimes severely impairing effects. A migratory population of the Northern Bald Ibis ( Geronticus eremita , NBI) is reintroduced in Europe, in course of a LIFE + project. Since 2014, all individuals have been equipped with GPS-devices. Remote monitoring allows the implementation of focussed measures against major mortality causes. Methods Initially all birds carried battery-powered devices, fixed on the lower back of the birds. Since 2016 an increasing amount of birds has been equipped with solar-powered devices, fixed on the upper back, the more sun-exposed position. In 2016, we observed opacity in the cornea of one eye (unilateral corneal opacity; UCO) during a regular health monitoring for the first time. Results By 2018, a total of 25 birds were affected by UCO, with varying intensity up to blindness. Clinical examination of the birds revealed no clear cause for the symptoms. However, only birds carrying a device on the upper back were affected (2017 up to 70% of this group). In contrast, none of the birds carrying devices on the lower back ever showed UCO symptoms. This unexpected relationship between tagging and UCO was discovered in 2017. After we took countermeasures by removing the device or repositioning it on the lower back, we observed an immediate reduction of the incidence rate without any new cases reported since January 2019. NBI roost with their head on the back, one eye closely placed to the device if it was positioned on the upper back. Thus, we conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the symptomatology is either a repetitive slight temperature rise in the corneal tissue due to electromagnetic radiation by the GSM module of the device or a repetitive slight mechanical irritation of the corneal surface. Concrete evidence is missing so far. Meanwhile, cases of UCO were found in another NBI population. Conclusion Our observations indicate that further research in the fast-growing field of biologging is urgently needed. The findings question the positioning of devices on the upper back in birds roosting with the head on the back.
... In particular, high color temperature display and display flickering have been shown to cause eye fatigue [3]. Dizziness and pre-syncope have previously been reported to be potential adverse events of smartphone use, and syncope is likely an extension of the same pathophysiological process [4]. ...
... Less motivation, boredom, lack of interest in the course, and academic success anxiety cause students to display cyberloafing behaviors (Ergün & Altın, 2012). Besides, individuals with cyberloafing behavior may also experience concentration impairment (Al-Khlaiwi & Meo, 2004). However, not every phone use during the course is considered cyberloafing. ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the university students' usage of smartphones in-class and reveal the relationships among the frequency of use, the purpose of use, reasons for the smartphone using in course, and demographic variables (gender and class). To achieve this aim, we used the correlational survey model. The study sample was selected from the students studying in an Education Faculty of a University in the east of Turkey in the spring semester of 2019-2020 academic year. The sample determined by the snowball sampling method consisted of a total of 577 students. The survey technique was used to collect data. The descriptive and relation analysis were used in the analysis of the data. Frequency and percentage calculations were made for descriptive analysis. For relational analysis, the association rule, one of the data mining methods, was used. It has been revealed that most of the students use their smartphones occasionally and mostly in messages, to do research and connect to social networks. It was observed that the main reasons that motivated students to use their smartphones in the courses were doing research about the course and using them in emergencies. Besides, students gave close answers about the effect of smartphone use on academic performance, and most of the students stated that they did not have difficulty focusing when using smartphones in the courses. Some students also stated that they did not use the phone as it distracted them, and it was forbidden to use it in the course. Results revealed that the boring course, negative attitudes towards the lecturer, and the course cause students to message and connect to social media. It was concluded that the occasional use of smartphones in the courses in cases of emergency and messaging does not affect students' academic performance and does not cause any problems in focusing on the course. Besides, most people who use their smartphones for researching, reading news, and messaging in the courses stated that they use their smartphones for educational purposes. Some suggestions were developed at the end of the study based on the results.
... Among students, -smartphone's addiction/abuse/misuse‖ is a novel sort of health disorder and now it is compelling the health policy creators to think on this rapidly arising issue all around the world [8]. Before smartphones usage become more prevalent, a study in Saudi Arabia connected mobile phones usage to various health hazards, including sleep disturbances (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%), and dizziness (2.4%) [9]. Afterward, findings of another research in Saudi Arabia revealed that 44.4% of subjects (medical students) were recognized of headaches, reduced attention, memory loss, hearing loss, and lethargy due to excessive use of smartphones [10]. ...
Article
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Smartphones have progressively been turned out to be the most important segment of our lives because of their several advantages but in recent modern years, the negative consequences of smartphone useage has also been raised. Intention to write this review was to summarize the evidences that have illustrated a significant influence of smartphone addiction/overuse on the dietary behavior and lifestyle of university/college/school students. Research was conducted in accordance with the principles of systematic review. Four databases were searched and found total 62 studies, and only 12 relevant observational, open access studies were extracted that included participants with smartphone addiction/overuse, and its effect on dietary behaviors, the sleep habits and physical activity or exercise pattern. All the studies stated negative correlation between smartphone addiction/overuse and dietary behavior, sleep pattern and physical activity. Investigations of all the included studies stated that, due to excessive use of smartphones, students had poor eating behavior, and were more likely to develop nutritional deficiencies and might suffer from health consequences and psychopathologies. Students wo had smartphone addiction adopted a sedentary lifestyle, and were more prone to suffer from physical fitness and might develop non-communicable diseases like CVD and obesity in future. In all studies researchers suggested the common intervention that effective nutrition education and awareness programs must be initiated to bring students toward healthy lifestyle. Keywords: Smartphone addiction, smartphone overuse, dietary behavior, lifestyle, sleep disorders, physical activity.
... 31,32 Furthermore, FHP increases the load on upper cervical joints, which disturbs the periphery-to-central transmission of kinesthetic and proprioceptive signals. 33,34 FHP seems to have a greater impact on sensorimotor function, which might cause balance problems and disturbed cervical proprioception. 35 Falla et al 36 have found that FHP associated with prolonged sitting can aggravate neck pain and further reduce the ability to maintain an upright posture. ...
Article
Objective The purpose of this study was to compare cervicocephalic kinesthesia and electromyographic (EMG) activity of neck muscles—upper trapezius (UT) and sternocleidomastoid (SCM)—between individuals with and without forward head posture (FHP) and to examine the correlation between cervicocephalic kinesthesia and craniovertebral angle (CVA). Methods Twenty-two asymptomatic individuals with FHP and 22 without FHP were recruited for the present study. Craniovertebral angle was measured, and those with CVA ≤53° were assigned to the FHP group, whereas those with CVA >53° were assigned to the control group. Thereafter, cervicocephalic kinesthesia and EMG activity of the neck muscles were assessed. Cervicocephalic kinesthesia was measured using a head repositioning accuracy test for all cervical spine motions. EMG activity of the UT and SCM muscles was recorded at rest and during activity. Results Position-sense error values were found to be significantly greater for all directions—ie, flexion, extension, side flexion, and rotation—in participants with FHP than those without (P < .05). EMG activity of the UT and SCM muscles was found to be significantly raised both at rest and during activity in individuals with FHP relative to the non-FHP group (P < .05). Position-sense error values showed a significant inverse correlation with CVA (P < .05). Conclusion Findings of the present study suggest that cervicocephalic kinesthesia and activation patterns of the neck muscles may be significantly altered in individuals with FHP. Also, cervicocephalic kinesthesia is significantly associated with the severity of FHP.
... Good night-time sleep is crucial for children's and adolescents' health and development, as it affects attention, behaviour, and overall mental and physical health [26]. This can be disrupted by ST device use, especially in the late hours of the day [7,[27][28][29]. The blue light of ST devices' screens reduces the production of melatonin, the hormone that regulates sleep/wake cycles [13]. ...
Article
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Background Children and adolescents are becoming the most prolific users of smart technology (ST) devices due to the numerous advantages presented by these devices. However, the overuse of ST devices can have detrimental impacts on health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of ST device use among school students in Kuwait and the possible associated health problems. Methods This cross-sectional survey used a pretested questionnaire to collect data from students of different educational levels within the governmental sector: primary, secondary and high school. Chi-square tests were applied to find associations or significant differences between the categorical variables, in which p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results This study included 3015 students, of whom 53.6% were female. The sample had an equal distribution of primary (33.8%), secondary (32.4%) and high school students (33.8%). Almost all of the participants (99.7%) owned a ST device, chiefly smartphones (87.7%). Most of the students used ST devices for > 4 total hours per day on average, which is categorised as “overuse”. Among those overusing ST devices, the symptoms most commonly experienced included headaches (35.0%), sleep disturbances (36.6%) and neck/shoulder pain (37.7%). Students who used ST devices for < 1 h per session experienced eye-related problems. Moreover, students who played sports on a regular basis were more likely to spend less time per session on ST devices. The prolonged use of ST devices was associated with higher reporting of seizures, eye squints and transient vision loss. Conclusion The overuse of ST devices per day and per session by school-aged children has the potential to have a detrimental impact on their health, as has been noticed among students in Kuwait. Healthcare professionals, school authorities and parents could use these results to plan strategies to change ST device use behaviours among schoolchildren.
... 6 Constant stress on cervical spine joints due to forward head posture 7 results disturbing signals to the brain that might cause decrease neck proprioception and balance ability. [8][9][10] Previous studies showed that prolonged usage of a computer with poor sitting posture is associated with neck pain due to musculoskeletal disorder. 11 Due to severe neck pain causes decreased balancing ability. ...
Article
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Background: Nowadays, individuals are utilizing a computer for different tasks daily and the use of computers has increased rapidly worldwide. The impact of prolonged computer usage may lead to balance problems and disturbed cervical proprioception due to faulty posture of the neck. The purpose of this was to compare the impact of prolonged computer usage on cervical proprioception and dynamic balancing ability in the male and female gender. Methods: 100 healthy adults’ computer users were recruited for the study. The subjects were classified into two groups: male computer users (n=50) and female computer users (n=50). Neck proprioceptions were assessed by Head Repositioning Accuracy (HRA) test and dynamic balances assessed by the Y Balance Test (YTB), 3 trials were performed and the mean values were calculated. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, weight, height, and body mass index between all subjects in the groups (p>0.05). There is significant differences between males and females participants as females had more decreased in their neck proprioception and dynamic balance ability than males (p<0.05). The male computer users showed better performance than the females. Conclusion: Prolonged usage of computers (more than four hours per day) could negatively affect cervical proprioception and dynamic balance ability in healthy adults. The results may be used to promote awareness about the normal duration of computer use and develop programs for good postural education and stretching exercises to prevent its negative effects on cervical proprioception and balance ability, especially for female computer users.
... Suudi Arabistan' da 437 katılımcıyla gerçekleştirilen bir çalışmada, katılımcılar arasında cep telefonu kullanımına bağlı olarak en sık baş ağrısı gözlenmiştir. Bunun dışında uyku bozukluğu, yorgunluk gibi rahatsızlıklara da rastlanmıştır (26). Cep telefonlarının olası karsinojenik etkileri üzerinde özellikle durulmuştur. ...
... 4 Recent types of research have shown that the use of the mobile phone is associated with headaches, neurovegetative dystonia, irritability, sleep disorders, fatigue, and dizziness. [5][6][7][8][9] Even though there are numerous evidence that shows positive/useful examples of mobile phone use (mostly smartphones) in medicine, education, and other fields [10][11][12][13][14] , Due to high degree of Internet use leads to addiction and behavioural changes. 15 Even though there are no discrete diagnostic criteria for smartphone addiction, it includes areas of behavioural addiction (i.e., gambling, internet gaming). ...
... Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) has various effects on human health including fatigue, headache, tension, sleep disturbance, 15 hearing and vision complaints 16 and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. 17 Extensive fixing of mobile phone base station towers (MPBSTs) in densely populated commercial, residential areas, and school buildings has started community concerns about adverse effects on human health, 6 mainly on brain functions. ...
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Background & objectives: Excessive use of mobile phones has raised a great concern about adverse health effects on human health. The present study's aim was to investigate the association of the usage of smartphones with cognitive function impairment in the Saudi adult population. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during September 2019 to January 2020. A total of 251 Saudi adults who were using mobile phones were recruited, and knowledge, attitude and practices were assessed by interview using a predesigned proforma. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) tool was employed to assess the cognitive functions, comparison was made between daily mobile phone usage group and their correlated Montreal Cognitive Score (MOCA). Results: The mean age for 251 Saudi adult participants was 32.43 ± 12.8 years. More than 80% of the participants used their mobile phone for more than two hours daily. About 61% of the participants were not aware of the side effect of the radiation generated from mobile phone. The participants showed a decrease in MOCA score with increased daily mobile phone usage (MOCA=26.8 for <1 hour daily usage, 26.1 for 1-2 hours, and 24.6 for >2 hours with P< 0.05). In addition, participants showed decreased MOCA score by keeping their mobile phone near their pillow while sleeping; MOCA=24.35 for near pillow groups and >25.5 for the groups that placed their mobile phone away from the pillow. Conclusions: Excessive use of mobile phones can cause cognitive function impairment. Strict policies must be implemented to control the use of smartphones in order to minimize the effects on mobile phone radiation on cognition. The media has to be on the forefront in educating the public about the proper usage of mobile phones.
... -911 - Choi vd., 2012), cep telefonunu sık sık kontrol sebebiyle odaklanma sorunu yaşaması (Al-Khlaiwi ve Meo, 2004), odaklanma problemine bağlı olarak evde, işyerinde ve trafikte kazalara sebep olabilmektedir (Nasar vd., 2008), akıllı telefon takıntısının, beynin algılama kapasitesini önemli ölçüde negatif açıdan etkilemektedir (Sarwar ve Soomro 2013); ayrıca telefonu sürekli kontrol etme isteği bağımlı bir telefon kullanımına (Chiu, 2014, 49-57), takıntılı bir kullanıma ve endişeye (Matusik & Mickel, 2011) ve depresyona (Augner ve Hacker, 2012) neden olabilmektedir. Erdem ve arkadaşları (2017) yaptıkları çalışmada öğrencilerin Nomofobi seviyelerinin akademik başarılarını negatif yönde etkilediğini ayrıca Nomofobi ölçeğinin alt boyutları ile akademik başarıları arasında negatif yönlü anlamlı ilişki olduğunu tespit etmişlerdir. ...
Article
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z Son yıllarda akıllı telefon kullanımı yaygınlaşmış bu da telefondan uzak kalma korkusu olan nomofobiyi beraberinde getirmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, akıllı telefonları en yoğun kullanan gruplardan biri olan ön lisans öğrencilerinin nomofobilerinin cinsiyet, sınıf, bölüm, ortalama ve öğrenim türü değişkenlerine göre incelemektir. Çalışmaya ön lisans eğitimi alan 346 gönüllü üniversite öğrencisi katılmıştır. Veriler, Nomofobi Ölçeği kullanarak toplanmıştır. Çalışma, tarama modelinde bir çalışmadır. Verilerin analizinde bağımsız t testi, tek yönlü varyans analizi (anova) ve post hoc analizleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre, cinsiyet değişkenine göre kadın öğrenciler lehine ve bölüm değişkenine göre yerel yönetimler ve dış ticaret bölümü öğrencileri lehine anlamlı farklılıklar bulunmuştur. Cinsiyet değişkenine göre ön lisans öğrencilerinin nomofobilerinde kadın/kız öğrencilerin lehine anlamlı bir farklılık olması, kadın/kız öğrencilerin sanat ve moda gibi konuları erkeklere göre daha fazla takip etmelerinden kaynaklanabilir. Öğrencilerin nomofobi seviyelerinin artması, onların derslerindeki başarılarına olumsuz etkiler yapabilmektedir. Teknolojik ilerlemeler, derslerdeki başarı ortalamasını doğrudan ve dolaylı olarak artırabilme potansiyeline sahiptir. Dolayısıyla nomofobi ve diğer teknolojik bağımlıklarla ilgili önlemler alınmalı ve teknoloji, bağımlılığa dönüşmeyecek şekilde kullanılmalıdır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Nomofobi, İletişim, Akıllı Telefon, Ön lisans, Sosyal Medya. Abstract In recent years, the use of smart phones has become widespread, which has brought the fear of being away from the phone. The aim of this study is to examine according to the gender, class, department, average and teaching type of the nomofobile of associate degree students' who are one of the group use most intensive smartphones. 346 volunteer university students with associate degree education participated in the study. The data were collected by using the Nomophobia Scale. The study is a study in the screening model. Independent t test, one-way analysis of variance (anova) and post hoc analysis were used to analyze the data. According to the results of the study, significant differences were found in favor of female students according to gender variable and in favor of local management and foreign trade department students according to department variable. A significant difference in the nomophobia of associate degree students in favor of female students according to gender variable may be due to the fact that female students follow subjects such as art and fashion more than men. Increased nomophobia levels of students may have negative effects on their success in their courses. Technological advances have the potential to directly and indirectly increase the average success of courses. Therefore, measures should be taken regarding nomophobia and other technological dependencies and technology should be used in a way that does not turn into addiction.
... Al-Khlaiwi and Meo (year) studied association between symptoms like headache, dizziness, and sleep disturbance due to continuous mobile use but didn't touch down on association of these symptoms with the bedtime usage (variable). 13 No regional study has explored this problem and it is still untouched topic in India. Indian smartphone market is world's largest but still we are not studying hazards of its bedtime usages. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND Smartphone is friend for human being and due to increasing dependence on media-based interaction on smartphone through various software. Our younger generation is very much dependent on their smartphones. They even take it to bed for late hour uses which is actually very harmful in the long term as it decreases sleeping time and also hampers quality of sleep. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship of late-night cell phone use with duration and quality of sleep among medical students of JNU Institute for Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Jaipur. METHODS This study was conducted among 170 medical students of JNUIMSRC, Jaipur. Subject’s age, sleep duration, cell phone use after 10 p.m., personal habits and some physiological variables like blood pressure and pulmonary function test were also documented. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was used for sleep assessment with 95% confidence interval of odd’s ratio to test poor sleep quality among participants who used smartphones at bedtime by using SPSS version 21 to analyse data. RESULTS Overall age of subjects falls in the mean of 20.48 ± 1.73 years. Out of a total of 170 students who participated, 139 students reported extensive cell phone use after 10 P.M. apart except short duration calls. Wake-up time among late night mobile users was found to be 7:40 A.M. ± 7.35 minutes, and 6: 36 A.M. ± 9.34 minutes among non-users. Those who use mobile for long stretch of time continuously had higher sleep latency than their peers. There was no significant difference in sleep quality of late-night cell users and non-users by multinomial logistic regression model. CONCLUSIONS Late-night cell phone use by adolescents was associated with increased sleep latency and hence also poor sleep quantity. Good quality sleep is the most important part of healthy lifestyle; so, we should discourage late night mobile use among adult students. Long term health monitoring is advisable to see long term effects on health.
... It causes psychological and behavioral dependence (Panova and Carbonell, 2018). Studies show chronic smartphone users are affected with headaches, impaired memory and concentration, fatigue, dizziness and disturbed sleep(Al- Khlaiwi and Meo, 2004). It also stated that, some people may develop electrosensitivity from excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields.Although these symptoms may be primarily psychological in origin due to the nocebo effect (Carpenter, 2014).The psychological symptoms of the people who are addicted to smartphones might possess depression.depression is a medical illness that adversely influences people in emotion, imagination, and action (Zwanenburg, no date). ...
... Specifically, it has been associated with musculoskeletal disorders affecting the fingers/hands/wrist due to the excessive use of the devices. 8 In fact, smartphone overuse is known to lead to sleep problems, and somatic effects such as fatigue, tension, headache and dizziness and social problems. 9 Furthermore, a study conducted in South Korea reported that the social problems caused by PSU were similar to the features of other behavioural addictions. ...
Article
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Objective: Problematic smartphone use (PSU) is the development of pathological dependence at the expense of performing activities of daily living, thus having negative health and psychological impact on the users. Previous PSU studies focused on medical students and little is known regarding its effect on students undergoing other courses. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of smartphone usage and determine the psychological factors affecting PSU among undergraduate students in Malaysia and compare the pattern among students from different fields of study. Method: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the validated Smartphone Addiction Scale-Malay version (SAS-M) questionnaire. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the correlation between the PSU among the students categorised by their ethnicity, hand dominance and by their field of study. MLR analysis was applied to predict PSU based on socio-demographic data, usage patterns, psychological factors and fields of study. Results: A total of 1060 students completed the questionnaire. Most students had some degree of problematic usage of the smartphone. Students used smartphones predominantly to access SNAs, namely Instagram. Longer duration on the smartphone per day, younger age at first using a smartphone and underlying depression carried higher risk of developing PSU, whereas the field of study (science vs. humanities based) did not contribute to an increased risk of developing PSU. Conclusion: Findings from this study can help better inform university administrators about at- risk groups of undergraduate students who may benefit from targeted intervention designed to reduce their addictive behaviour patterns.
... Like other modern technologies, many variables must be considered in evaluating their overall benefit and utility. For example, while smartphones provide ready, convenient access to the internet, and a sense of comfort and connection to others, they may also result in an unhealthy, negative psychological dependency, anxiety, and possible fear (Abu-Shanab & Haddad, 2015;Al-Khlaiwi & Meo, 2004;Demirci, Akgönül, & Akpinar, 2015;Ifeanyi & Chukwuere, 2018;King et al., 2013;Park et al., 2015). Smartphones have countless impacts on our lives, potentially including problematic health issues that may develop as a consequence of overuse (Jena, 2015). ...
Article
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Purpose of the study To determine the prevalence of nomophobia, demographic factors affecting nomophobic behaviors, and the relationship between nomophobia and academic performance among university students in Oman. Methods A descriptive correlational study design was chosen to describe the prevalence of nomophobia among XXX students. A convenience sampling technique was used to select 735 students based on defined inclusion criteria. Nomophobia was identified using a self-report instrument, the Nomophobia Questionnaire, which includes 20 Likert scale items rated from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 7 (“strongly agree”). Descriptive analysis and a Pearson correlation statistical test were used to determine the possible relationship between nomophobia and academic performance. Results The prevalence of nomophobia among students was 99.33%, most with a moderate level of nomophobia. Students with severe nomophobia reported weak academic performance (p=.706), but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study found a high prevalence of nomophobia and a weak relationship with academic performance. More studies should be conducted in this area to inform policy on cellphones within academic premises, to avoid serious ill effects of chronic use.
... (Effect of screen time use on mental and physical health of physiotherapy students is conducted along with this study, results of which are presented elsewhere). [76] A Saudi Arabian study found that 44.4% of the medical student participants attributed their headaches, decreased concentration, memory loss, hearing loss, and fatigue to the use of their mobile phones. With regard to their academic performance, 13.3% considered that use of a smartphone had a bad effect (according to their grade-point average), 15.8% a good effect and 70.8% no effect. ...
Preprint
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UNSTRUCTURED Technology has advanced significantly within the past decade and along with that has come the ability to use a variety of devices for academic purposes. While this can make accessing information much easier and allow for new organizational methods, it can also provide the opportunity for more distractions. Sleep is fundamental to optimal functioning including health and behavior. This paper describes the interrelations between screen use, sleep and academic performance. The purpose of this study was to explore technology use and its impact on sleep and academics in physiotherapy students in this pandemic lockdown.How the increased screen media usage and the uncertainty of the situation has an impact on their academic performance.We examined how this distraction potential can play a role in studying experiences and academic performance. A representative sample of 150 Physiotherapy students were surveyed to quantify technology use, sleep pattern, mental health and academic performance. 73.3% of the population agreed that screen time did affect their sleeping pattern in the lockdown , 84.7% of the students conveyed that they could not perform study related activities optimally as per their academic capacity. 56.7% of the population also agreed that excessive screen time hindered their ability to perform academically well.
... Its effect on driving performance increases the number of car accidents [19]. Excessive smartphone use can interfere with concentration at school or work [20] and can cause headache, dizziness, blurred vision, wrist pain [21]. ...
... Proper balance and controlling head and eye movements is dependent on afferent input from different systems at the same time. These systems' information needs to be integrated depending on the task and environment, and they include vision, vestibular, and proprioception systems [12]. Cervical proprioception contributes to correct head in space and trunk orientation [13], as well as to correct body orientation and balance control [14]. ...
... 39 Headaches, impaired memory and concentration, fatigue , dizziness and sleep disturbance has been associated with radiation sickness. 40,41 A study links insomnia to the use of cell phone before bed. ...
... The effects of smartphone overuse have also been considered in the context of mental fatigue. A study in Saudi Arabia found that frequent mobile phone use resulted in fatigue, accompanied by headache and tension (Al-Khlaiwi & Meo, 2004). This influence of smartphones on mental fatigue may be related to workplace focus and efficiency, as a relationship has been shown between fatigue and a dearth of motivation to maintain task performance (Boksem et al., 2006). ...
Article
Intro As smartphone usage becomes increasingly prevalent in the workplace, the physical and psychological implications of this behavior warrant consideration. Recent research has investigated associations between workplace smartphone use and fatigue and boredom, yet findings are not conclusive. Methods To build off recent efforts, we applied an ensemble machine learning model on a previously published dataset of N = 83 graduate students in the Netherlands to predict work boredom and fatigue from passively collected smartphone app use information. Using time-based feature engineering and lagged variations of the data to train, validate, and test idiographic models, we evaluated the efficacy of a lagged-ensemble predictive paradigm on sparse temporal data. Moreover, we probed the relative importance of both derived app use variables and lags within this predictive framework. Results The ability to predict fatigue and boredom trajectories from app use information was heterogeneous and highly person-specific. Idiographic modeling reflected moderate to high correlative capacity (r > 0.4) in 47% of participants for fatigue and 24% for boredom, with better overall performance in the fatigue prediction task. App use relating to duration, communication, and patterns of use frequency were among the most important features driving predictions across lags, with longer lags contributing more heavily to final ensemble predictions compared with shorter ones. Conclusion A lag-specific ensemble predictive paradigm is a promising approach to leveraging high-dimensional app use behavioral data for the prediction of work fatigue and boredom. Future research will benefit from evaluating associations on densely collected data across longer time scales.
... Proper balance and controlling head and eye movements is dependent on afferent input from different systems at the same time. These systems' information needs to be integrated depending on the task and environment, and they include vision, vestibular, and proprioception systems [12]. Cervical proprioception contributes to correct head in space and trunk orientation [13], as well as to correct body orientation and balance control [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The craniovertebral angle is measurable, linear measure of the curvature of the neck. Smartphone addiction can alter this angle and cause headaches, pain in one's neck and shoulders, and even difficulty breathing. The concept of smartphone addiction and its effect on craniovertebral angle has gained increased attention in the recent years. There are many well-known studies that have shown how the use of smartphones can lead to the development of neck, shoulder and back pain as well as other health issues. The study is of cross-sectional design where 30 participants were selected and correlation between smartphone addiction and craniovertebral angle was seen. The aim was to explore how smartphone addiction can affect craniovertebral angle.
... In particular, it can be a risk factor for depression, loneliness, anxiety and sleep disturbances [4] . Recent researches have shown that the use of mobile phone is associated with headaches, neurodegenerative dystonia, irritability, sleep disorders, fatigue, and dizziness [5][6][7][8][9] . so, smart phone has overall negative impact in mental health, physical health and social well-being of an individual. ...
Article
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Background: Mobile phones are an important part of high school student's life. Addiction to smartphone usage is a common worldwide problem among students, which might negatively affect their mental wellbeing. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of mobile phone use on mental health of high school students by measuring the levels of depression, anxiety, fear of missing out, isolation and sleep quality among higher secondary students of various schools of Surat city. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 250 numbers of higher secondary students (Grade 10-12) aged between 14-16 years. All the subjects were asked to complete a self-reported Smartphone Addiction Scale-short version (SAS-sv) for measuring smart phone addiction. Subjects were assigned to 2 groups based on their scores on the Smartphone Addiction Scale Short Version for Adolescents (SAS-SV): addicted group (score > 32, n = 155) and non-addicted group (score ≤ to 32, n = 95).Secondary outcome measures were Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) for anxiety and depression, FOMO scale for fear of missing out, PROMIS sleep disturbance short form for sleep disturbances. 6 items from the Children's Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used to measure social isolation. Results: Statistical analysis indicates that 62% of students were addicted to smart phone. Anxiety, depression, fear of missing out, isolation and sleep disturbance had positive significant correlation with smart phone addiction (p<0.05). Anxiety and depression (p = 0.000) were highly correlated with smart phone addiction followed by Sleep disturbance (0.002), isolation (p = 0.029) and fear of missing out (p = 0.049). The results revealed there were high chances of anxiety and stress for cell phone addicts. Conclusions: The results indicated that the intensity and modality of mobile phone use could be a factor that can influence causal pathways leading to mental health problems in the high school student population of Surat. The positive correlation between smartphone addiction and various components of mental health is alarming.
... The thermal effects have been extensively studied, and its exposure limits are well-established, but the non-thermal effects remain a matter of debate [Gaestel 2010;Meo and Al Rubeaan 2013]. Notwithstanding, the paucity of concrete data, there is a growing body of evidence that implicates the non-thermal interactions to cause detrimental effects on the central nervous system, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, and reproductive functions [Al-Khlaiwi and Meo 2004], and responsible for the development of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and central obesity [Seitz et al. 2005;Lowette et al. 2015]. ...
Article
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The present-day children-adolescents ubiquitously use the mobile phones and unrestrictedly consume fructose-laden diet. Unfortunately, a rise in the incidence of insulin resistance and fatty liver syndrome in young adults has also been recorded. To delineate a possible correlate, the effect of exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) from the mobile phone and unrestricted fructose intake during pre-, peri-, and post-pubertal stages of development on orexigenic and anorexigenic signals arising from the hypothalamus and liver of rats is investigated here. The study design included four arms, i.e., “Normal”, “Exposure Only (ExpO)”, “Fructose Only (FruO)”, and “Exposure with Fructose (EF)”, wherein weaned rats received either “normal chow and drinking water” or “normal chow and fructose (15%) drinking solution” in presence and absence of EMF exposure (2 h/day) for 8 weeks. The results indicate that the total calories consumed by the EF were higher by early adulthood than normal, possibly under the influence of the raised levels of the orexigenic hormone, i.e., ghrelin, and it reflected as raised rate of weight gain. At early adulthood, the EF recorded mitigated response and sensitivity of insulin. Despite EF being a “fed-state”, both centrally and peripherally, the glycolysis was restrained, but the gluconeogenesis was raised. Additionally, the altered lipid profile and the glycogen levels indicate that the EF developed fatty liver. The energy homeostasis of the EF was compromised as evidenced by (a) reduced expression of the glucosensors-GLUT2 and glucokinase in the hypothalamus and liver and (b) reduced expression of the cellular energy regulator—AMPK, orexigenic peptide–NPY, and anorexigenic peptide-POMC in the hypothalamus. Taken together, the present study evidences that the exposure to EMFfrom the mobile phone and unrestricted fructose intake during childhood-adolescence impairs the central and peripheral pathways that mediate the glucosensing, glucoregulation, feeding, and satiety behavior by early adulthood.
... Though, those benefits came with some consequences. For example, using mobile phones could lead to some health hazards such as fatigue, dizziness, headache, tension, and sleep disturbance [90,91]. ...
Thesis
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White and green volcanic tuffs collected from the Bayburt region in Turkey were used as silica and alumina sources to produce an Alkali Activated Pastes (AAPs). Calcite was used as calcium sources. And as alkali activators, Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and Sodium Silicate (Na2SiO3) in combination were used. Besides, two types of fibers are used in this study (polypropylene and steel fibers) with different percentages of friction of volume to enhance the AAPs' electromagnet, mechanical, and physical properties that will be produced. The new composite materials' electromagnet absorption and reflection features are determined in the range of 100 MHz - 6000 MHz between the 28th and 56th days of production. In addition, the mechanical and physical properties of the pastes were examined at 2, 28, and 90 days of production. The results of this study showed that the maximum 90 days flexural and compressive strengths were 11.70 MPa and 30.72 MPa, respectively. And the maximum electromagnetic wave’s absorption and reflection peaks for the AAP batches from the frequencies of 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2400 MHz, and 5000 MHz were -35.45 dB (at 5000 MHz) and -12.15 dB (at 5000 MHz), respectively.
... (Effect of screen time use on mental and physical health of physiotherapy students is conducted along with this study, results of which are presented elsewhere). [76] A Saudi Arabian study found that 44.4% of the medical student participants attributed their headaches, decreased concentration, memory loss, hearing loss, and fatigue to the use of their mobile phones. With regard to their academic performance, 13.3% considered that use of a smartphone had a bad effect (according to their grade-point average), 15.8% a good effect and 70.8% no effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Technology has advanced significantly within the past decade and along with that has come the ability to use a variety of devices for academic purposes. While this can make accessing information much easier and allow for new organizational methods, it can also provide the opportunity for more distractions. Sleep is fundamental to optimal functioning including health and behaviour. This paper describes the interrelations between screen use, sleep and academic performance. The purpose of this study was to explore technology use and its impact on sleep and academics in physiotherapy students in This novel pandemic lockdown and how the increased screen media usage and the uncertainty of the situation has an impact on their academic performance. We examined how this distraction potential can play a role in studying experiences and academic performance. A representative sample of 150 Physiotherapy students were surveyed to quantify technology use, sleep pattern, mental health and academic performance. Results: 73.3% of the population agreed that screen time did affect their sleeping pattern in the lockdown, 84.7% of the students conveyed that they could not perform study related activities optimally as per their academic capacity. 56.7% of the population also agreed that excessive screen time hindered their ability to perform academically well. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary insights into excessive screen time and its association with academic performance in Physiotherapy students.
... Sample size was calculated based on population size of 2.1 million in Surabaya, 95% confidence level, 80% power of study and 21.6% prevalence of headache among MP users (Al- Khlaiwi and Meo, 2004). Recruitment was being carried out in public places through convenient sampling method. ...
Article
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Indonesia is the third largest user of mobile phone (MP) in Asia Pacific Region in 2019. The vast development of MP has made it an inseparable component of everyone's life and yet little is known about its potential harmful effects. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the pattern of MP use among adults in Indonesia and its association with Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). This is a cross-sectional study with convenient sampling involving 264 working Indonesian citizen who had at least one MP. Median age of respondents was 29 years old. Most respondents (60%) owned a MP exceeding 10 years. Majority (27.5%) made 0-5 calls and received 6-10 messages daily; of which 82% of calls were answered next to the ear. Call duration of 10 mins was found to increase risk of headache (OR 2.09; 95%CI 1.05 to 4.16). Also, increased incidences of poor sleep quality were reported with frequent MP checking particularly those checking around the clock (OR 3.83; 95%CI 2.80 to 5.23). In conclusion, pattern of MP use is significantly associated with headache and sleep quality. Thus, public health educational prevention st rategies focusing on attitudes will be useful to reduce these issues.
... People often sleep with their mobile phones near them at night and this could cause sleep disturbance. Studies have shown that radiation from mobile phone and mobile phone batteries caused health hazards, such as brain tumors (Soffritti and Giuliani 2019;Takebayashi et al. 2008), neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as headaches, memory problems, fatigue, hypertension, depression, insomnia, dizziness, lethargy, loss of appetite, eye strain, and hearing impairment (Al- Khlaiwi and Meo 2004;Pall 2016). From the literature, problems with reproduction and infertility in males and females were found (La Vignera et al. 2012;Merhi 2012;Talib et al. 2010). ...
... People often sleep with their mobile phones near them at night and this could cause sleep disturbance. Studies have shown that radiation from mobile phone and mobile phone batteries caused health hazards, such as brain tumors (Soffritti and Giuliani 2019;Takebayashi et al. 2008), neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as headaches, memory problems, fatigue, hypertension, depression, insomnia, dizziness, lethargy, loss of appetite, eye strain, and hearing impairment (Al- Khlaiwi and Meo 2004;Pall 2016). From the literature, problems with reproduction and infertility in males and females were found (La Vignera et al. 2012;Merhi 2012;Talib et al. 2010). ...
Preprint
The use of mobile phones and discarding them before or after their end-of-life has become a recent trend. This practice increases environmental pollution and health hazards worldwide. Besides pollution, mobile phones and their batteries emit electromagnetic radiation during their lifetime and after their end-of-life. This study aims to measure ionizing radiation this is emitted by mobile phones and mobile phone batteries using a Geiger-Muller (GM) counter. To conduct this study, 15 active, 10 end-of-life mobile phones, and 10 waste lithium-ion batteries will be evaluated. Emissions from these devices will be compared with background radiation. The maximum counts per minute (CPM) for waste mobile phone batteries was 18 CPM and the minimum was 14 CPM for waste batteries and waste mobile phones. The average and standard deviation values for background radiation was 14.000 ± 0.404 CPM. The average and standard deviation values were 16 ± 1 CPM for active mobile phones, 16.00 ± 0.73 CPM for waste mobile phones, and 16.00 ± 1.19 CPM for waste batteries. Therefore, the continuous use of mobile phones and stockpiling should be avoided, and proper management processes should be developed to minimize environmental pollution and human health hazards.
Article
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The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is generating the emergence of new pathologies such as nomophobia. The aim of this research was to analyze the prevalence of nomophobia among young people, as well as to check whether the level of nomophobia is higher in males or females and in those students who claim to have less healthy nutrition due to the use of their mobile phones. The research method was based on a correlational and predictive design with a quantitative methodology. The measurement tool used is the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q). The participating sample was 1743 students between 12 and 20 years old from different educational stages of the Autonomous City of Ceuta (Spain). The results show that highest rates of nomophobia were found in relation to the inability to communicate and contact others immediately. About gender, women have higher rates of nomophobia than men. In relation to age, no significant differences were found; thus, the problem may affect all ages equally. Finally, students who think that their smartphone use is detrimental to their good nutrition show higher levels on the scale provided.
Chapter
Electrosensitivity exists as a very real problem. There is ample biological evidence to enable an understanding of this widespread phenomenon. Recent studies suggest possible genetic links, confirm positive subjective evidence, and confirm that voltage-gated calcium channels are an established mechanism for EM effects at nonthermal levels. Problems stemming from the conceptual context explain why even well-intentioned investigators may be tempted to deny, defer, obscure, or otherwise divert truth. It is also noted that there are vested interests at stake. As a result a great deal of EM and RF technology has been developed on the mistaken “presumption of no harm.” Unfortunately, ES not only exists but affects many, many people, the great majority of them undiagnosed (because of lack of medical knowledge) and either expensively investigated or mistreated, or worse still ignored, dismissed or ridiculed. Three case studies are noted, including one of the authors, which may of course incur criticism of bias, but perhaps may achieve an acknowledgement of the use of the human as an instrument of experimentation as well as an honest scientifically trained witness to symptoms. The Austrian Medical Association Guidelines provide a useful tool for the Practitioner.
Book
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity is categorised as a multisymptomatic 'el-allergy' in the Nordic classification of 2000 (R.68.8). Its symptoms are 'certainly real' and it can be a 'disabling condition' (W.H.O., 2005). It was first recorded in the mid 20th century as an occupational illness, but it has now spread into the general population through environmental exposure from increasing levels of electromagnetic fields and radiation. This Summary covers current research on this syndrome, covering EM Sensitivity and EM Hypersensitivity. It includes tables of symptoms, EMF sources and exposure guidelines, along with references to scientific studies. This New Edition adds updates, international doctors' protocols, aspects of quantum biology, evidence for sensitivity in animals and plants, case studies, disability issues and human rights.
Book
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This book is the second part of a project that investigates the COVID-19 ‘Untapped Solutions’ and the opportunities that came with the pandemic even as we live the first quarter of 2021. This work reflects the type of mindset and the main formula of inspiration economy that focus on (capacity vs demand), which help to address complex challenges and finding opportunities inside the problem. These opportunities might be in the area of ‘life’ or ‘livelihood’, and mostly might be focused on the community’s socio-economic wellbeing. As we live the second wave of this devastating and life-threatening virus, each opportunity discovered might turn up to be a source of big insight and might serve to be an ‘inspiration currency’ that helps the world to come out stronger and with more abundant thinking. The type of challenges discussed in this book shows that there is a bundle of opportunities that might trigger many projects and publications by the ‘inspiration economy experts’ who see all the types of problems, risks, and challenges as opportunities that need to be investigated and presented to the knowledge-community. The contribution of the multi-disciplinary experts coming from more than forty nationalities is so unique that oblige us to give each chapter a look at the deep thought that bring the untapped solutions within the problem. Each chapter reflects a type of research and interaction with the observed challenges, or the exploited the opportunities that the conditions of the pandemic brought. Similar to the first part of this book, this second part is also divided into two main parts, as shown in figure (0-2). The first part, part one is about Life, while the second part is about livelihood, i.e., the (2L’s).
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Mobile phone usage has become an order of the day. The whole human race is addicted to the usage of cell phones in one way or other. The mobile phone system is known as “cellular telephone system” because of the divisions in the coverage area as “cells “each of which has a base station antenna. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiations in the Microwave range around 2.5 GHz. When the user talks on mobile phone, the transmitter takes the sound and encodes on to a continuous “sine wave” and it directs the signal to the antenna which then sends the signal out. The encoded signals contain electromagnetic radiations. These waves are picked up by the receiver in the base station tower. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radia�tion in the microwave range [1]. The radio waves emitted by the mobile phone handset will beabsorbed by the head by frequent usage and most of the heating effect occurs in the head re�gion. Temperature in the internal ear, brain increases by 1 degree or more. This greatly affects the functioning of these organs since these have fluid filled cavities. Brain waves such as alpha beta, delta waves will be affected when exposed to pulsed radiations. In addition Alzheimer’s/ Parkinson’s disease, Hearing impairments, Infertility, Genotoxic effects, Eye problems in retina, iris and corneal endothelium, Headaches, sleep disorders, Depression & tiredness and Fatigue [2] are frequently observed among all cell phone users particularly in the student population. In the present day world young students both male and female are addicted to the excessive usage of cell phones inviting health problems in spite of many advantages in the usage of cell phone based communications [3]. .software implementations of the data analytics can be created in future to extend the predictions for more diseases and disorders among larger population. This paper deals with the data analytics of this problem creating awareness about few of the cell phone related health problems among young students.
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Objectives The global increase in various neurological disorders is a serious problem to be concerned. This study mainly focused on the changes in cognitive impairment, sleep pattern, visuospatial ability in the Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its possible association with the usage of smartphones durations. Methods Parkinson’s patients (40–60 years) visiting neurology clinics were included in this study. Based on their age the grouping was designed as Group I (>60) and Group II (40–60 years). All the patients were evaluated for the various motor symptoms in the presence of a neurologist and graded accordingly. The non-motor symptoms included the analysis cognitive function and sleep patterns. The mobile phone usage time was also collected. The Hoehn and Yahr system was used as assessment tool for gradations of PD signs. Results Duration of mobile phone usage in the Parkinson’s patients ranging from 45–60 year was more when compared to the patients aged more than 60 years. The usage of mobile phone did not show significant variation on severity of motor symptoms and cognitive functions. Increased incidence of sleep deprivation was observed in the PD patients aged 40–60 years. Increased usage of mobile phone has been inversely associated with the increased progression of the Parkinson’s disease. Conclusion The present study pointed out the significant association of mobile phone usage with the early onset of Parkinsonism.
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Objectives To investigate whether a possible association of mobile phone use with hearing impairment was conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Content This is a systematic review and meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was carried out based on the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) methodology using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, OVID, and Cochrane. The Robins-I tool was used for quality assessment and risk of bias. Two investigators independently reviewed all articles. Pooled effect size was calculated and meta-analysis was performed to compute an overall effect size. Summary Overall, five relevant studies (two cross-sectional and three cohort studies) with 92,978 participants were included in the analysis. The studies were stratified by design, there was no significant association between mobile phone use and hearing impairment in cross-sectional studies (OR=0.94, 95% CI=0.57–1.31) and cohort studies (OR=1.09, 95% CI=0.93–1.25). In addition, the effect estimates did not differ significantly between cross-sectional and cohort studies (Q=0.50, p=0.48). Overall, the pooled odds ratio (OR) of hearing impairment was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.94–1.20), which indicates no significant association between mobile phone use and hearing impairment. Outlook Our findings indicate no association between mobile phone use and hearing impairment. However, these findings must be interpreted with caution.
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بعد إقرار منظمة الصحة العالمية في بداية الثمانينيات وجود ما يُطلق عليه متلازمة المباني المغلقة أو المباني المريضة والتي كان من أهم أسبابها تتعدد المؤثرات المتواجدة في الفراغات المعمارية والتي كان لها تأثير على الحالة الصحية والإنتاجية للمتواجدين بتلك الفراغات والتى من أبرز أسبابها مصادر المجالات الكهرومغناطيسية Electromagnetic fields (EMF)، خاصة الهواتف المحمولة والتي أصبحت متواجدة بكثافة في كل الفراغات المعمارية التي يتواجد بها الأفراد، والتي تتفاعل الإشعاعات المنبعثة منها مع أعضاء الجسم البشري ما يؤدي الى ظهور العديد من الأمراض والأعراض التي تم رصدها في الكثير من الأبحاث والتجارب، فقد صار إيجاد حلول لإزالة الآثار الضارة لهذه المؤثرات مشكلة تقع على عاتق كل مصمم ومعماري يسعى لتصميم مساحات آمنة وصحية لقاطني المباني. وبما أن العديد من الدراسات والأبحاث أظهرت أن التشكيلات المعمارية لها دور في تحسين الحالة الصحية للأفراد المتواجدين في الفراغ، وأن بعض التشكيلات تعمل على رفع كفاءة الجهاز المناعي ودعم الإستشفاء الذاتي، فقد سعى البحث إلى التحقق من صحة ودقة هذه المعلومات والتي تفيد بإن هناك تأثير متبادل بين تشكيل الفراغ وسلوك الطاقة به ما يؤثر على صحة قاطنيه، وذلك من خلال إستعراض وتحليل الدراسات والتجارب السابقة التي حاولت التحقق من مصداقية وجود ما يطلق علية أسم (قوة الشكل أوالتشكيل)، وتم اختيار خمس تشكيلات معمارية شاع عنها تاريخياً ومن خلال الدراسات والتجارب احتوائها على قدرات خاصة (من حيث التأثير الإيجابي على صحة القاطنين بها)، واختبارها معملياً في إحدى معامل المركز القومي للبحوث، عن طريق تصنيع نماذج صغيرة منها متماثلة في الحجم واللون ومادة الصُنع، وجعلها صالحة للعيش من قِبل فئران التجارب، والتي تم تسكينها داخل هذه الفراغات لمدة ثلاثة أشهر، وتعريضها للأشعة المنبعثة من الهاتف المحمول والمقدرة بقيمة تردد 880 -915 ميجاهرتز، ثم اختبار بعض العوامل الحيوية التي تُعد مؤشراً للصحة العامة لهذه الكائنات مثل وظائف الكبد، ونسب تواجد عوامل ومضادات الأكسدة، و بعض اختبارات السلوك الدالة على مدى تأثر الذاكرة طويلة المدى وقصيرة المدى و القدرة على الإدراك والتركيز وعدم التردد واختبارات فحص مجهري لرصد الحالة الصحية لخلايا المخ والكبد. وقد أظهرت بيانات التجارب أن الإشعاع الكهرومغناطيسي الصادر من الهواتف المحمولة قد تسبب في اضطرابات في المؤشرات الحيوية لوظائف الكبد ومعلمات الإجهاد التأكسدي في الأنسجة الكبدية ودم الفئران، كما تسبب في حدوث اضطرابات في وظيفة الحصين والحالة الإدراكية والذاكرة، وتضرر واضح في أنسجة وخلايا المخ، كما أظهرت نتائج التجربة أن المعيشة داخل الأقفاص أو الفراغات ذات التشكيلات المعمارية التاريخية (التي تم تحديدها وفقاً للأدبيات والتجارب السابقة) قد أضعفت مُعظم التأثيرات الصحية السلبية، وجاءت النتائج بشكل متفاوت في إشارة إلى أن لكُل شكل تأثيره الخاص، ومع ذلك فإن الآلية الدقيقة الكامنة وراء هذه الآثار لا تزال غير واضحة، وفي النهاية قد توفر هذه الدراسة إرشادات للمصممين والمعماريين لاستخدام هذه التشكيلات المذكورة في إنشاء المستشفيات والمدارس وغيرها من المباني القريبة من محطة الترددات الراديوية الخاصة بالهاتف المحمول كوسيلة للتخفيف من ضعف الإدراك ولتحسن الذاكرة المكانية ولتحسين الوظيفة البيولوجية.
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