Article

Physical Activity, Exercise, and Inflammatory Markers in Older Adults: Findings from The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

Authors:
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

To examine the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers, with consideration for body fatness and antioxidant use. Cross-sectional study, using baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Metropolitan areas surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Black and white, well-functioning men and women (N=3,075), aged 70 to 79. Interviewer-administered questionnaires of previous-week household, walking, exercise, and occupational/volunteer physical activities. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the association between activity level and serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) with covariate adjustment. Antioxidant supplement use (multivitamin, vitamins E or C, beta carotene) was evaluated as an effect modifier of the association. Higher levels of exercise were associated with lower levels of CRP (P<.01), IL-6 (P<.001), and TNFalpha (P=.02) (e.g., CRP=1.95 mg/L for no exercise and 1.72 for >180 min/wk). Adjustment for body fatness attenuated the associations somewhat. Use of antioxidant supplements modified the CRP (P(interaction)=.01) and IL-6 (P(interaction)=.08) associations such that concentrations were low in those taking supplements (e.g., CRP=1.79-1.84 across exercise levels) and higher in nonsupplement users who did no exercise (2.03) than in those who did the most (1.72). Among nonexercisers, higher levels of other physical activity were related to lower levels of CRP (P<.01) and IL-6 (P=.02) but not TNFalpha (P=.36), even after accounting for body fat. Inflammatory markers are lower in older adults with higher levels of exercise and nonexercise activity and in antioxidant supplement users regardless of exercise level.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... IL-6 holds a dominant role in the acute phase of inflammatory response, participates in the development of atherosclerosis, and constitutes a strong prognostic mortality marker along with hs-CRP and fibrinogen [9,10]. High sensitivity CRP, a nonspecific inflammatory marker found in dysfunctional vascular endothelium and early atheromatous lesions, is proven to be an independent prognostic marker of cardiovascular disease in the general adult population [9,11]. ...
... This finding shows the beneficial effect of physical activity on muscle mass and IL-6 levels during adolescence, eventually reducing cardiovascular risk. Moreover, lower levels of IL-6 have been associated in literature with increased physical activity in adults [11,30,31]. ...
... In previous studies on the general population, increased physical activity was associated with a lower CRP level (19-35%) than those with a sedentary life style [9,11]. Instead, in our study on T1D children and adolescents, physical activity was not related to hs-CRP, most likely due to the chronic inflammatory state caused by diabetes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Adipokines are a superfamily of cell signaling proteins produced by the adipose tissue. This study’s purpose was to reveal the association of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), hs-CRP, and IL-6 with well-known cardiovascular risk factors (lipid profile, diabetes control, obesity, physical activity) in children and adolescents with T1D. This cross-sectional study included 80 participants (36 boys) with T1D, aged (mean ± SD) 14.8 ± 3.4 years. Body Mass Index (BMI), metabolic profile, and level of physical activity were assessed (using pedometers) for evaluation of their effect on serum leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, and hs-CRP. Leptin levels were associated with BMI (beta = 0.184, p < 0.001), waist to hip ratio (beta = −2.017, p = 0.022), Low Density Lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) (beta = 0.021, p = 0.005), and fat mass (beta = 14.07, p < 0.001). Adiponectin was correlated with waist to height ratio (beta = 0.048, p = 0.006), ΒΜΙ (beta = −0.056, p = 0.005), and muscle mass (beta = −0.013, p = 0.020). Interestingly, hs-CRP was associated with weight (beta = 0.035, p < 0.001), ΒΜI (beta = 0.186, p < 0.001), fat mass (beta = 5.2859, p = 0.004), and muscle mass (beta = 0.027, p = 0.008). Multiple regression analysis of muscle mass unveiled associations with log hs-CRP (beta = −1.237, p = 0.014) and inverse IL−6 (beta = 18.57, p = 0.01). Finally, multiple regression models of fat mass unveiled associations with physical activity (7-day-total-step-count) (beta = −3.90 × 10−7, p = 0.027), Inverse IL-6 (beta = −0.1572, p = 0.009), and squared leptin (beta = 0.0077, p = 0.03). This study reports a positive association of leptin with LDL-C, BMI, fat mass, and hip circumference and a negative association of adiponectin with BMI and muscle mass. Finally, hs-CRP was associated with HbA1c, fat mass, and BMI. We propose that leptin, adiponectin, and hs-CRP could be used as prognostic indicators of cardiovascular risk in children with T1D.
... Finally, in relation to physical activity, there is solid evidence reporting that physical activity based on amount and intensity of leisure time activities are related to lower concentrations of inflammatory markers in blood in older population groups [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. Notably, this association has not been systematically studied using simple questions such as frequency of daily continuous brisk walking, reflecting a common and accessible for elderly form of physical activity with evidence for health benefits based on the UK Chief Medical Officer's guidelines [27]. ...
... In terms of exercise, higher levels based on rather strenuous exercise programs have a beneficial effect on inflammation levels in healthy elderly [22]. Longitudinal studies investigating associations between inflammatory markers and exercise in patients with MCI are very few. ...
... Finally, we found that lack of physical activity is correlated with increased IL-6 levels. Many studies in the past have shown the inverse association of physical activity/exercise and inflammation in elderly populations [20][21][22][23][24]26,[82][83][84]. In some of these studies physical activity based on self-reported amount and intensity of leisure activities or exercise programs appeared to be strenuous [20][21][22][23][24]84], whereas others used objective measures of physical activity such as step count, hand grip and accelerometry, and the chair stand test among others [24,26,82,83]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammation in elderly is associated with physical and cognitive morbidity and mortality. We aimed to explore the association of modifiable lifestyle parameters with inflammation among non-demented, community-dwelling elderly. A sub-sample of 117 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 63) and cognitively non-impaired controls (CNI, n = 54) were recruited from a large, population-based cohort in Crete, Greece, of 3140 elders (> 60 years old). All participants underwent assessment of medical history/physical examination, extensive neuropsychiatric/neuropsychological evaluation, diet, three-day 24-h actigraphy, subjective sleep, physical activity, and measurement of IL-6 and TNFα plasma levels. Associations between inflammatory markers and diet, objective sleep duration, subjective sleep quality, and lack of physical activity were assessed using multivariate models. Regression analyses in the total group revealed significant associations between TNF-α and low vegetable consumption (p = 0.003), and marginally with objective long nighttime sleep duration (p = 0.04). In addition, IL-6 was associated with low vegetable consumption (p = 0.001) and lack of physical activity (p = 0.001). Poor diet and lack of physical activity appear to be modifiable risk factors of inflammation, whereas long sleep appears to be a marker of increased inflammatory response in elderly. Our findings may have clinical implications given the association of inflammatory response with morbidity, including cognitive decline, and mortality in elderly.
... It may be assumed that inactivity influences not only the course, but also the severity of many comorbidities, which significantly increases mortality rates caused by infection [92]. Physically active muscles release cytokines, which are capable of counter the proinflammatory mediators, i.e., IL-1β and IL-18, at the same time increasing the concentration of interleukins, TGFβ, IL-1rα and IL-10, which enhance the antiinflammatory effect of the immune response [93,94]. During PA the secretion of hormonal inhibitors of cytokines (cortisol, prostaglandins, soluble receptors against TNF and IL-2) is also modified or the expression of TLR4 is inhibited, thus facilitating control of inflammatory conditions in patients suffering from chronic diseases [95]. ...
... 20-30% decreased mortality risk before age 90 years in a cohort of 2357 men (mean age was 72 years, range 66-84 years) [115]. A number of previous scientific reports have demonstrated an inverse dose-response relationship between systemic inflammation (e.g., circulating Creactive protein, CRP) and exercise training and fitness status [116,94,117]. This dose-dependent effect is a multi-factor product of underlying mediators: the mode, duration, intensity, and frequency of exercise, that accumulate in a lifetime exposure [12]. ...
... This is due to different types of exercise evoke significant short-term (the minutes and hours after a single bout of exercise), medium-term (e.g., 1-3 weeks) and long-term (e.g., months or years of regular structured exercise) antiinflammatory effects both in women and men, irrespective of age [93,118,111]. For example, among people 70-79 years old enrolled in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (ABC) study, trends for decreased cytokine concentrations (IL-6, TNF-α and CRP) were linear with increasing amounts of reported exercise [94]. The exercise-induced anti-inflammatory mechanisms control and resolve the inflammatory processess and inhibit age-related pathologies in many ways [119]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aging is a complex, multietiological process and a major risk factor for most non-genetic, chronic diseases including geriatric syndromes that negatively affect healthspan and longevity. In the scenario of "healthy or good aging", especially during the COVID-19 era, the proper implementation of exercise as "adjuvant" or "polypill" to improve disease-related symptoms and comorbidities in the general population is a top priority. However, there is still a gap concerning studies analyzing influence of exercise training to immune system in older people. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a brief summary of well-established findings in exercise immunology and immunogerontology, but with a focus on the main exercise-induced mechanisms associated with aging of the immune system (immunosenescence). The scientific data strongly supports the notion that regular exercise as a low-cost and non-pharmacological treatment approach, when adjusted on an individual basis in elderly, induce multiple rejuvenating mechanisms: (1) affects the telomere-length dynamics (a "telo-protective" effect), (2) promote short- and long-term anti-inflammatory effects (via e.g., triggering the anti-inflammatory phenotype), 3) stimulates the adaptive immune system (e.g., helps to offset diminished adaptive responses) and in parallel inhibits the accelerated immunosenescence process, (4) increases post-vaccination immune responses, and (5) possibly extends both healthspan and lifespan.
... Finally, based on the previous studies, it seems that moderateto high-intensity endurance training can reduce IL-6 and TNF-a, and increase IL-10 in elderly healthy and patient with chronic heart failure male individuals (116)(117)(118)(119)(120)(121). ...
... Evidence from epidemiologic studies in older adults reported that greater levels of physical fitness are associated with lower circulating levels of several inflammatory biomarkers, such as, IL-6, TNF-a, and CRP (120,121). ...
Article
Full-text available
The level of immunoglobulins and cytokines changes with an ageing immune system. This review summarizes findings from studies that have examined the impact of acute and chronic exercise on immunoglobulins and cytokines in the elderly. Our literature analysis revealed that acute endurance exercise resulted in increased secretory salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), while acute bouts of muscle strengthening exercise (i.e., isokinetic, eccentric, knee extensor exercise) increased plasma/muscle interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels. Chronic exercise in the form of short-term endurance training (i.e., 12-16 weeks) and long-term combined endurance and resistance training (i.e., 6-12 months) induced increases in salivary SIgA concentration. We additionally identified that short-term endurance training at moderate intensities and the combination of endurance, strength, balance, and flexibility training increase plasma IL-10 and reduce plasma IL-6 and TNF-α in healthy elderly adults and male patients with chronic heart failure. Strength training for 6-12 weeks did not alter plasma IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration in healthy elderly adults and patients with chronic-degenerative diseases, while 12 weeks of resistance training decreased muscle TNF-α mRNA in frail elderly individuals. Short-term (i.e., 10-24 weeks) moderate- to high-intensity strength training reduced LPS–IL-6, LPS, IL-1β, LPS–TNF-α and circulating concentrations of TNF-α and increased IL-10 in healthy elderly women and older people with cognitive impairment, respectively. In conclusion, it appears that acute bouts of endurance exercise and short-term chronic exercise training exercise are appropriate methods to enhance mucosal immune function, reduce systemic markers of inflammation, and promote anti-inflammatory processes in elderly individuals.
... Additionally, there is an inverse dose relationship that has been observed in multiple observational studies between the level of physical activity and such systematic inflammatory biomarkers [71]. For example, Colbert et al. [72] observed in a large scale study (n = 2964) an inverse relationship between higher levels of self-reported physical activity (≥ 180 min/week) and inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 after adjusting for body fat. However, in the current study, there were no observed differences in any of the systemic anabolic hormones or inflammatory cytokines associated with age, training status, or protein intake (supplementary materals 1-3). ...
... However, in the current study, there were no observed differences in any of the systemic anabolic hormones or inflammatory cytokines associated with age, training status, or protein intake (supplementary materals 1-3). Nonetheless, intervention studies have reported signficiant effects of exercise and reducing inflammatory biomarkers in the ageing population [71,72]. For example, Kohut et al [73] reported a significant decrease in IL-18, CRP, and IL-6 in older adults (> 64 years) after performing aerobic exercise 3 days a week, for 45 min at 65-80% VO 2peak. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Ageing is associated with a decline in skeletal muscle mass and function (strength and power), known as sarcopenia. Inadequate dietary protein and inactivity have been shown to accelerate sarcopenia outcomes, occurring at different rates in males and females. Regardless, active older adults who often exceed the exercise guidelines still show signs of sarcopenia. This study aimed to explore the link between age, physical activity, protein intake, and biological sex with skeletal muscle mass, strength, power, and physical capacity/performance in active older adults. Fifty-four active older adults were recruited from this trial and grouped according to age (middle aged: 50–59 years, and older age: ≥ 60 years), exercise volume (low: ≥ 90–149 min/week, moderate: ≥ 150–299 min/week, and high: ≥ 300 min/week), protein intake (low: < 0.8 g/kg body mass (BM), moderate: ≥ 0.8–1.19g /kg BM, and high: ≥ 1.2 g/kg BM), and biological sex (males and females). Skeletal muscle and fat mass (dual X-ray absorptiometry), strength (1-repetition maximum using leg press, chest press, lateral pull down, and hand grip), power (counter movement jump), and general fitness (cardiorespiratory capacity and gait speed) were assessed. Data were grouped based on variables, and a general linear model (ANCOVA) or an independent t test was used to determine between group differences. Results Fifty three of the total participants’ data were analysed. The middle-aged group had 18%, 11%, and 10% higher leg press, chest press, and lateral pull down, respectively, compared to the older-aged group ( p < .05). There were no significant differences between different levels of training volume and any of the outcomes. Higher protein intakes were associated with significantly less body fat mass ( p = .005) and a trend towards a higher leg press ( p = .053) and higher relative power (W/kg) ( p = .056) compared with the moderate and low protein intake groups. Significant differences based on biological sex were observed for all outcomes except for gait speed ( p = .611) and cardiorespiratory fitness ( p = .147). Conclusions Contributions of age, physical activity, daily protein intake, and biological sex can explain the individual variation in outcomes related to changes in body composition, strength, power, and/or cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of active older adults. The preprint version of this work is available on Research Square: https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-51873/v1 . Trial Registration This trial is registered in the ANZCTR.org.au, no. ACTRN12618001088235 ( https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=375286 ).
... Both short and long-term clinical trials suggest that increasing physical activity results in improvements in global and domain-specific cognitive function (Ngandu et al., 2015;Vidoni et al., 2015;Pontifex et al., 2016). Increasing physical activity may exert its effects on cognition by provoking metabolic and structural brain changes such as increasing brain volume, decreasing neuroinflammation, improving cerebral glucose metabolism, and enhancing functional connectivity (Colbert et al., 2004;Colcombe et al., 2006;Voss et al., 2010;Dougherty et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Regular physical activity lowers risk for cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders. Older African Americans (AAs) have been underrepresented in trials that increased physical activity to improve cognitive outcomes. Methods 56 sedentary, older, cognitively healthy AAs (avg. 69.2 ± 3.4 yrs. old) were randomized in 1:1 ratio into either a 12-week successful aging group (SAG) or a 12-week physical activity group (PAG). Participants in SAG attended weekly 60-min educational sessions in which healthy aging topics were discussed. Participants in PAG attended supervised physical activity sessions twice per week at local YMCAs (90–120 min/week) and were prescribed 2–3 days per week of home-based activity. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) assessed cognitive function. ANCOVA models compared mean 12-week change in global cognition and subdomain scores between groups with secondary analyses for sex differences. Effect sizes for RBANS were calculated. Results The RBANS global cognition score (SAG Est. 5.6 ± 1.8, effect size = 0.37, p = 0.003) and several subdomain scores (one-sample T tests, all p < 0.05) increased significantly within the SAG. Scores for global cognition increased more in SAG than in PAG (Change Estimate, PAG minus SAG: –4.6 ± 2.5 points, effect size = 0.31) at a trend level ( p = 0.072). SAG females increased their global cognition score more than PAG females and more than males in either PAG or SAG (all p < 0.035). Discussion A 12-week physical activity intervention (PAG) did not improve cognitive functioning among older AAs but a comparator healthy aging education program did. Inadequate physical activity dosage or duration, SAG members acting on health-related information from educational sessions, and/or social stimulation within the SAG may have contributed to these results. Future studies should combine socially engaging activities with vigorous physical activity for cognitive enhancement among cognitively healthy older African Americans. Clinical Trial Registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov , identifier NCT03474302.
... Jogging and walking belong to the aerobic exercise type but both differ in the level of intensity and time spent. Jogging is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace and falls into the category of vigorous intensity exercise while walking falls into the light intensity exercise with longer duration of time than jogging (Colbert, 2004(Colbert, , p.1010). Many people walk or jog almost every day as a form of exercise and relaxation. ...
Research
Full-text available
Physical activity commonly accomplished through legitimate nourishment, moderate-fiery physical exercise, physical movement, and adequate rest. Prior to the mechanical upset, wellness was characterized as the ability to complete the day's exercises without excessive exhaustion. Be that as it may, with mechanization and changes in ways of life physical wellness is presently viewed as a proportion of the body's capacity to work productively and adequately in work and recreation exercises, to be solid, to oppose hypokinetic illnesses, and to meet crisis circumstances. ________________________________________________________________________________
... While IL-6 is often considered an immune-modulatory cytokine, it is also defined as a myokine secreted from contracting skeletal muscles to the blood stream [16]. Longterm regular aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce basal IL-6 levels in plasma: the more exercise, the lower the basal IL-6 level [73][74][75]. Moreover, IL-6 can cross the BBB, suggesting a potential crosstalk between muscle and the brain [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dysregulation of brain iron metabolism is one of the pathological features of aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive impairment. While physical inactivity is one of the risk factors for AD and regular exercise improves cognitive function and reduces pathology associated with AD, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of the study is to explore the effect of regular physical exercise on modulation of iron homeostasis in the brain and periphery of the 5xFAD mouse model of AD. By using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and a variety of biochemical techniques, we measured total iron content and level of proteins essential in iron homeostasis in the brain and skeletal muscles of sedentary and exercised mice. Long-term voluntary running induced redistribution of iron resulted in altered iron metabolism and trafficking in the brain and increased iron content in skeletal muscle. Exercise reduced levels of cortical hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis, coupled with interleukin-6 (IL-6) decrease in cortex and plasma. We propose that regular exercise induces a reduction of hepcidin in the brain, possibly via the IL-6/STAT3/JAK1 pathway. These findings indicate that regular exercise modulates iron homeostasis in both wild-type and AD mice.
... This syndrome refers to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, and represents not only the traditional risk factors but also uniqe risks attributed to the events which emerge with the failing kidney [21]. Studies have shown associations between physical function measures with malnutrition [22], inflammation [23,24], and vascular disorders [25]. Thus, MIA syndrome might significantly contribute to a decline in physical functions and increased fall risk in patients with CKD. ...
Article
Full-text available
PurposePatients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually represent an aging population, and both older age and CKD are associated with a higher risk of falling. Studies on risk factors among subjects with CKD are lacking.Methods Records of outpatients from one geriatric clinic in Turkey were retrospectively reviewed. A result of ≥ 13.5 s on the timed up and go (TUG) test was accepted as a high risk of falls. Independent predictors of an increased risk of falls among subjects with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were identified using logistic regression models.ResultsPatients with CKD (n = 205), represented the 20.2% of the entire cohort and was identified as an independent predictor of increased fall risk (OR 2.59). Within the CKD cohort, serum folic acid levels and frailty were independent predictors of an increased risk of falls. The CKD/fall risk group was older, had a lower median years of education, lower vitamin D levels, and lower serum folic acid levels than the CKD/non-fall risk group. In addition to higher serum creatinine and potassium levels, the only significant difference between patients with CKD/fall risk and a matched non-CKD/fall risk was a lower median folic acid level in the former group.Conclusions Frailty and low folic acid levels are independently associated with an increased risk of falls among elderly outpatients with CKD. Prevention of frailty may reduce the risk of falls in these subjects. Possible benefit of folic acid supplementation requires further studies.
... Recent studies suggest the role of inflammatory and endocrine clinical blood markers, including inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the development and chronicity of symptoms, particularly with mobility limitation, depression, sleep deprivation, fatigue, and HRQoL [15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited evidence on the associations of these clinical blood markers with symptom burden and HRQoL. ...
Article
Full-text available
Older adults suffer from multiple symptoms, which negatively affects their health-related quality of life. The single-symptom management approach has been less than effective. The data of 2362 Korean community-dwelling older adults aged 70 and above were analyzed in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS) study. A cluster analysis, correlation analysis, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. We found three symptom clusters: high symptom burden (HSB, n = 1032); pain and fatigue group (PAF, n = 566); and the sleep deprivation group (SDP, n = 764). Participants in the HSB group are more likely to be of old age (OR = 1.1), be female (OR = 2.4), live in a rural area (OR = 1.4), have low physical activity (OR = 0.9), and have multiple chronic conditions (OR = 1.5). The clinical blood markers analysis showed a negative relationship among the physical health, free T4 (r = −0.083, p < 0.01) and insulin (r = −0.084, p < 0.01). The sex-specific blood markers analysis showed differences among three clusters. While free testosterone (male: r = 0.124, female: r = 0.110, p < 0.05) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (male: r = 0.352 and female: r = 0.134, p < 0.05) were associated with physical health in the HSB group, only free testosterone was associated with mental health (male: r = −0.093, and female: r = −0.116, p < 0.05) in the SDP group. These findings suggest the potential role of the patient’s sex and sex hormones in symptoms of Korean community-dwelling older adults. Understanding the symptom profiles and impact of biopsychosocial factors may enhance precision symptom management.
... Likewise, the International Society of Sports Nutrition classifies vitamin C as a supplement I with strong evidence to prove the efficacy and apparent safety [13], but the results of studies are controversial; some of them support the ascorbic acid effectiveness exclusively in low plasma levels, that is in terms of deficiency [39]. The benefit reported from the use of vitamin C in physical training includes attenuation of bronchoconstriction and asthma [40], neutrophil monocyte accumulation in active muscles, and secretion of IL-1, IL-β, and TNF-α [41]. The protective anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin C has been proven in different models of lung and liver injury. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Exercise training induces adaptive physiological and morphological modifications in the entire organism; however, excessive loads of training may increase damage in tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of silymarin in lung and liver histological changes in rats subjected to exercise training (ET). Methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to an 8-week ET treadmill program 5 days per week, 60 min/session, and were previously administered 100 mg ascorbic acid or 100 mg of silymarin. Results: Silymarin increased alveolar and bronchial muscle size, improve vascularization, and reduced tissue inflammation. In liver, silymarin promoted the reduction of lipid content. Conclusion: Silymarin supplementation may improve inflammation in pulmonary tissue after 8 weeks of the ET treadmill program, improve cell recovery, and reduce intrahepatic lipid content.
... We stratified analyses by sex and included age and years of education as covariates. We also introduced BMI as a covariate for Level 1 and 2 analyses (Colbert et al., 2004;Bourassa and Sbarra, 2017) and ICV when using Level 2 outcomes. Since molecular outcomes in serum could be influenced by current cardiovascular risk factors medications, this variable was included as a dichotomous covariate in complementary analyses for Level 1 outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although exercise is known to have a neuroprotective effect in aging, the mediators underlying the exercise cognition association remain poorly understood. In this paper we aimed to study the molecular, brain and behavioral changes related to physical activity and their potential role as mediators. Methods: We obtained demographic, physical activity outcomes (sportive physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)), plasma biomarkers (TNF‐α, ICAM, HGF, SDF1‐α and BDNF), structural‐MRI (brain volume areas), psychological and sleep health (mood, depressive and distress symptoms and sleep quality) and multi-domain cognitive data from 115 adults aged 50-70 years. We conducted linear regression models and mediation analyses stratifying results by sex in a final sample of 104 individuals (65 women (age=56.75 ± 4.96) and 39 men (age=58.59 ± 5.86)). Results: Women engaging in greater amounts of exercising showed lower TNF‐α levels and greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and temporal lobe volumes. Men engaging in greater amounts of exercise showed greater temporal lobe volumes. CRF levels were not related to any of the analyzed outcomes in women but in men higher CRF was associated with lower TNF‐α, HGF and ventricle volumes, greater volume of temporal and parietal lobes and fewer depressive symptoms and better mood. In men, reduced TNF‐α and HGF levels mediated brain and cognitive CRF-related benefits. Conclusion: Our results show that exercise is a promising approach for influencing inflammation and brain volume and also contributes to ongoing discussions about the physiological mediators for the association between CRF and cognition in men.
... We stratified analyses by sex and included age and years of education as covariates. We also introduced BMI as a covariate for Level 1 and 2 analyses (Colbert et al., 2004;Bourassa and Sbarra, 2017) and ICV when using Level 2 outcomes. Since molecular outcomes in serum could be influenced by current cardiovascular risk factors medications, this variable was included as a dichotomous covariate in complementary analyses for Level 1 outcomes. ...
... Finally, it is well established that regular exercise and physical activity can counter inflammation, and perhaps over a lifetime, this effect limits inflammaging (42,299,300). For example, a study of 3075 participants aged 70-79 years reported lower levels of inflammatory markers, including IL-6, TNF-alpha and CRP, among those who performed higher levels of exercise (305). ...
Article
Full-text available
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. Over the last four decades, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures have improved substantially, giving patients with localized disease a better chance of cure, and those with more advanced cancer, longer periods of disease control and survival. However, understanding and managing heterogeneity in the clinical response exhibited by patients remains a challenge. For some treatments, biomarkers are available to inform therapeutic options, assess pathological response and predict clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, some measurements are not employed universally and lack sensitivity and specificity, which might be influenced by tissue-specific alterations associated with aging and lifestyle. The first part of this article summarizes available and emerging biomarkers for clinical use, such as measurements that can be made in tumor biopsies or blood samples, including so-called liquid biopsies. The second part of this article outlines underappreciated factors that could influence the interpretation of these clinical measurements and affect treatment outcomes. For example, it has been shown that both adiposity and physical activity can modify the characteristics of tumors and surrounding tissues. In addition, evidence shows that inflammaging and immunosenescence interact with treatment and clinical outcomes and could be considered prognostic and predictive factors independently. In summary, changes to blood and tissues that reflect aging and patient characteristics, including lifestyle, are not commonly considered clinically or in research, either for practical reasons or because the supporting evidence base is developing. Thus, an aim of this article is to encourage an integrative phenomic approach in oncology research and clinical management.
... The mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise have not been clearly elucidated. However, considering the hypothesis that fat reduction is involved [49], increasing physical activity levels will actively utilize the energy stored in adipocytes, and the resulting decrease in body fat mass could be connected to decreased proinflammatory factors secreted by adipocytes. In addition, TE and MitoQ combination treatment increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes SOD-2 and catalase. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise and antioxidants have health benefits that improve cognitive impairment and may act synergistically. In this study, we examined the effects of treadmill exercise (TE) and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone (MitoQ), individually or combined, on learning and memory, mitochondrial dynamics, NADPH oxidase activity, and neuroinflammation and antioxidant activity in the hippocampus of D-galactose-induced aging rats. TE alone and TE combined with MitoQ in aging rats reduced mitochondrial fission factors (Drp1, Fis1) and increased mitochondrial fusion factors (Mfn1, Mfn2, Opa1). These groups also exhibited improved NADPH oxidase activity and antioxidant activity (SOD-2, catalase). TE or MitoQ alone decreased neuroinflammatory response (COX-2, TNF-α), but the suppression was greater with their combination. In addition, aging-increased neuroinflammation in the dentate gyrus was decreased in TE but not MitoQ treatment. Learning and memory tests showed that, contrarily, MitoQ alone demonstrated some similar effects to TE but not a definitive improvement. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that MitoQ exerted some positive effects on aging when used as an isolated treatment, but TE had a more effective role on cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondria dysfunction. Our findings suggest that the combination of TE and MitoQ exerted no synergistic effects and indicated regular exercise should be the first priority in neuroprotection of age-related cognitive decline.
... Previous reports also demonstrated a positive correlation between TNF-α −308 polymorphism and alkaline phosphatase level [21], NAFLD risk [43], and liver disease progression [44]. Regular exercise, weight loss, and supplementation [45] may be effective in reducing plasma TNF and thus, NAFLD management. Serum IL-6 concentration was detected to be significantly higher in cirrhosis, hepatitis B and C virus patients with IL-6 -174 mutation [46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have revealed that genetic polymorphisms of the Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 (GSTM1 and GSTT1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are associated with the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in many populations. This study was conducted to investigate the association of the GSTM1, GSTT1, TNF-α rs1800629, and IL-6 rs1800795 with NAFLD in the general Iranian population. A case-control analysis included 242 NAFLD patients and 324 healthy controls from Iranian adults. After the physical examination, the genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction(PCR). The GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, TNF-α AG/AA, and IL-6 CG/CC genotypes were deemed to be high-risk. The null allele of GSTM1 and A allele of TNF-α were more frequent in NAFLD patients even after Bonferroni’s correction (P values<0.005, adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.66 and 2.02; 95% confidence intervals (CI), (1.18–2.32) and (1.34–3.34), respectively. The IL-6 CC/CG genotype association with NAFLD was not significant after correction (P value = 0.04) Polymorphisms of xenobiotic and pro-inflammatory genes are associated with NAFLD in the Iranian population and seem to be a useful tool for NAFLD prevention and care.
... Muscle soreness was attenuated by vitamin C intake in a double-blind, randomised, crossover study [22]. Inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, but not TNF-α) were lower in subjects using antioxidants (multivitamins, vitamins C and E, β-carotene), regardless of the physiological activity level [23]. Adding vitamin C to a four-week training protocol of female athletes hampered the increase of creatine kinase [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is a literature overview of the complex relationship between vitamin C and two opposing physiological states, physical activity and sleep. The evidence suggests a clinically important bidirectional association between these two phenomena mediated by different physiological mechanisms. With this in mind, and knowing that both states share a connection with oxidative stress, we discuss the existing body of evidence to answer the question of whether vitamin C supplementation can be beneficial in the context of sleep health and key aspects of physical activity, such as performance, metabolic changes, and antioxidant function. We analyze the effect of ascorbic acid on the main sleep components, sleep duration and quality, focusing on the most common disorders: insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome. Deeper understanding of those interactions has implications for both public health and clinical practice.
... Only nonpharmacological intervention, including exercise and nutritional supports, are currently available and have reported successful outcomes. [9][10][11][12] Now, estimation of nutritional status is most important for successful treatment of sarcopenia. However, the nutritional status of patient with sarcopenia has not been sufficiently studied. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Our purpose in this study was to evaluate any deficiency of protein intake for different types of sarcopenia, including osteosarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity and to establish a cut-off value for the relationship between malnutrition, sarcopenia, and osteosarcopenia. Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 4,020 participants (men, 1,698 and women, 2,322) were analyzed in the present study. Sarcopenia is defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia. To evaluate the adequacy of protein intake, the value obtained by dividing the amount of protein consumed through food by the daily recommended protein amount (50 g/day) of Korean males was defined as the nutrient intake ratio. Results: Total protein (P<0.001 in men, P<0.001 in women) and low dietary intake protein (P<0.001 in men, P=0.046 in women) were significantly lower in the sarcopenia group than in the normal group, and were significantly lower in the osteosarcopenia group than in the normal group for both men and women. The cut-off value of the adjusted weight of protein intake for sarcopenia was 0.58 g/kg/day in men and 0.98 g/kg/day in women. The cut-off value for adjusted weight of protein intake for osteo-sarcopenia was 0.8 g/kg/day in men and 0.5 g/kg/day in women. Conclusions: A comprehensive dietary assessment to detect nutritional deficits that predispose one to or aggravate muscle atrophy is important for establishing a treatment plan for patients with malnutrition.
... Chronic primary insomnia is characterized by long-term difficulties in maintaining and initiating sleep, too early waking up, poor mood, fatigue, impaired concentration and poor quality of life [1][2][3][4] . Insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder affecting 15%-22% of worldwide population with huge adverse impact on the general health [6][7][8] . Insomnia is associated with psychosocial and occupational impairments include cognitive deficits, poor mood, daytime fatigue and poor quality of life 9 . ...
Article
Background: Chronic primary insomnia is characterized by long-term difficulties in maintaining and initiating sleep, too early waking up, poor mood, fatigue, impaired concentration and poor quality of life. Exercise training is recommended to prevent and alleviate sleep disorders. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of aerobic exercise training on quality of sleep, psychological wellbeing and immune system among subjects with chronic primary insomnia. Material and methods: Eighty previously sedentary subjects with chronic primary insomnia subjects enrolled in this study, their age ranged from 35-56 years. All participants were randomly assigned to supervised aerobic exercise intervention group (group A, n=40) or control group (group B, n=40). Polysomnographic recordings for sleep quality assessment, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Profile of Mood States(POMS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), number of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T cells count and CD4/CD8 ratio were measured before and at the end of the study after six months. Results: There was a significant increase in the total sleep duration, sleep efficiency and sleep onset latency in group(A) after six months of aerobic exercise training, while, wake time after sleep onset and rapid eye movement (REM) latency significantly reduced after six months of aerobic training compared with values obtained prior to aerobic exercise training. Also, the mean values of BDI, POMS, CD3 count, CD4 count and CD8 count decreased significantly and the mean value of RSES significantly increased in group (A) after the aerobic exercise training, while the results of the control group were not significant. Moreover, there were significant differences between both groups at the end of the study. Conclusion: Exercise training can be considered as a non-pharmacological modalty for modifying sleep quality, psychological wellbeing and immune system among subjects with chronic primary insomnia.
... 6 This hypothesis is supported by a number of studies in the general population that demonstrated a clear association between higher levels of physical activity, reductions in pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling, and lower systemic inflammation. [7][8][9][10] Though studies in the general population have observed favorable . CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license It is made available under a is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: While general population studies have shown associations between greater physical activity and lower inflammatory markers, effects of physical activity on inflammatory pathways in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain unknown. We aimed to determine whether physical activity independently associates with differential expression of inflammatory genes in RA. Methods: Data derived from an observational RA cohort. Physical activity was measured with the GT9X ActiGraph Link device. RNA extraction from peripheral blood, sequencing library preparation and transcriptomic analyses were performed using established methods. Genes differentially expressed in the most versus least physically active groups (top versus bottom activity tertiles) were identified using DESeq2 after adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and disease activity. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was employed to identify canonical biological pathways and upstream regulating cytokines associated with physical activity. Results: 35 participants were enrolled (mean age 56 +/- 12 years; 91% female; race/ethnicity 31% white, 9% African American, 9% Asian, 40% Hispanic). 767 genes were differentially expressed (padj<0.1) between high versus low activity groups. The high activity group exhibited downregulation of innate and adaptive immune signaling pathways, including CD40, STAT3, TREM-1, IL-17a, IL-8, toll-like receptor and interferon signaling. Upstream cytokine analysis demonstrated inhibition of TNF-alpha and interferon among individuals in the most active group. Conclusion: In a racially diverse RA cohort, patients who were more physically active had lower expression of immune signaling pathways implicated in RA pathogenesis, even after adjusting for disease activity, suggesting a potential protective effect of physical activity in RA.
... These aforementioned exercise-induced microvascular protective effects likely can be attributed, at least in part, to reduced systemic inflammatory status. Results from the Health ABC and NHANESIII studies show that selfreported physical activity is associated with reduced levels of circulating IL6, TNF-a, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and this association is independent of both BMI and waist-tohip ratio in older adults (304,305). Although the existing evidence supports the concept that exercise improves cognition via exerting microvascular protective effects, additional studies are needed to completely understand the circulating mediators and the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in its effects on neurovascular coupling and brain capillarization, especially in obese elderly individuals. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over two thirds of individuals aged 65 and older are obese or overweight in the United States. Epidemiological data show an association between the degree of adiposity and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly. In this review, the pathophysiological roles of microvascular mechanisms, including impaired endothelial function and neurovascular coupling responses, microvascular rarefaction and blood-brain barrier disruption in the genesis of cognitive impairment in geriatric obesity are considered. The potential contribution of adipose-derived factors and fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms of senescence to exacerbated obesity-induced cerebromicrovascular impairment and cognitive decline in aging are discussed.
... Several studies have shown that moderate physical exercise promotes the modulation of inflammation [46][47][48] . Several large cohort studies have found a relationship between self-reported physical activity levels and systemic markers of inflammation: higher levels of physical activity are coupled to lower levels of circulating inflammatory markers in elderly individuals [49][50][51] . Regarding the aerobic exercise training, our results agreed with Nicklas et al. showed that regular aerobic exercise training was efficient in lowering IL-6 levels even without weight loss 52 . ...
Article
Background: Chronic primary insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder that is associated with adverse effects on health outcomes. Exercise is often considered a non-pharmacological approach that could have beneficial effects on sleep. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the impact of aerobic and resistance exercise training on quality of sleep and inflammatory markers among subjects with chronic primary insomnia. Material and methods: Sixty previously sedentary subjects with chronic primary insomnia subjects enrolled in this study, their age ranged from 31-52 years. All participants were randomly assigned to aerobic exercise intervention group (group A, n=35) or resistance exercise intervention group (group B, n=35). Polysomnographic recordings for sleep quality assessment, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were measured before and at the end of the study after six months. Results: There was a significant increase in the total sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency and IL-10 in group(A) and group (B) in addition to significant reduction in awake time after sleep onset, REM latency, IL-6 and TNF-α after 6 months of aerbic and resistance exercise training. However, there were significant differences between both groups at the end of the study. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training is more appropriately than resistance exercise training in modulation of inflammatory and sleep quality among subjects with chronic primary insomnia.
... Crosssectional observational studies have reported lower levels of inflammatory markers (IL-6 and C-reactive protein) in active older adults (Reuben et al., 2003) and determined that active women had lower levels of the plasma inflammatory biomarker TNF-α (Castells-Sánchez et al., 2021). Another observational study also found low levels of IL-6, C-reactive protein, and TNF-α (Colbert et al., 2004). Plasma IL-6 levels decrease in response to aerobic exercise in both MCI (Nascimento et al., 2014) and AD (Abd El-Kader and Al-Jiffri, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of evidence clearly indicates the beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) on cognition. The importance of PA is now being reevaluated due to the increase in sedentary behavior in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although many studies in humans have revealed that PA helps to preserve brain health, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. In this review, which mainly focuses on studies in humans, we comprehensively summarize the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of PA or exercise on brain health, particularly cognition. The most intensively studied mechanisms of the beneficial effects of PA involve an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and preservation of brain volume, especially that of the hippocampus. Nonetheless, the mutual associations between these two factors remain unclear. For example, although BDNF presumably affects brain volume by inhibiting neuronal death and/or increasing neurogenesis, human data on this issue are scarce. It also remains to be determined whether PA modulates amyloid and tau metabolism. However, recent advances in blood-based biomarkers are expected to help elucidate the beneficial effects of PA on the brain. Clinical data suggest that PA functionally modulates cognition independently of neurodegeneration, and the mechanisms involved include modulation of functional connectivity, neuronal compensation, neuronal resource allocation, and neuronal efficiency. However, these mechanisms are as yet not fully understood. A clear understanding of the mechanisms involved could help motivate inactive persons to change their behavior. More accumulation of evidence in this field is awaited.
... Empirical data from large sample size and cohort studies have consistently shown an association between physical activity and in ammation. Speci cally, lower IL-6 and TNFα has been reported to be associated with greater volumes of physical activity in the health, aging and body composition study [21]. Taaffe et al., reported that IL-6 concentrations was inversely proportional to the number of reported hours of physical activity spent in a year [22]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Chronic low grade systemic inflammation has been identified as a major risk factor for chronic diseases. The potential for physical exercise to induce anti-inflammatory effect is now increasingly being explored but there is paucity of data regarding the effects isometric exercise on inflammatory cytokines. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of selected inflammatory cytokines to isometric handgrip exercise and identify possible effects of intensity and duration of the isometric effort on these variables. CASE PRESENTATION: A total of one hundred and ninety two (N=192) sedentary pre-hypertensive subjects, aged between 30-50years were recruited into the study and randomly distributed into three groups of 64 subjects each. The subjects performed a 24 consecutive day’s isometric hand grip exercise at 30% Maximum Voluntary Contraction. At the end of the 24 days, the group one (GP1) discontinued with the exercise protocol while the group two (GP2) continued the exercise protocol for another 24 consecutive days and the group three (GP3) continued with the exercise protocol for another 24 consecutive days but at 50%MVC. The parameters used to assess for the inflammatory cytokine variables included interleukin 10, interleukin 6 and tumor necrotic factor. At the end of the study, there was an increase in the resting values of interleukin 10 across the three groups while the resting values of interleukin 6 and tumor necrotic factor reduced significantly across groups. CONCLUSIONS: The reductions noted in the pro-inflammatory cytokines and increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokines could have a positive impact in the management of chronic diseases. It was also found that increase in intensity and/or duration produced more proportionate effect.
... Systemic inflammation plays a major role in CAD etiopathogenesis [17] and routine inflammatory biomarkers (complete blood count, C-reactive protein) have proven their role for both acute and long-term cardiovascular risk assessment [18][19][20]. Physical activity decreases systemic markers of inflammation, thrombosis and endothelial dysfunction, and has a key role in preventing CAD [21][22][23]. The platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is an integrated reflection of two important opposite inflammatory pathways that can be easily calculated from a complete blood count. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: Functional capacity (FC) assessed via cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a novel, independent prognostic marker for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are two readily available predictors of systemic inflammation and cardiovascular event risk, which could be used as cost-effective predictors of poor FC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of NLR and PLR in predicting poor FC in patients with CAD and recent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Materials and Methods: Our cross-sectional retrospective analysis included 80 patients with stable CAD and recent elective PCI (mean age 55.51 ± 11.83 years, 71.3% male) who were referred to a cardiovascular rehabilitation center from January 2020 to June 2021. All patients underwent clinical examination, cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer, transthoracic echocardiography and standard blood analysis. Results: Patients were classified according to percent predicted oxygen uptake (% VO2 max) in two groups—poor FC (≤70%, n = 35) and preserved FC (>70%, n = 45). There was no significant difference between groups regarding age, gender ratio, presence of associated comorbidities, left ventricular ejection fraction and NLR. PLR was higher in patients with poor FC (169.8 ± 59.3 vs. 137.4 ± 35.9, p = 0.003). A PLR cut-off point of 139 had 74% sensitivity and 60% specificity in predicting poor FC. After multivariate analysis, PLR remained a significant predictor of poor functional status. Conclusions: Although CPET is the gold standard test for assessing FC prior to cardiovascular rehabilitation, its availability remains limited. PLR, a cheap and simple test, could predict poor FC in patients with stable CAD and recent elective PCI and help prioritize referral for cardiovascular rehabilitation in high-risk patients.
... Moreover, postpartum interventions promoting healthy diet and exercise may reduce the risk of weight retention and a negative rebound effect on future pregnancies. Physical activity acts as an efficacious and costless method to reduce the level of inflammation [138] and to improve psychological wellbeing, which may itself affect the inflammation status [139]. Increasing evidence shows that the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), high in antioxidants, fiber, and mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acids, has an immunomodulant effect on the systemic inflammatory balance, leading to a boost of the anti-inflammatory response and contrasting the progressive increase of inflammaging [140]. ...
Article
Full-text available
During female lifetime and pregnancy, inflammation and cellular senescence are implicated in physiological processes, from ovulation and menstruation, to placental homeostasis and delivery. Several lifestyles, nutritional, and environmental insults, as well as long-lasting pregestational inflammatory diseases may lead to detrimental effects in promoting and sustaining a chronic excessive inflammatory response and inflammaging, which finally contribute to the decay of fertility and pregnancy outcome, with a negative effect on placental function, fetal development, and future health risk profile in the offspring. Maladaptation to pregnancy and obstetric disease may in turn increase maternal inflammaging in a feedback loop, speeding up aging processes and outbreak of chronic diseases. Maternal inflammaging may also impact, through transgenerational effects, on future adult health. Hence, efficacious interventions should be implemented by physicians and healthcare professionals involved in prevention activities to reduce the modifiable factors contributing to the inflammaging process in order to improve public health.
... 36,37 Specifically, the LDL/HDL ratio has been shown to be a more accurate predictor of CVD risk than LDL or HDL alone, 38 and elevated triglyceride levels are associated with increased CVD, sometimes independently of cholesterol levels. 39 Routine physical activity and dietary patterns can affect inflammatory markers 40,41 and cholesterol levels. 7,42 One meta-analysis found a combined influence of physical activity and diet improvements, with beneficial effects on triglycerides and cholesterol levels. ...
Article
Objective Examine whether exercise and diet motivation are associated with 4 biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Data collection involved questionnaires, blood draws, body composition assessments, and accelerometry. Setting Small, midwestern college town. Participants Community older adults (≥ 58 years of age; n = 79) recruited through convenience sampling; the sample was representative of the population of interest for some demographic characteristics (eg, age and sex) but not representative of other characteristics (eg, level of activity). Variables Measured Independent variables comprised self-reported intrinsic exercise motivation (Behavioral Regulation for Exercise Questionnaire-3) and intuitive eating (Intuitive Eating Scale-2). Dependent variables included inflammatory proteins (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) and lipid levels (low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides) quantified from blood samples. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, and objective physical activity measured by accelerometers worn for 7 days. Analysis Multiple linear regression was used to assess the association between diet and exercise motivation and biomarker outcomes; we analyzed 4 regression models (1 for each biomarker). Significance level P < 0.05. Results Greater intuitive eating was associated with a lower low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio (β = −0.45, P = 0.001) and lower triglycerides (β = −0.37, P = 0.003). Intrinsic exercise motivation was not associated with the biomarkers. Conclusions and Implications Intuitive eating may be a key determinant of certain biomarkers and could be a viable target for interventions to help decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease among older adults.
... Having experienced emotional neglect may also be associated with reduced physical activity due to an increased risk for depression and sickness behavior induced by increased inflammatory levels. Depression and inflammation have both been found to be associated with physical inactivity (101,102). Pro-inflammatory biomarkers such as IL-6 or IL-8 change brain functions and can induce sickness behavior indicated by depressive-like behavior such as impaired mood and reduced willingness for activities such as physical activity (103)(104)(105). A lack of physical activity in emotionally neglected children leads to a decreased energy expenditure, which may-in combination with an increased caloric intake (as described above)-contribute to obesity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Psychosocial factors predict the incidence and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is accumulating evidence for the importance of childhood maltreatment for the development and progression of both CVD-related risk factors and CVD. However, past research has predominantly focused on active forms of childhood maltreatment such as emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. At the same time, childhood neglect as a relatively silent form of childhood maltreatment received less attention. Childhood emotional neglect is the most common form of neglect. This narrative review summarizes findings on the association between childhood emotional neglect and CVD and potential underlying mechanisms. These mechanisms may involve biological factors (i.e., elevated inflammation, autonomic dysregulation, dysregulated HPA axis, and altered brain development), psychological variables and mental health (i.e., depression and anxiety), and health behaviors (i.e., eating behavior, smoking, drug use, , physical activity) and interpersonal aspects. Evidence suggests that emotional neglect is associated with CVD and CVD risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, inflammation, a dysregulated stress system, altered brain development, depression and other psychological abnormalities (i.e., emotion-regulation difficulties), interpersonal difficulties, and lack of health behaviors. Specific subtypes of childhood maltreatment may be associated with CVD via different mechanisms. This review further encompasses clinical suggestions, identifies research gaps, and has implications for future studies. However, more research with better study designs is desperately needed to identify the exact underlying mechanisms and opportunities for mitigating the negative health consequences of emotional neglect to reduce the prevalence and progression of CVD.
... Meeting the physical-activity guidelines or performing regular physical activity extends additional health benefits specifically for COVID-19 as recent data suggest that these individuals have a lower risk of infection, hospitalization, intensive-care-unit admission, and mortality from COVID-19 [4][5][6]. The benefits of physical activity for COVID-19 may be related to how regular physical activity impacts multiple health domains that are related to COVID-19 risk, such as improving cardiovascular health [7], lowering systemic inflammation [8,9], 2 of 14 improving immune health [10,11], and lowering obesity [12]. However, reduced physicalactivity levels during the initial stages of the pandemic have been reported globally and across all age groups [13][14][15][16][17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Whether the COVID-19 pandemic has long-lasting effects on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in the vulnerable older adult population is uncertain. A total of 387 older adults (75 ± 6 years) completed a retrospective questionnaire on time spent sitting, walking, and performing aerobic and muscle-strengthening PA before, during the first three months, and one year into the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether the participants met the aerobic and muscle-strengthening PA guidelines was then determined. Of the 387 older adults, 376 (97%) were vaccinated. The participants completed 361 ± 426, 293 ± 400, and 454 ± 501 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic PA before, during the first three months, and one year into the pandemic, respectively. During the same time periods, the participants performed muscle-strengthening PA 87 ± 157, 68 ± 163, and 90 ± 176 min/week, walked 2.4 ± 1.7, 2.3 ± 1.7, and 2.6 ± 1.9 h/day, and sat 6.2 ± 2.9, 7.4 ± 3.1, and 6.1 ± 2.9 h/day, respectively. Aerobic PA, muscle-strengthening PA, and walking time decreased, whereas sitting time increased, during the first three months of the pandemic (p < 0.05), and then returned to pre-pandemic levels after one year (p < 0.05). The percentage of participants meeting both aerobic and muscle-strengthening PA guidelines decreased during the first three months of the pandemic (48.9% to 33.5%, p < 0.001), but returned to pre-pandemic levels one year later (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic significantly decreased PA and increased sitting time in older adults; however, both PA and sitting time returned to pre-pandemic levels after one year.
Article
Introduction One of the challenges confronting the coaches and sport scientist is to understand the physical factors contributing to successful performance. One common method to identify the appropriate training program for improving fitness level is the analysis of the effect of these practices on various factors of training exercises. The initial testing session can give the athletes and coach an information of current functional capability at the start of a program and can allow them to compare that capacity with reference values from appropriate peer group, so that future testing can be compared to this and any changes can be noted .Also the assessment of current status reveals strengths and relative weaknesses and can be the basis for development of an optimal training program(1) .The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an eight-weeks general preparation exercise on some selected biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters of the Iranian national women Taekwondo team. Methodology Nine elite member of Iranian national women Taekwondo team (age 23.22±1.98 years old, and weight 61.88±8.44 kg) participated in this study. All participants read and signed an approved informed consent form. The exercise program consist of 72 sessions (3 session reviewing and practicing techniques ,2 sessions of combat (live) taekwondo ,2 sessions strength training, ,1 session interval running and 1 session of endurance training each week). The testing was conducted twice, before and after the 8-week training period. The biomechanical, anthropometrical and physiological parameters included; body weight, cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, speed, agility, visual reaction time, anaerobic power and body composition. body composition analyzer (in body 220) was used to assess the body fat percentage, reaction time was measured with visual reaction time apparatus(Satrap company, Iran), Bruce protocol was used to estimate vo2 max, a 40-yard sprint test was used to assess the speed, 4×9 m shuttle run test was required to assess agility , 1-min bilateral jump was used for assess the lower extremities endurance and 15 second ergo- jump and Sargent test was required to assess the anaerobic power of the subjects. And inferential statistics Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check the normality distribution, using a paired t- test tests to compare variables before and after training, with a significant level of (p≤0.05) Result The results of functional test are presented in table 1. The bf % of the subjects significantly decreased .The result of body weight, agility, visual reaction time and anaerobic power (ergo jump test) test were slightly lower in after training. The result of anaerobic power, aerobic test and muscle endurance significantly increased. Table 1. P-value t(8) post-test pre-test Variable 0.347 1 61.55±8.30 81.88±8.44 Weight (kg) *0.000 5.888 15.05±5.04 16.78±5.38 BF (%) 0.128 -1.7 6.29±0.255 6.19±0.288 Speed (m/s) *0.001 -5.406 146.44±8.38 141.55±9.51 Muscle endurance( rep∙min-1) 0.176 1.486 9.24±0.241 9.35±0.352 Agility (s) 0.127 1.705 0.416±0.048 0.438±0.352 Visual reaction time(ms) *0.01 -3.344 909.01±136.46 878.66±121.40 Aneorobic power sargent (w) 0.787 0.279 35.33±5.97 35.55±7.95 aneorobic power ergo-jump (w∙kg-1) *0.000 -8.083 55.55±5.57 48.55±5.12 VO2max (ml∙kg-1∙min-1) * Differences are significant at the 0.05 level. Discussion and Conclusion In previous studies cited that having good anaerobic and aerobic capacity, power, agility are most important factors needed to achieve good result in taekwondo(2, 3). In this regard, the main emphasize of general preparation phase is enhance the cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength, significant reduction in bf% and significant increase in aerobic and anaerobic factors following exercise was similar to the other investigation(4, 5). Finally, these results can be use as a feedback to the coaches to review the applied training protocols.
Article
Introduction Regular exercise is recommended for people with major depressive disorder (MDD) by major treatment guidelines (e.g. the NICE guideline, 2009). In addition, an effect of antidepressant (AD) treatment on pro-inflammatory markers has been reported. However, it remains unclear whether physical activity as an adjuvant to AD treatment increases clinical response rates and is associated with levels of inflammatory markers. Methods A four-week single-blind clinical trial involving forty people with major MDD, divided into an AD group (sertraline) and AD + exercise (40 mins/day, four times weekly for four weeks) group was conducted. Peripheral inflammatory markers (IL-12, IL-10, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α) and cortisol were collected at baseline and at endpoint. Results We observed a significant decrease in cortisol levels over time, but this change did not differ between the AD and AD + exercise groups. None of the other inflammatory markers showed a significant change in level during the trial. Also, most of the individuals who achieved remission were from the AD + exercise group. Conclusion Although our study failed to find that the association of physical activity as an adjunct to antidepressants promotes a change in cortisol or interleukins in people with MDD, we found that cortisol seems to be the most sensitive biomarker to antidepressant treatment. Further studies involving larger samples of, longer duration and with other classes of antidepressants and types of exercise should be conducted to better elucidate the link between inflammatory markers and depression.
Article
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of selected inflammatory cytokines to isometric handgrip exercise and identify possible effects of intensity and duration of the isometric effort on these variables. Methods A total of 192 sedentary prehypertensive Nigerian participants aged between 30 and 50 years were recruited into the study and randomly distributed into 3 groups of 64 participants each. The participants performed 24 consecutive days of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% maximum voluntary contraction. At the end of the 24 days, group 1 discontinued the exercise protocol, while group 2 continued the exercise protocol for another 24 consecutive days, and group 3 continued with the exercise protocol for another 24 consecutive days but at 50% maximum voluntary contraction. The parameters used to assess the inflammatory cytokine variables included interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Results There was an increase in the resting values of IL-10 across the 3 groups, while the resting values of IL-6 and TNF-α were reduced significantly across groups. Generally, the exercise-induced changes in the levels of these cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10) should improve inflammatory and metabolic abnormalities. Conclusion The isometric handgrip exercise protocols in this study resulted in elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) and reductions in the values of proinflammatory cytokines TNF- α and IL-6.
Article
Background and Objectives Although research on the health benefits of volunteering has proliferated, most studies are cross-sectional and rely on self-reported measures of health. Drawing from role theory, the objectives of this study are to examine if (1) volunteering engagement is related to systemic inflammation in later life, as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP), (2) the effect of volunteering varies by age and (3) volunteering is related to change in CRP over time. Research Design and Methods This study uses four waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative survey of adults 50 years or older. Nested linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between volunteer engagement and CRP concentration in later life. Residualized regression models were used to examine the effects of volunteer engagement on change in CRP. Results Results revealed that volunteering is modestly associated with lower CRP concentration, but only for respondents 65+. Highly engaged volunteers had lower CRP than both mid-level and non-volunteers. Longitudinal analyses revealed a leveling of the beneficial effect of volunteering by age, indicative of reduced returns among the oldest respondents in our sample. Discussion and Implications These results support previous studies that volunteering, and doing so at a high engagement level, is associated with slightly lower levels of CRP. Leaders in medicine, public health, and social services should consider implementing volunteering programs for older adults.
Article
Aging is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, which are preceded by early, negative remodeling of the vasculature. Low physical activity is a well-established risk factor associated with the incidence and development of disease. However, recent physical activity literature indicates the importance of considering the 24-hour movement spectrum. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to examine the impact of the 24-hour movement spectrum, specifically physical activity (aerobic and resistance training), sedentary behaviour, and sleep, on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes in older adults, with a focus on recent evidence (<10 years) and sex-based considerations. The review identified that both aerobic training and being physically active (compared to sedentary) are associated with improvements in endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and cerebrovascular function. Additionally, there is evidence of sex-based differences in endothelial function: a blunted improvement in aerobic training in postmenopausal women compared to men. While minimal research has been conducted in older adults, resistance training does not appear to influence arterial stiffness. Poor sleep quantity or quality are associated with both impaired endothelial function and increased arterial stiffness. Finally, the review highlights mechanistic pathways involved in the regulation of vascular and cerebrovascular function - specifically the balance between pro- and anti-atherogenic factors, which mediate the relationship between the 24-hour movement spectrum and vascular outcomes. Finally, this review proposes future research directions: examining the role of duration and intensity of training, combining aerobic and resistance training, and exploration to sex-based differences in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes.
Article
Background Sarcopenia is linked to loss of muscle mass in older adults, leading to impaired functional capacity and quality of life. In addition, this finding was recognized as an age-related chronic inflammatory process. We aimed to determine the relationship between sarcopenia, functional capacity, and inflammatory biomarkers and subsequent prediction of inflammatory biomarkers in older adults. Methods A total of 126 women and men aged ≥ 60 years were enrolled. Participants were required to complete a handgrip dynamometer, 6-meter walk test, and bioimpedance analysis. Diagnosis was based on the definition of sarcopenia from the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019. Prior to performing a 6-minute walking test (i.e., functional capacity testing), blood samples were drawn for a C-reactive protein (CRP) test. Results A total of 12.70% were categorized as having sarcopenia. Significant differences in CRP and functional capacity between the sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups were found (p <.05). Older people with high CRP levels had significantly reduced functional capacity, lower muscle mass, and decreased handgrip strength. Conclusions Poor functional capacity was associated with increased CRP levels, which might be due to the development of age-related inflammation. Older patients with sarcopenia may be at higher risk for functional decline.
Chapter
Physical activity results in a series of proinflammatory reactions and innate immune responses, which occur postexercise. This is followed by antiinflammatory reactions that are critical for regeneration and healing. The severity of inflammation following exercise depends on the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise bout, as well as the training status of the individual. Interventions designed to reduce the inflammatory response following exercise may, in fact, be detrimental to adaptation, though they may positively impact performance and competition with short turnaround times. Although acute inflammation is critical for recovery, chronic inflammation—even low-grade systemic and tissue-specific simmering inflammation—appears to be a mechanism associated with the aging process and is related to many chronic diseases. It appears that regular, sustained physical activity, including endurance and resistance-type exercise, may provide a protective impact on chronic low-grade inflammatory conditions. General patterns of dietary intake and specific nutrients and other dietary constituents or supplements demonstrate promise for positively impacting this relationship. Many of the same cytokine and chemokine actors that are modulated by physical activity also are affected by diet. Many of the intercellular signaling systems modulated by physical activity are also regulated by various aspects of nutrition, including carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism and oxidation. While much of the focus of this chapter is on exercise training among people at optimal ages for fitness, there are important and obvious implications for nonathletes across the lifespan, especially during childhood and among the elderly. Research into non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs also has implications for exploring the effect of diet in modulating inflammatory and immune responses in context of physical activity.
Article
This study aimed to investigate the dose– and intensity–response associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in older adults. Multivariable linear regression was performed to evaluate the associations among 3,559 older adults in 2015–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. LTPA was negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein, segmented neutrophil count and alkaline phosphatase, and positively associated with one marker of antioxidants albumin in older adults. Compared with vigorous LTPA, moderate LTPA could provide more benefits through further decreasing white blood cell count and alkaline phosphatase, and increasing serum bilirubin and albumin. The effects of LTPA on C-reactive protein and albumin were more significant in participants with chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the dose– and intensity–response effects of LTPA on inflammation and oxidative stress and provides exercise prescription recommendations for older adults.
Article
Full-text available
Aging is generally known to be associated with dynamic biological changes, physiological dysfunction, and environmental and psychological decline. Several studies have suggested that aging is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines, causing several diseases. However, the effect of exercise on aging has been less delineated, and the relationships between cytokine activation, aging, and exercise also need further study. Here, we discuss some ideas about the effect of exercise on aging-induced exaggerated cytokine responses and discuss the possible roles of the aging-induced exaggerated cytokine response following exercise. Evidence from these findings suggests that exercise is a beneficially applicable model to use in studies on the mechanisms underlying the age-associated gradated cytokine response, and these results may provide guidelines for health professionals with diverse backgrounds.
Article
Chronic increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines in older adults, known as inflammaging, is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the aging population. It has been suggested that circadian disruption may play a role in chronic inflammation, but there has been limited study that investigated the overall profile of 24-hour rest-activity rhythms in relation to inflammation using longitudinal data. In the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study, we applied the extended cosine model to derive multiple rest-activity rhythm characteristics using multi-day actigraphy, and examined their associations with six inflammatory markers (i.e., CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, TNF-α-sRII, IL-1 β, IFN-γ) measured from fasting blood. We assessed both the cross-sectional association between rest-activity rhythms and inflammatory markers measured at baseline, and the prospective association between baseline rest-activity rhythms and changes in in inflammatory markers over 3.5 years of follow up. We found that multiple rest-activity characteristics, including lower amplitude and relative amplitude, and decreased overall rhythmicity, were associated with higher levels of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and TNF-α-sRII, but not IL-1β and IFN-γ at baseline. Moreover, the lowest quartile of these three rest-activity characteristics was associated with an approximately two-fold increase in the odds of having elevated inflammation (i.e. having three or more markers in the highest quartile) at baseline. However, we found little evidence supporting a relationship between rest-activity rhythm characteristics and changes in inflammatory markers. Future studies should clarify the dynamic relationship between rest-activity rhythms and inflammation in different populations, and evaluate the effects of improving rest-activity profiles on inflammation and related disease outcomes.
Article
Age-related declines in cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function are mitigated by regular endurance exercise in older adults. This may be due in part to changes in the transcriptional program of skeletal muscle following repeated bouts of exercise. However, the impact of chronic exercise training on the transcriptional response to an acute bout of endurance exercise has not been clearly determined. Here, we characterized baseline differences in muscle transcriptome and exercise-induced response in older adults who were active/endurance trained or sedentary. RNA-sequencing was performed on vastus lateralis biopsy specimens obtained before, immediately after, and 3h following a bout of endurance exercise (40-minutes of cycling at 60-70% of heart rate reserve). Using a recently developed bioinformatics approach, we found that transcript signatures related to type I myofibers, mitochondria, and endothelial cells were higher in active/endurance trained adults, and were associated with key phenotypic features including VO 2 peak, ATP max , and muscle fiber proportion. Immune cell signatures were elevated in the sedentary group and linked to visceral and intermuscular adipose tissue mass. Following acute exercise, we observed distinct temporal transcriptional signatures which were largely similar among groups. Enrichment analysis revealed catabolic processes were uniquely enriched in the sedentary group at the 3h post-exercise timepoint. In summary, this study revealed key transcriptional signatures that distinguished active and sedentary adults, which were associated with difference in oxidative capacity and depot-specific adiposity. The acute response signatures were consistent with beneficial effects of endurance exercise to improve muscle health in older adults irrespective of exercise history and adiposity.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Like smoking, sedentary lifestyle is an issue of great concern because of its deleterious health challenges and implications. Given the global spread of the new coronavirus (COVID-19), social isolation regulations and laws have been implemented in many countries to contain the spread of the virus and this has caused a drastic shift from the usual physically demanding life to a sedentary lifestyle characterized by significantly reduced physical activities and prolong sitting. Methods/data source: Human and nonhuman primate literature was examined to compare experimental and clinical modulation of inflammatory cytokines by exercised-induced myokines. Data synthesis: Experimental and clinical evidence was used to examine whether exercised-induced myokines can prime the immune system of the elderly population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The immune system changes with advancement in age which increases the likelihood of infectious disease morbidity and mortality in older adults. Several epidemiological studies have also shown that physical inactivity among geriatric population impacts negatively on the immune system. Evidences on the importance of exercise in priming the immune system of elderly individuals could be an effective therapeutic strategy in combating the virus as it may well be a case of "let those with the best immune system win".
Article
Introduction in wrestling the ankle is most frequent site for joint sprains. That involved approximately 38 percent of all wrestling injuries(1).during wrestling exercise or competition following the collision or performs various actions, uncontrolled pressure may be applied to the ankle of the wrestlers, which in some cases require medical treatment, in such situations, a common treatment technique is the use of cooling method. However, in most cases, the athlete should immediately return to practice or competition after applying the cold. Although cryotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of acute and chronic athletic injuries, the deleterious effects of limb cooling, such as decreased nerve and muscle function, slowed sensation and inhibition of normal relaxes, may put an athlete at increased risk of additional injury(2). Reduction of proprioception receptors pulses and postural reflex responses may lead to cause abnormal situation of body and finally, increase the risk of ankle joint injury, especially during athletic activities(3). The purpose of this study is the effect of a short period of Cryotherapy on ankle position sense in professional wrestlers. Methodology 14 Professional wrestler (age 24+3 years old, and weight 74.1+19.2 kg) participated in this study. They all had at least 5 years training experience with provincial and national championships. All participants read and signed an approved informed consent form. Electrogoniometer (J-TECH Made in America) was used To measure the accuracy of the reproduce of the ankle joint angle and dominant limb was used for the same conditions of participant. In present study aims reproduce the angle of ankle joint, movement and angles plntar and dorsi flexion, respectively, 20 and 10 ° were considered. Initially, each subject was asked to move his ankle to the target angle with open eyes three times and remain for three seconds in that situation and maintaining this position in his short-term memory. Then, to eliminate visual interference during measurement of the test the eyes of participant was closed by blindfold and he was asked to move his ankle in two condition first in active and then with the move of examiner to the target angle in passive form. Error angel defines as the difference between the target angle and the angle created by the participants reproduced, regardless of whether the error was a positive or negative. Each movement was repeated three times and then average of error angles for each movement was taken as the main record. After that, the subjects medal-lateral of ankle, with distance 30 cm for 5 seconds under cold applied by using spray cooling (COLD SPRAY product of manufacturing HAGER company, made in Germany) And the test was repeated again. Inferential statistics Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check the normality distribution, using a paired t- test tests to compare variables before and after cooling, with a significant level of (p≤0.05) Results Test results are presented In Table 1. Results show that the Regeneration error after using the spray increased 0.23 and 0.29 degree respectively In active and passive dorsiflexion and it was 0.8 and 0.1 degree respectively In active and passive plantar flexion, but this increases was not statistically significant. P-value t(13) post-test pre-test variable name 0.599 -0.538 2.59+1.45 2.36+1.29 Regeneration error of active dorsi Flexion 0.863 -0.176 3.85+1.14 3.77+1.11 Regeneration error of active plantar Flexion 0.492 -0.707 2.66+1.05 2.37+0.95 Regeneration error of passive dorsi Flexion 0.863 -0.176 3.03+1.032 2.93+0.954 Regeneration error of active plantar Flexion Conclusions: The results showed that short-term local cooling by using cold spray on ankle joint position sense of professional wrestlers is not significantly change It appears that the use of cold spray for a short time only has an immediate effect on the skin receptors. But the muscle spindles and joint receptors as deeper receptors, which have a key role in joint position sense, are not affected that this results are corresponded with Beyranvand et al research(4).
Chapter
Lifestyle represents one of the most relevant aspects in aging research since it is an important modifiable factor that affects aging process. A healthy lifestyle can limit the damage caused by environmental influences that face us each day. As gerontology says, there are two ways to become old, without success (unsuccessful aging), manifested by people that develop one or more age-related diseases, and with success (successful aging), defined as the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability, which enables well-being in older age. Among the lifestyle factors that may influence successful aging and longevity, physical activity and healthy dietary habits have a great impact. Both can have systemic antiaging effects, playing a significant role in determining well-being of older people, and in delaying and reducing the risk of onset of diseases. Indeed, they can act on all the hallmarks of aging, nine molecular and cellular features that characterize aging phenotype. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the impact of nutritional strategies and exercise or physical activity on the hallmarks of aging.
Article
Aging in women is characterized by extreme hormonal changes leading them to develop a chronic low-grade inflammation that is linked to the development of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this scenario, physical activity emerges as an interesting methodology, since it seems to be connected to a decrease in serum levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines. Nevertheless, most studies evaluate these cytokines in an isolated manner not considering the influence of comorbidities on the responsiveness of participants to the benefits of physical activity. So, this study aimed to assess the influence of physical activity on body composition, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers of diabetic and hypertensive older postmenopausal women. We evaluated 163 women aged from 60 to 80 years, diagnosed with T2DM and SAH that were assisted by the Family Health Units in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. The pratice of physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire with the participants being classified as active or sedentary individuals. Active older women presented better body composition, lipid profile and inflammatory balance. This was connected to a better correlation profile between these factors in active older women, characteristics that were not noticed in sedentary older women. Moreover, IL-17A and the relationship between IL-10 and the other pro-inflammatory cytokines examined was greatly influenced by physical activity. Consequently, physical activity is linked to a global improvement in T2DM and SAH risk factors and with a positive inflammatory modulation in diabetic and hypertensive older women.
Article
Background Residential environments are associated with older adult health, but underlying physiologic causal mechanisms are not well understood. As adults age, street blocks are likely more relevant to their health than the larger neighborhood environment. This study examined the effects of adverse street block conditions on aging biomarkers among older adults. Methods We included community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 67 and older with 2017 biomarker data from the nationally representative National Health and Aging Trends Study (n=4,357). Street block disorder in 2016 was measured using interviewer report of any trash/glass/litter, graffiti, or vacant buildings on participants’ blocks. Propensity score models were used to create balanced groups with regard to multiple 2015 participant characteristics, including demographic, socioeconomic, residence, and early life characteristics. Linear regressions modeled street block disorder as a predictor of four aging biomarkers, hemoglobin A1C, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and cytomegalovirus antibodies, before and after applying propensity score weighting. Results Adjusting for participant sociodemographic characteristics and applying propensity score weights, living on a block with any disorder was associated with 2% higher mean hemoglobin A1C levels (95% CI: 0.002-0.03), 13% higher C-reactive protein (95% CI: 0.03-0.23), 10% higher interleukin-6 (95% CI: 0.02-0.19), and 19% more cytomegalovirus antibodies (95% CI: 0.09-0.29) compared to living on a block with no disorder. Conclusions Street block disorder predicted subsequent aging biomarkers after applying a propensity score approach to account for confounding among a national sample of older adults. Targeting street-level residential contexts for intervention may reduce risk for poor health in older adults.
Article
Full-text available
The infectious disease COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), appeared at the end of 2019 in China, and spread rapidly throughout the world in the first months of 2020. The elderly or anyone with chronic illnesses such as obesity, high blood pressure, lung disease and diabetes, are considered part of the risk group. Health authorities around the world began to adopt and encouraged behaviors to mitigate the risk of transmission, such as washing hands frequently with soap and water, making social distancing, and staying at home if possible, in order to minimize the infection and thereby relieve the health systems and reduce the number of fatalities. In this review, we discuss the possible effects of social distancing on the health of the elderly and describe different strategies of physical exercise to be performed during the pandemic of COVID-19. Aerobic training, strength training and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective for improving immune functions, autonomy, functional independence, and mental health in the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, physical exercise programs must be planned, adapted, and controlled based on the individual capabilities of the elderly, and remotely guided by professionals trained in the prescription of physical exercise. It is necessary that the general population, and especially the elderly, be continuously informed, protected, and oriented about the benefits and the importance of physical exercise practice during the social distancing caused by the pandemic of COVID-19.
Chapter
Exercise has anti-inflammatory properties that may be relevant to preventing and treating psychiatric conditions, such as depression. This chapter reviews the role of acute and chronic exercise in maintaining a low inflammatory profile through a series of interacting pathways, including myokine activity and adipose tissue. We discuss the current evidence for exercise in reducing inflammation in several clinical populations. There is some early evidence for exercise reducing inflammation in people with depression, but comprehensive trial data is still lacking. We close the chapter by outlining considerations for clinical implications and future research, such as the wider benefits of exercise-based treatments, establishing the optimal dose, and potential harms. Exercise is a promising, low-risk form of treatment for reducing inflammation with trans-diagnostic applications in psychiatry, including for depression. Chronic and acute exercise are also important in maintaining a low inflammatory profile in non-clinical populations, reducing the risk of a psychiatric condition.
Chapter
Full-text available
Given the importance of understanding the role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness, including its emergence and progression, it is of practical value to explore the available tools that noninvasively index neuroinflammatory markers in vivo. Various aspects of neuroinflammation can be probed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. These aspects include water content accumulation (T2-weighted anatomical MRI, magnetization transfer imaging and diffusion MRI); blood–brain barrier dysfunction and cellular infiltration (contrast-enhanced anatomical MRI); and molecular/metabolic signatures of neuroinflammation (magnetic resonance spectroscopy). This chapter provides a nontechnical overview of these MRI measures, which have been applied to estimate putative neuroinflammatory processes in psychiatric illness.
Article
Background Sleep disorders are common in older adults and have a negative influence on their physical and mental health. General aerobic exercises (GAEs) have long been used in the treatment of sleep disorders as a non-pharmacological measure. However, there is no consensus on the efficacy of traditional Chinese exercises (TCEs) for treating sleep disorders in older adults and the difference between TCEs and GAEs. Objective This study assessed the effects of TCEs and GAEs on the sleep quality of older adults and the differences between these two interventions. Search strategy PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China Biology Medicine disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science Journal Database and Wanfang Data were searched from their inception to August 2020. Inclusion criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of TCEs and GAEs on older adults with sleep disorders were included. Data extraction and analysis Data were extracted by two researchers working independently. The risk bias of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and the quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to estimate sleep quality. Meta-analyses were performed to assess the total PSQI score of the exercise intervention as the primary outcome, and the scores of subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication and daytime dysfunction were assessed as secondary outcomes. Subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess the contribution of covariables to heterogeneity. Results A total of 22 RCTs (including 1747 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that TCEs (weighted mean difference [WMD] = –2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] [–2.82, –1.46], P < 0.001; heterogeneity: P < 0.001, I² = 82%; 15 studies, n = 1063) and GAEs (WMD = –2.88, 95% CI [–5.22, –0.55], P < 0.001; heterogeneity: P < 0.001, I² = 98%; 5 studies, n = 500) significantly improved total sleep quality, having favorable effects on subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication and daytime dysfunction. Subgroup analysis showed that TCEs demonstrated superiority after 12 weeks (WMD = –2.77, 95% CI [–4.26, –1.28], P < 0.001; heterogeneity: P < 0.001, I² = 85%; 5 studies, n = 420) and Qigong had a greater intervention effect for improving the sleep quality of older adults than Tai Chi (WMD = –3.37, 95% CI [–4.38, –2.35], P < 0.001; heterogeneity: P = 0.04, I² = 63%; 4 studies, n = 321). Meta-regression revealed that the year of publication, sample size, mean age of participants, and percentage of females in the primary studies did not account for the overall heterogeneity. Conclusion Current evidence shows that both TCEs and GAEs, as complementary and non-pharmacological approaches, help to improve the sleep quality in older adults with potentially clinical implications; however, there was not enough evidence to conclude the difference between them. More rigorous and high-quality RCTs are needed to arrive at reliable conclusions.
Chapter
Suicide is a multifaceted phenomenon, related to an everlasting interconnection between biological, psychosocial, sociological, philosophical, and cultural aspects of human life. Immune system, which is constantly responding to changing environments and changing in response to them, seems to play a major role in this interaction. Multiple studies have reported increased risk of suicidal behaviours after or during inflammatory conditions. Individuals that engage in suicidal behaviours also have increased concentrations of inflammatory markers, such as interleukins 1β and 6, tumour necrosis factor α, and C-reactive protein, both in blood and the central nervous system (CNS). Stress, which is frequently mentioned among the major risk factors for suicidal behaviours, is also associated with a wide immune system dysregulation, entailing glucocorticoid system disruption and a low-grade inflammation. Mechanisms connecting systemic inflammation and CNS changes include damage to blood-brain barrier and interoceptive alterations, both resulting in changes in the communication between the periphery and the brain. Meanwhile, in CNS, pro-inflammatory cytokines may activate microglia causing a shift in tryptophan metabolism, preferentially generating cellular energy and toxic by-products of kynurenine pathway rather than serotonin. These changes in brain homeostasis lead to anatomical and functional brain alterations, most notably prefrontal cortex and insula, engendering maladaptive behavioural phenotypes, such as anhedonia and impulsivity that may mediate the association between inflammation and suicide. This chapter will provide a condensed overview of this complex association between inflammation and suicidal behaviours, presenting major findings in this area and explaining key pathways linking them.
Article
Full-text available
Human adipose tissue expresses and releases the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6, potentially inducing low-grade systemic inflammation in persons with excess body fat. To test whether overweight and obesity are associated with low-grade systemic inflammation as measured by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, representative of the US population from 1988 to 1994. A total of 16616 men and nonpregnant women aged 17 years or older. Elevated CRP level of 0.22 mg/dL or more and a more stringent clinically raised CRP level of more than 1.00 mg/dL. Elevated CRP levels and clinically raised CRP levels were present in 27.6% and 6.7% of the population, respectively. Both overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI, > or =30 kg/m2) persons were more likely to have elevated CRP levels than their normal-weight counterparts (BMI, <25 kg/m2). After adjustment for potential confounders, including smoking and health status, the odds ratio (OR) for elevated CRP was 2.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-2.91) for obese men and 6.21 (95% CI, 4.94-7.81) for obese women. In addition, BMI was associated with clinically raised CRP levels in women, with an OR of 4.76 (95% CI, 3.42-6.61) for obese women. Waist-to-hip ratio was positively associated with both elevated and clinically raised CRP levels, independent of BMI. Restricting the analyses to young adults (aged 17-39 years) and excluding smokers, persons with inflammatory disease, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes mellitus and estrogen users did not change the main findings. Higher BMI is associated with higher CRP concentrations, even among young adults aged 17 to 39 years. These findings suggest a state of low-grade systemic inflammation in overweight and obese persons.
Article
Full-text available
We developed a reproducible ELISA for C-reactive protein (CRP), calibrated with WHO Reference Material, for which intra- and interassay CVs were 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively. Analytical recovery was 97.9%. The distribution of CRP in a healthy blood donor population (n = 143) was nongaussian, with 2.5th, 50th, and 97.5th percentile values of 0.08, 0.64, and 3.11 mg/L, respectively. There was no sex-related difference, and the association with age was weak. In a study of variability [by the method of Fraser and Harris (Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 1989;27:409-37)], the analytical variability was 5.2%; the within-subject variability, CVI, was 42.2%; and the between-subject variability, CVG, was 92.5%. The critical difference for sequential values significant at P < or =0.05 (i.e., the smallest percentage change unlikely to be due to analytical variability or CVI) was calculated as 118%, and the index of individuality, CVI/CVG, was 0.46. This suggests that CRP, like many clinical chemistry analytes, has limited usefulness in detecting early disease-associated changes when used in conjunction with a healthy reference interval. From a molecular epidemiological standpoint, the usefulness of CRP in longitudinal studies is suggested by the small index of individuality and by observations that (a) short-term fluctuations were infrequent, (b) all data stayed within the reference interval, and (c) relative rankings of the subjects over 6 months only moderately deteriorated.
Article
Full-text available
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, and antagonism of TNF may reduce the activity of the disease. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel TNF antagonist - a recombinant fusion protein that consists of the soluble TNF receptor (p75) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1 (TNFR:Fc). In this multicenter, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 180 patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis to receive subcutaneous injections of placebo or one of three doses of TNFR:Fc (0.25, 2, or 16 mg per square meter of body-surface area) twice weekly for three months. The clinical response was measured by changes in composite symptoms of arthritis defined according to American College of Rheumatology criteria. Treatment with TNFR:Fc led to significant reductions in disease activity, and the therapeutic effects of TNFR:Fc were dose-related. At three months, 75 percent of the patients in the group assigned to 16 mg of TNFR:Fc per square meter had improvement of 20 percent or more in symptoms, as compared with 14 percent in the placebo group (P<0.001). In the group assigned to 16 mg per square meter, the mean percent reduction in the number of tender or swollen joints at three months was 61 percent, as compared with 25 percent in the placebo group (P<0.001). The most common adverse events were mild injection-site reactions and mild upper respiratory tract symptoms. There were no dose-limiting toxic effects, and no antibodies to TNFR:Fc were detected in serum samples. In this three-month trial TNFR:Fc was safe, well tolerated, and associated with improvement in the inflammatory symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
Article
Full-text available
Increasing evidence demonstrates that atherosclerosis is an immunologically mediated disease in which the secretion of atherogenic and atheroprotective cytokines, by infiltrating blood mononuclear cells, plays an important role. It is not known whether long-term exercise alters this atherogenic and atheroprotective activity directly. To determine the effect of long-term exercise on the atherogenic activity of blood mononuclear cells in persons at risk of developing ischemic heart disease. Before-after trial using a 6-month individualized, supervised exercise program, with an enrollment period from December 1996 to October 1997. Hospital-based community wellness center. Of 110 persons who responded to a public request for volunteers, 52 met the inclusion criteria (risk ratio for myocardial infarction > or =1.7 based on serum complement and/or C-reactive protein levels, and normal exercise treadmill test results). Forty-three of the 52 enrollees (25 women [mean age, 49.7 years] and 18 men [mean age, 48.1 years]) completed the study; 9 withdrew for personal reasons. Additional risk factors for ischemic heart disease included hypercholesterolemia (65.1 %), a family history of coronary heart disease (62.8%), inactivity (60.5%), hypertension (32.6%), obesity (25.6%), smoking (11.6%), and diabetes mellitus (4.7%). Blood levels were compared at baseline and after the exercise program had been completed for the following: spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin-induced production of interleukin 1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma (atherogenic cytokines), and interleukin 4, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (atheroprotective cytokines) by blood mononuclear cells; lymphocyte phenotypes and mitogenic responses to phytohemagglutinin; and serum C-reactive protein levels. Subjects exercised for a mean of 2.5 (range, 0.3-7.4) hours per week. Mononuclear cell production of atherogenic cytokines fell by 58.3 % (P<.001) following the exercise program, where as the production of atheroprotective cytokines rose by 35.9% (P<.001). Changes in transforming growth factor beta 1 and in phytohemagglutinin-induced atherogenic cytokine production after the exercise program were proportionate to the time subjects spent performing repetitive lower-body motion exercises (P<.02), indicating a dose-response relationship. After the exercise program, changes in cellular function were reflected systemically by a 35% decrease in serum levels of C-reactive protein (P=.12). Our data suggest that long-term exercise decreases the atherogenic activity of blood mononuclear cells in persons at risk of developing ischemic heart disease. This may be a mechanism whereby physical activity protects against ischemic heart disease.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate in vivo adipose tissue production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and their soluble receptors: TNF receptor type I (sTNFR-I), TNF receptor type II (sTNFR-II), and IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), we determined arteriovenous differences in their levels across abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese subjects. Subjects had a median (interquartile range) age of 44.5 (27-51.3) yr, body mass index (BMI) of 32.9 (26. 0-46.6) kg/m(2), and %body fat of 42.5 (28.5-51.2) %. Although there was not a significant difference in the arteriovenous concentrations of TNF-alpha (P = 0.073) or sTNFR-II (P = 0.18), the levels of sTNFR-I (P = 0.002) were higher in the vein compared with artery, suggesting adipose tissue production of this soluble receptor. There was a significant arteriovenous difference in IL-6 (P < 0.001) but not in its soluble receptor (P = 0.18). There was no relationship between TNF-alpha levels and adiposity indexes (r(s) = 0.12-0.22, P = not significant); however, levels of both its soluble receptor isomers correlated significantly with BMI and %body fat (sTNFR-I r(s) = 0.42-0.72, P < 0.001; sTNFR-II r(s) = 0.36-0.65, P < 0.05- <0. 001). IL-6 levels correlated significantly with both BMI and %body fat (r(s) = 0.51, P = 0.004, and r(s) = 0.63, P < 0.001), but sIL-6R did not. In conclusion, 1) soluble TNFR-I is produced by adipose tissue, and concentrations of both soluble isoforms correlate with the degree of adiposity, and 2) IL-6, but not its soluble receptor, is produced by adipose tissue and relates to adiposity.
Article
Full-text available
To assess the association of circulating levels of C-reactive protein, a sensitive systemic marker of inflammation, with different components of the metabolic syndrome. Total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, BMI , and prevalence of diabetes and hypertension were assessed in 747 men and 956 women aged 18-89 years who were participating in the population-based National Health and Nutrition Survey, which was carried out in former West Germany in 1987-1988. There was a statistically significant positive crude correlation between C-reactive protein and TC (R = 0.19), TG (R = 0.29), BMI (R = 0.32), glucose (R = 0.11), and uric acid (R = 0.14) (all P < 0.0001). A negative correlation was found between C-reactive protein and HDL cholesterol (R = 0.13, P < 0.0001). The age-adjusted geometric means of C-reactive protein concentrations in subjects grouped according to the presence of 0-1, 2-3, and > or =4 features of the metabolic syndrome were 1.11, 1.27, and 2.16 mg/l, respectively, with a statistically highly significant trend (P < 0.0001). The data suggest that a variety of features of the metabolic syndrome are associated with a systemic inflammatory response.
Article
Full-text available
Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence that the development of the atherosclerotic plaque is associated with inflammation. In this study, the authors investigated the cross-sectional association between physical activity and markers of inflammation in a healthy elderly population. Data obtained in 1989-1990 and 1992-1993 from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a cohort of 5,888 men and women aged >/=65 years, were analyzed. Concentrations of the inflammation markers-C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, Factor VIII activity, white blood cells, and albumin-were compared cross-sectionally by quartile of self-reported physical activity. Compared with persons in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of physical activity had 19%, 6%, 4%, and 3% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein, white blood cells, fibrinogen, and Factor VIII activity, respectively, after adjustment for gender, the presence of cardiovascular disease, age, race, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, and hypertension. Multivariate regression models suggested that the association of higher levels of physical activity with lower levels of inflammation markers may be mediated by body mass index and glucose. There was no association between physical activity and albumin. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower concentrations of four out of five inflammation markers in this elderly cohort. These data suggest that increased exercise is associated with reduced inflammation. Prospective studies will be required for verification of these findings.
Article
Full-text available
Obese patients demonstrate a variety of biochemical, metabolic, and pulmonary abnormalities. Inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6) may have a direct effect on glucose and lipid metabolism. Hypoxemia in itself induces release of IL-6. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between IL-6 levels in healthy volunteers (control group) and three different groups of obese patients: patients without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), patients with OSAS, and patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) (daytime baseline oxygen saturation of <93%). We measured serum IL-6 levels in 25 obese patients (body mass index of >35 kg/m2) and 12 healthy women. The results demonstrate statistically significant differences in serum IL-6 levels between the control group (1.28 +/- 0.85 pg/mL) and obese patients without OSAS (7.69 +/- 5.06 pg/mL, p < 0.05) and with OSAS (5.58 +/- 0.37 pg/mL, p < 0.0005). In the patients with OHS, IL-6 concentrations were highest (43.13 +/- 24.27 pg/mL). We conclude that serum IL-6 is increased in obese patients. The highest IL-6 levels were found in the patients with OHS.
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing evidence that systemic inflammation and insulin resistance constitute interrelated events that contribute to atherosclerosis. We studied the effect of the association between circulating interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels, one of the major mediators of inflammation, and C-reactive protein on insulin resistance and blood pressure in 228 healthy volunteers. The plasma IL-6 concentration was significantly and similarly associated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, fasting insulin, and the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) in all subjects. When smokers were excluded from the analysis, plasma IL-6 levels correlated with percent fat mass (r = 0.19; P = 0.02), absolute fat mass (r = 0.17; P = 0.03), SBP, DBP, fasting insulin levels, and FIRI. The latter associations persisted after controlling for body mass index (r = 0.15 and r = 0.19; P = 0.02 and P = 0.0004 for SBP and DBP, respectively; r = 0.24 and r = 0.19, P = 0.004 and P = 0.03, for fasting insulin and FIRI, respectively). Gender and smoking status significantly influenced the results. Although IL-6 levels were significantly associated with fasting insulin and FIRI in men, these significant correlations were not observed in women. Conversely, although IL-6 levels were significantly associated with SBP and DBP in women, these coefficients were not statistically significant in men. All of these associations were lost among smokers and remained significant in nonsmokers. As IL-6 is the major mediator of the acute phase response by hepatocytes and induces the synthesis of C-reactive protein (CRP), we also controlled for the latter. Serum CRP levels correlated significantly with IL-6 in all the subjects, but mainly in nonsmokers and men. Of note was that this significant relationship was lost among smokers. CRP was associated with fasting insulin (r = 0.28; P < 0.0001) and FIRI (r = 0.25; P < 0.0001), but not with SBP or DBP (P = NS), in all subjects. Unlike IL-6, the associations between CRP and these parameters were similar in men and women and in smokers and nonsmokers. For insulin and FIRI they were stronger in women and in nonsmokers. CPR significantly correlated with the WHR only in men (r = 0.22; P = 0.01). Using multiple linear regression in a stepwise manner to predict circulating IL-6 levels, smoking status (P = 0.0059) and FIRI (P = 0.03), but not fat mass or SBP, independently contributed to 11% of its variance in men. When CRP was introduced into the model, the latter (P < 0.0001) and smoking status (P = 0.02), but not FIRI, fat mass, or SBP, contributed to 33% of the variance in IL-6 levels. In women, only SBP (P = 0.04) contributed to 5% of its variance. When CRP was introduced into the model, again only SBP (P = 0.01) contributed to 10% of the variance in IL-6 levels. In 25 of these subjects, insulin sensitivity was determined using the frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test with minimal model analysis, and circulating IL-6 levels were strongly associated with the insulin sensitivity index (r = −0.65; P < 0.0001). Again, this relationship was even stronger in men (r =− 0.75; P < 0.001) and was not significant in women (r = −0.26; P = NS). In all of these subjects, only insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0037), not fat mass, contributed to 21% of the variance of IL-6 levels in a multiple linear regression analysis. In summary, circulating IL-6 levels, by inducing either hypertension in women or insulin resistance in men, constitute a significant proatherogenic cytokine. The mechanisms of these associations should be further investigated.
Article
Full-text available
Inflammation is hypothesized to play a role in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); however, clinical data addressing this issue are limited. To determine whether elevated levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with development of type 2 DM in healthy middle-aged women. Prospective, nested case-control study. The Women's Health Study, an ongoing US primary prevention, randomized clinical trial initiated in 1992. From a nationwide cohort of 27 628 women free of diagnosed DM, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline, 188 women who developed diagnosed DM over a 4-year follow-up period were defined as cases and matched by age and fasting status with 362 disease-free controls. Incidence of confirmed clinically diagnosed type 2 DM by baseline levels of IL-6 and CRP. Baseline levels of IL-6 (P<.001) and CRP (P<.001) were significantly higher among cases than among controls. The relative risks of future DM for women in the highest vs lowest quartile of these inflammatory markers were 7.5 for IL-6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-15.4) and 15.7 for CRP (95% CI, 6.5-37.9). Positive associations persisted after adjustment for body mass index, family history of diabetes, smoking, exercise, use of alcohol, and hormone replacement therapy; multivariate relative risks for the highest vs lowest quartiles were 2.3 for IL-6 (95% CI, 0.9-5.6; P for trend =.07) and 4.2 for CRP (95% CI, 1.5-12.0; P for trend =.001). Similar results were observed in analyses limited to women with a baseline hemoglobin A(1c) of 6.0% or less and after adjustment for fasting insulin level. Elevated levels of CRP and IL-6 predict the development of type 2 DM. These data support a possible role for inflammation in diabetogenesis.
Article
Full-text available
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Plasma levels of the soluble (s) fractions of TNFalpha receptors, especially sTNFR2, are good indicators of TNFalpha system activation in obesity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of exercise training on the TNFalpha system and to evaluate the relationship with changes in insulin sensitivity. Sixteen obese women (body mass index (BMI)>27.8 kg/m(2)), 8 with normal (NGT) and 8 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), participated in an exercise training program which lasted for 12 weeks and included exercise performed on a bicycle ergometer at an individual intensity of 70% maximal heart rate, for 30 min, 5 days a week. Anthropometrical measurements and blood biochemical analyses were performed, and plasma TNFalpha, sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels were assessed. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique (insulin infusion: 50 mU x kg(-1)xh(-1)). At baseline, despite similar anthropometrical parameters, IGT subjects were markedly more insulin resistant and had higher TNFalpha and sTNFR2 concentrations. Exercise training increased insulin sensitivity and decreased TNFalpha and sTNFR2 levels, while sTNFR1 remained unchanged. The decrease in sTNFR2 was significantly related to the increase in insulin sensitivity; that relationship remained significant after adjustment for the concurrent changes in BMI, waist circumference, percentage of body fat, plasma glucose, insulin and free fatty acids. Regular physical exercise decreases TNFalpha system activity and that decrease may be responsible for the concurrent increase in insulin sensitivity.
Article
Full-text available
Physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, but the mechanism underlying this association is unclear. Because coronary heart disease is increasingly seen as an inflammatory process, it might be reasonable to hypothesize that physical activity reduces risk of coronary heart disease by reducing or preventing inflammation. The study examined the relationship between physical activity and elevated inflammation as indicated by a high C-reactive protein level, white blood cell count, or fibrinogen level. Study subjects were 3638 apparently healthy US men and women 40 years and older who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. More frequent physical activity was independently associated with a lower odds of having an elevated C-reactive protein level. Compared with those engaging in physical activity 0 to 3 times per month, the odds of having an elevated C-reactive protein level was reduced among those engaging in physical activity 4 to 21 times per month (odds ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.02) and 22 or more times per month (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.93) (P for trend,.02). Similar associations were seen for white blood cell count and fibrinogen levels. More frequent physical activity is independently associated with a lower odds of having elevated inflammation levels among apparently healthy US adults 40 years and older, independent of several confounding factors. The results suggest that the association between physical activity and reduced coronary heart disease risk may be mediated by anti-inflammatory effects of regular physical activity.
Article
To investigate in vivo adipose tissue production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and their soluble receptors: TNF receptor type I (sTNFR-I), TNF receptor type II (sTNFR-II), and IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), we determined arteriovenous differences in their levels across abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese subjects. Subjects had a median (interquartile range) age of 44.5 (27-51.3) yr, body mass index (BMI) of 32.9 (26.0-46.6) kg/m(2), and %body fat of 42.5 (28.5-51.2) %. Although there was not a significant difference in the arteriovenous concentrations of TNF-alpha (P = 0.073) or sTNFR-II (P = 0.18), the levels, of sTNFR-I (P = 0.002) were higher in the vein compared with artery, suggesting adipose tissue production of this soluble receptor., There was a significant arteriovenous difference in IL-6 (P < 0.001) but not in its soluble receptor (P = 0.18). There was no relationship between TNF-alpha levels and adiposity indexes (r(s) = 0.12-0.22, P = not significant); however, levels of both its soluble receptor isomers correlated significantly with BMI and %body fat (sTNFR-I r(s) = 0.42-0.72, P < 0.001; sTNFR-II r(s) = 0.3-0.65, P < 0.05- < 0.001). IL-6 levels correlated significantly with bath BMI and %body fat (r(s) = 0.51, P = 0.004, and r(s) = 0.63, P < 0.001), but sIL-6R did not. In conclusion, 1) soluble TNFR-I is produced by adipose tissue, and concentrations of both soluble isoforms correlate:with the degree of adiposity, and 2) IL-6, but not its soluble receptor, is produced by adipose tissue and relates to adiposity.
Article
Background--Systemic chronic inflammation has been found to be related to all-cause mortality risk in older persons. We investigated whether specific chronic conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD), affect the association between high interleukin (IL)-6 level and mortality in a sample of disabled older women. Methods and Results--IL-6 serum level was measured at baseline in 620 women greater than or equal to 65 years old. The presence and severity of medical conditions was ascertained by standard criteria that used multiple sources of information. The sample was surveyed over the 3-year follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with those in the lowest tertile, women in the highest IL-6 tertile were at higher risk of all-cause mortality. The presence of CVD, however, strongly affected the risk of mortality associated with high IL-6. Among women with prevalent CVD, those with high IL-6 levels had >4-fold risk of death (RR 4.6; 95% CI 2.0 to 10.5) compared with women in the lowest tertile, whereas the relative risk associated with high IL-6 among those without CVD was much lower and not significant (RR 1.8; 95% CI 0.7 to 4.2), Adjustment for all chronic diseases and disease severity measures, including ankle-brachial index, forced expiratory volume, and exercise tolerance, did not change the results. Conclusions--IL-6 level is helpful in identifying a subgroup of older CVD patients with high risk of death over a period of 3 years. Systemic inflammation, as measured by IL-6, may be related to the clinical evolution of older patients with CVD.
Article
Context Increasing evidence demonstrates that atherosclerosis is an immunologically mediated disease in which the secretion of atherogenic and atheroprotective cytokines, by infiltrating blood mononuclear cells, plays an important role. It is not known whether long-term exercise alters this atherogenic and atheroprotective activity directly. Objective To determine the effect of long-term exercise on the atherogenic activity of blood mononuclear cells in persons at risk of developing ischemic heart disease. Design Before-after trial using a 6-month individualized, supervised exercise program, with an enrollment period from December 1996 to October 1997. Setting Hospital-based community wellness center. Participants Of 110 persons who responded to a public request for volunteers, 52 met the inclusion criteria (risk ratio for myocardial infarction ≥1.7 based on serum complement and/or C-reactive protein levels, and normal exercise treadmill test results). Forty-three of the 52 enrollees (25 women [mean age, 49.7 years] and 18 men [mean age, 48.1 years]) completed the study; 9 withdrew for personal reasons. Additional risk factors for ischemic heart disease included hypercholesterolemia (65.1%), a family history of coronary heart disease (62.8%), inactivity (60.5%), hypertension (32.6%), obesity (25.6%), smoking (11.6%), and diabetes mellitus (4.7%). Main Outcome Measures Blood levels were compared at baseline and after the exercise program had been completed for the following: spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin-induced production of interleukin 1 α, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon gamma (atherogenic cytokines), and interleukin 4, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (atheroprotective cytokines) by blood mononuclear cells; lymphocyte phenotypes and mitogenic responses to phytohemagglutinin; and serum C-reactive protein levels. Results Subjects exercised for a mean of 2.5 (range, 0.3-7.4) hours per week. Mononuclear cell production of atherogenic cytokines fell by 58.3% (P<.001) following the exercise program, whereas the production of atheroprotective cytokines rose by 35.9% (P<.001). Changes in transforming growth factor beta 1 and in phytohemagglutinin-induced atherogenic cytokine production after the exercise program were proportionate to the time subjects spent performing repetitive lower-body motion exercises (P<.02), indicating a dose-response relationship. After the exercise program, changes in cellular function were reflected systemically by a 35% decrease in serum levels of C-reactive protein (P=.12). Conclusions Our data suggest that long-term exercise decreases the atherogenic activity of blood mononuclear cells in persons at risk of developing ischemic heart disease. This may be a mechanism whereby physical activity protects against ischemic heart disease.
Article
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an ancient highly conserved molecule and a member of the pentraxin family of proteins. CRP is secreted by the liver in response to a variety of inflammatory cytokines. Levels of CRP increase very rapidly in response to trauma, inflammation, and infection and decrease just as rapidly with the resolution of the condition. Thus, the measurement of CRP is widely used to monitor various inflammatory states. CRP binds to damaged tissue, to nuclear antigens and to certain pathogenic organisms in a calcium-dependent manner. The function of CRP is felt to be related to its role in the innate immune system. Similar to immunoglobulin (Ig)G, it activates complement, binds to Fc receptors and acts as an opsonin for various pathogens. Interaction of CRP with Fc receptors leads to the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines that enhance the inflammatory response. Unlike IgG, which specifically recognizes distinct antigenic epitopes, CRP recognizes altered self and foreign molecules based on pattern recognition. Thus, CRP is though to act as a surveillance molecule for altered self and certain pathogens. This recognition provides early defense and leads to a proinflammatory signal and activation of the humoural, adaptive immune system.
Article
ACSM Position Stand on the Appropriate Intervention Strategies for Weight Loss and Prevention of Weight Regain for Adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 12, 2001, pp. 2145–2156. In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25–29.9 kg·m−2) or obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg·m−2). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500–1000 kcal·d−1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to <30% of total energy intake may facilitate weight loss by reducing total energy intake. Although there may be advantages to modifying protein and carbohydrate intake, the optimal doses of these macronutritents for weight loss have not been determined. Significant health benefits can be recognized with participation in a minimum of 150 min (2.5 h) of moderate intensity exercise per week, and overweight and obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200–300 min (3.3–5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for adults.
Article
Over the past several years, editors Chuck Corbin, Bob Pangrazi, and Don Franks have commissioned a series of articles about vital physical fitness and activity topics for The President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest. Now collected in two compact volumes, these texts are designed to introduce a new audience to the important and timely contributions of these renowned experts in the field. Perfect for classroom or personal use, these important volumes provide students and professionals alike the foundation for a better understanding of the many dimensions of physical fitness and activity. This second volume contains 21 articles on such topics as the economic benefits of physical activity, physical activity and youth, motivating physical activity, and physical activity for special populations.
Article
Adult mammals respond to tissue damage by implementing the acute phase response, which comprises a series of specific physiological reactions. This review outlines the principal cellular and molecular mechanisms that control initiation of the tissue response at the site of injury, the recruitment of the systemic defense mechanisms, the acute phase response of the liver and the resolution of the acute phase response.
Article
In the present study, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and several acute phase proteins were measured in healthy participants (23-87 years of age). A linear correlation between IL-6 and age was established with an increase of 0.016 pg/ml (0.004) per year of life. Whereas CRP remained below 0.5 mg/dl in all participants, an increase with age for fibrinogen and an inverse relation for albumin as well as transferrin were obtained. However, the increase of IL-6 did not correlate with any of these changes. IL-6 associated diseases may therefore occur more often with advancing age, but in healthy participants IL-6 does not explain the changing plasma protein pattern resembling that of an acute phase reaction.
Article
Inflammation and tissue injury elicit profound changes in the concentrations of several plasma proteins. These proteins are predominantly synthesized in the liver and named acute-phase proteins. The regulatory mechanisms that control this response are highly complex and include the release of various mediators affecting specific subsets of acute-phase genes. Individual mediators can either synergistically enhance or inhibit the effects of other mediators. Binding of mediators to their respective receptors on hepatocytes and transduction of this signal induce changes in acute-phase protein gene expression that are primarily regulated on a transcriptional level. However, under certain conditions post-transcriptional mechanisms may also be involved in this process. Although some acute-phase proteins have been shown to minimize tissue damage, as well as to participate in hemostasis, tissue repair, and regeneration in response to injury, the actual in vivo functions of several acute-phase reactants remain speculative. Measurements of acute-phase protein plasma concentrations can be of diagnostic or prognostic value under certain clinical conditions. Further characterization of the regulatory mechanisms that govern the acute-phase response in vivo could lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies aimed at improving the organism's integrated response to injury.
Article
A coding scheme is presented for classifying physical activity by rate of energy expenditure, i.e., by intensity. Energy cost was established by a review of published and unpublished data. This coding scheme employs five digits that classify activity by purpose (i.e., sports, occupation, self-care), the specific type of activity, and its intensity as the ratio of work metabolic rate to resting metabolic rate (METs). Energy expenditure in kilocalories or kilocalories per kilogram body weight can be estimated for all activities, specific activities, or activity types. General use of this coding system would enhance the comparability of results across studies using self reports of physical activity.
Article
In summary, available data demonstrate that IL-1 and TNF are the causative agents underlying the bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. Indeed, these factors are produced in bone and the bone marrow, released in larger amounts from cells of estrogen-deficient subjects, and indispensable for reproducing the effects of estrogen deficiency in bone. These observations support the hypothesis that the bone sparing effect of estrogen is due to the ability of the hormone to block osteoclastogenesis, the activation of mature osteoclasts and, as recently demonstrated, the rate of apoptotic osteoclast death. Although IL-1 and TNF play a prominent causal role in these events, the bone-sparing effect of estrogen is mediated by numerous cytokines which, by simultaneously stimulating multiple target cells, induce effects that are not accounted for by any one single factor (Fig. 2). The ability of estrogen to regulate some, but not all, the cytokines involved in this process is not inconsistent with this hypothesis because cytokines have potent synergistic effects. Thus, a considerable increase in bone resorption may result from a relatively small increase in the concentration of only a few of the bone-resorbing factors present in the bone microenvironment. This concept is best illustrated by the study of Miyaura et al. demonstrating that the concentrations of either IL-1, IL-6, IL-6 receptor, or prostaglandins detected in the bone marrow of OVX mice are insufficient to account for the increased bone resorption caused by estrogen withdrawal. In contrast, the increase in bone resorption induced by OVX can be explained by the cumulative effects of these cytokines. Thus, a better understanding of the cooperative effects of cytokines and a recognition that the contribution of individual cytokines to postmenopausal bone loss varies with the passage of time after menopause are necessary to fully understand the mechanism of action of estrogen in bone. Although the relevance of individual bone-targeting cytokines in species specific, the development of transgenic mice with activatable or deactivatable promoters is likely to result in a further clarification of the integrated action of estrogen-regulated cytokines in human bone cells and lay the foundations for the use of cytokine inhibitors in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Article
Markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), are related to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in those with angina, but little is known about individuals without prevalent clinical CVD. We performed a prospective, nested case-control study in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS; 5201 healthy elderly men and women). Case subjects (n = 146 men and women with incident CVD events including angina, myocardial infarction, and death) and control subjects (n = 146) were matched on the basis of sex and the presence or absence of significant subclinical CVD at baseline (average follow-up, 2.4 years). In women but not men, the mean CRP level was higher for case subjects than for control subjects (P < or = .05). In general, CRP was higher in those with subclinical disease. Most of the association of CRP with female case subjects versus control subjects was in the subgroup with subclinical disease; 3.33 versus 1.90 mg/L, P < .05, adjusted for age and time of follow-up. Case-control differences were greatest when the time between baseline and the CVD event was shortest. The strongest associations were with myocardial infarction, and there was an overall odds ratio for incident myocardial infarction for men and women with subclinical disease (upper quartile versus lower three quartiles) of 2.67 (confidence interval [CI] = 1.04 to 6.81), with the relationship being stronger in women (4.50 [CI = 0.97 to 20.8]) than in men (1.75 [CI = 0.51 to 5.98]). We performed a similar study in the Rural Health Promotion Project, in which mean values of CRP were higher for female case subjects than for female control subjects, but no differences were apparent for men. Comparing the upper quintile with the lower four, the odds ratio for CVD case subjects was 2.7 (CI = 1.10 to 6.60). In conclusion, CRP was associated with incident events in the elderly, especially in those with subclinical disease at baseline.
Article
Among apparently healthy men, elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker for systemic inflammation, predict risk of myocardial infarction and thromboembolic stroke. Whether increased levels of CRP are also associated with the development of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is unknown. Using a prospective, nested, case-control design, we measured baseline levels of CRP in 144 apparently healthy men participating in the Physicians' Health Study who subsequently developed symptomatic PAD (intermittent claudication or need for revascularization) and in an equal number of control subjects matched on the basis of age and smoking habit who remained free of vascular disease during a follow-up period of 60 months. Median CRP levels at baseline were significantly higher among those who subsequently developed PAD (1.34 versus 0.99 mg/L; P=.04). Furthermore, the risks of developing PAD increased significantly with each increasing quartile of baseline CRP concentration such that relative risks of PAD from lowest (referent) to highest quartile of CRP were 1.0, 1.3, 2.0, and 2.1 (Ptrend=.02). Compared with those with no clinical evidence of disease, the subgroup of case patients who required revascularization had the highest baseline CRP levels (median= 1.75 mg/L; P= .04); relative risks from lowest to highest quartile of CRP for this end point were 1.0, 1.8, 3.8, and 4.1 (Ptrend=.02). Risk estimates were similar after additional control for body mass index, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and a family history of premature atherosclerosis. These prospective data indicate that among apparently healthy men, baseline levels of CRP predict future risk of developing symptomatic PAD and thus provide further support for the hypothesis that chronic inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis.