Antenor JA et al.Relationship between initial prostate specific antigen level and subsequent prostate cancer detection in a longitudinal screening study. J Urol 172: 90-93

Departments of Neurology, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
The Journal of Urology (Impact Factor: 4.47). 08/2004; 172(1):90-3. DOI: 10.1097/
Source: PubMed


Previous studies of archived blood samples from nonscreened populations have shown an association between the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and the subsequent detection of prostate cancer. In the current study we evaluated the relationship between the initial screening PSA and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer detected in a prospective, longitudinal screening study. We also examined the relationship between initial PSA and the clinicopathological features of the cancers detected.
Between May 1991 and November 2001 we enrolled 26,111 volunteers in our PSA and digital rectal examination based prostate cancer screening study. The men were followed biannually or annually depending on the results of previous screening tests. The chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the clinical stage, pathological stage and Gleason score of subsequently detected prostate cancers as well as the time to cancer detection in different initial screening PSA strata.
The initial screening PSA stratum was strongly associated with the subsequent detection of prostate cancer as well as the clinicopathological stage and grade of the cancers detected.
Even in the lower PSA ranges initial screening serum PSA can help identify men at increased risk for subsequent prostate cancer detected in a longitudinal screening study.

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    • "At the cutoff value of 4 ng/mL for PSA, the sensitivity is 67.5-80% and the specificity is only 20-30%. Another study reported the sensitivity and specificity of PSA were about 79% and 59% respectively.13 According to a study by Schmid, et al.,14 the PCa detection rate between PSA levels of 4.1-10.0 "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To investigate the relationship between prostate volume and the increased risk for being diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) in men with slowly increasing prostate specific antigen (PSA). Materials and Methods A cohort of 1035 men who visited our hospital's health promotion center and were checked for serum PSA levels more than two times between January 2001 and November 2011 were included. Among them, 116 patients had a change in PSA levels from less than 4 ng/mL to more than 4 ng/mL and underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Median age was 55.9 years and 26 (22.4%) had PCa. We compared the initial PSA level, the last PSA level, age, prostate volume, PSA density (PSAD), PSA velocity, and follow-up period between men with and without PCa. The mean follow-up period was 83.7 months. Results Significant predictive factors for the detection of prostate cancer identified by univariate analysis were prostate volume, follow-up period and PSAD. In the multivariate analysis, prostate volume (p<0.001, odds ratio: 0.890) was the most significant factor for the detection of prostate cancer. In the receiver operator characteristic curve of prostate volume, area under curve was 0.724. At the cut-off value of 28.8 mL for prostate volume, the sensitivity and specificity were 61.1% and 73.1% respectively. Conclusion In men with PSA values more than 4 ng/mL during the follow-up period, a small prostate volume was the most important factor in early detection of prostate cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Yonsei medical journal
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    • "The median PSA serum level and the 95th percentile for healthy men aged 30–49 yr has been reported to range between 0.6 and 0.78 ng/ml [18] [19] [20], and it has been shown to be 0.7–1.23 ng/ml for men aged 50–59 yr. The median PSA level in men aged 60–64 yr and 65–69 yr is about 1.20 ng/ml and 1.43 ng/ml, respectively [19] [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The recommendations and the updated EAU guidelines consider early detection of PCa with the purpose of reducing PCa-related mortality and the development of advanced or metastatic disease. This paper presents the recommendations of the European Association of Urology (EAU) for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men without evidence of PCa-related symptoms. The working panel conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of prospective and retrospective clinical studies on baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and early detection of PCa and on PCa screening published between 1990 and 2013 using Cochrane Reviews, Embase, and Medline search strategies. The level of evidence and grade of recommendation were analysed according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The current strategy of the EAU recommends that (1) early detection of PCa reduces PCa-related mortality; (2) early detection of PCa reduces the risk of being diagnosed and developing advanced and metastatic PCa; (3) a baseline serum PSA level should be obtained at 40-45 yr of age; (4) intervals for early detection of PCa should be adapted to the baseline PSA serum concentration; (5) early detection should be offered to men with a life expectancy ≥10 yr; and (6) in the future, multivariable clinical risk-prediction tools need to be integrated into the decision-making process. A baseline serum PSA should be offered to all men 40-45 yr of age to initiate a risk-adapted follow-up approach with the purpose of reducing PCa mortality and the incidence of advanced and metastatic PCa. In the future, the development and application of multivariable risk-prediction tools will be necessary to prevent over diagnosis and over treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · European Urology
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    • "The detection rate in the patients whose PSA was in the gray zone before the second biopsy was 13.1%, which is consistent with the results of this study (15.15%). Although PSA is an important serum tumor marker for diagnosing prostate cancer with DRE, it has limitations in clinical usefulness, showing 79% sensitivity and 59% specificity [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To identify the prostate cancer detection rate on the patients who had second prostate biopsy out of the patients who were reported negative in their first biopsy. From July 2006 to February 2012, prostate biopsy was performed on 843 patients with over 4 ng/ml and on 618 biopsy negative patients PSA was performed from between 6 months and 9 months after biopsy. On 164 patients, second biopsy was performed, and 42 patients were selected. If there was less than 10% change between PSA before the prostate biopsy and PSA measured during 6 to 9 months after the first biopsy it was considered as no change. If above 10% increase, it was considered increase and if above 10% decrease it was considered as decrease. The cancer detection rate in PSA increase group was 20%, the detection rate in no change in PSA level but still over the normal range group 8.3%, and that in the PSA decrease group was 0%. When comparing prostate cancer group and non-cancer group, it is more probable to have prostate cancer when they are older, prostate volume is smaller and PSA density is higher. The second biopsy is strongly recommended when PSA level shows no change or increase, age is older, prostate volume is smaller or PSA density is higher.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Korean journal of urology
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