Tissue Doppler imaging assessment of long axis left ventricular function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is classically defined as a diastolic disease with normal systolic function. Long axis left ventricular function is an important and sensitive determinant of global ventricular function but its assessment is often difficult and complex. Tissue Doppler imaging of the mitral annulus allows the study of long axis left ventricular function.
47 patients with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 45 healthy volunteers, matched by age and sex, were studied with pulsed tissue Doppler imaging of the 4 sides of the mitral annulus (septal, lateral, inferior, anterior) in 4 and 2 chamber views. In each wave (systolic-s, rapid filling-e, atrial contraction-a) we analyzed velocities, time intervals and velocity-time integrals, as well as heterogeneity and asynchrony. Data were compared among the different sides in each group, between groups and with conventional Doppler data.
In contrast to normal subjects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients showed: 1--Systolic function: lower velocities, longer systolic time intervals (isovolumic relaxation time, time to peak s, ejection time), higher systolic asynchrony (time to peak s, ejection time, systolic time) and lower s/shortening fraction ratio. These changes occurred despite normal indices of global systolic function. 2--Diastolic function: lower velocities (much lower rapid filling velocity, lower atrial contraction velocity, lower septal e/a), higher e/a heterogeneity index, longer protodiastolic times (isovolumic relaxation time and time to peak e), higher diastolic asynchrony (time to peak e) and lower e wave integral. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients also showed higher average number of annular sides with e/a < 1 per patient and higher percentage of e/a < 1, mainly on the septal side.
This study shows that: 1--Tissue Doppler imaging allows the detailed analysis of long axis left ventricular function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. 2--Long axis systolic function is abnormal in this disease, even in the presence of normal indices of global systolic function. 3--Long axis diastolic function is deeply disturbed in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, at ventricular and atrial levels. 4--Long axis dysfunction occurs in annular sides contiguous to hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied walls, highlighting the role of other factors in its pathophysiology.

7 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introdução: A presença de obstrução intraventricular em doentes com miocardiopatia hipertrófica (MH) associa-se a alterações da carga que tornam difícil a avaliação correcta da função miocárdica por ecocardiografia convencional. Objectivos: Comparar a função miocárdica regional por ecocardiografia Doppler tecidular (DT), entre doentes com miocardiopatia hipertrófica obstrutiva (MHO) e doentes com forma não obstrutiva (MHNO) da doença. Metodologia: Em 26 doentes com MHO e em 23 com MHNO foi analisada por DT a função miocárdica regional ventricular esquerda no eixo longitudinal (8 segmentos, via apical) e radial (2 segmentos, via paraesternal, curto eixo). Foram analisados parâmetros no domínio das velocidades, tempos e integral velocidade-tempo, bem como os índices de heterogeneidade e assincronia, e em cada parede, o gradiente meridional (basal-mediano) de velocidades. Estes dados foram comparados em cada grupo e entre os grupos. Background: The conventional echocardiographic assessment of myocardial function in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is complex, because of the load dependency of this method. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) may improve this evaluation.
    Full-text · Article ·
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The conventional echocardiographic assessment of myocardial function in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is complex, because of the load dependency of this method. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) may improve this evaluation. To compare regional myocardial function with TDI, between patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and with non-obstructive forms of the disease (NOHCM). 26 patients with HOCM and 23 with NOHCM were studied with pulsed TDI. We studied longitudinal (8 left ventricular segments, apical views) and radial regional function (2 segments, short axis view), and analyzed velocities, time intervals, velocity-time integrals and heterogeneity and asynchrony indices and the meridional (basal-medial segments) velocity gradient in each wall. Data were compared within each group and between groups. Compared to NOHCM, HOCM patients showed: systolic functions: a) longitudinal: similar velocities, time intervals and integrals; b) radial: higher meridional gradient, lower velocity-time integrals. Diastolic function: a) longitudinal: lower a, higher e and e/a tendency; lower e meridional gradient, higher percentage of septal and anterior wall segments with e/a > or = 1; b) radial: lower a velocities and integrals, shorter diagnostic time. This study shows that in HOCM patients, the presence of obstruction and its associated load conditions have a different impact on systolic and diastolic regional myocardial function, in long and short axis, assessed with TDI. So, in HOCM patients: 1-Long axis regional systolic function is similar to the non-obstructive forms, suggesting relative load independence. 2-Long and short axis regional diastolic function is, in specific segments and parameters, different from the non-obstructive forms. These data should be taken into account in the assessment of regional myocardial function with TDI in HOCM.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2002 · Revista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The distinction between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and the athlete's (AT) heart is an important clinical problem, and the analysis of regional myocardial function with Doppler tissue imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis. Our aim was to compare regional function assessed by Doppler tissue imaging in rowers and in a group of patients with HCM. In 24 patients with nonobstructive HCM and in 20 competitive rowers with similar age, blood pressure, and heart rate, we analyzed with pulsed Doppler tissue imaging left ventricular (LV) regional function (velocities, time intervals, heterogeneity and asynchrony indices, and meridional gradient) in the longitudinal (8 segments, apical views) and in the radial (2 segments, short-axis view) axis. Compared with AT, patients with HCM showed: (1). systolic function; (a). longitudinal: lower velocities and meridional gradient; longer precontraction period (PCP); and higher PCP/LV contraction time; (b). radial: lower velocities and gradient; longer PCP; and higher PCP/LV contraction time; (2.diastolic function; (a). logitudinal: lower e (early diastolic), a (late diastolic), and e/a velocities; and longer prerelaxation time and time to peak e. The percentage of segments with e/a < 1 was 25% in the HCM group and 0% in the AT heart group; (b). radial: lower e velocity and gradient; lower e/a gradient; and longer medial prerelaxation and basal time to peak e. Most of these differences also occurred in the nonhypertrophied inferior wall of patients with HCM. There are significant differences between regional LV function of competitive rowers and patients with HCM. These differences (1). occur in systole and diastole; (2). affect velocities and time intervals; (3). are more striking in the long axis, but are also seen in the short axis, and (4). also occur in nonhypertrophied segments, suggesting the usefulness of the technique in the differential diagnosis between the 2 situations, namely in individuals that fall in Maron's "grey zone."
    No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Show more