ArticlePDF Available

Helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of indigenous poultry in parts of Kenya

Authors:

Abstract

A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78%. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53%), Heterakis gallinarum (21.33%), Ascaridia galli (10.03%), Strongyloides avium (9.96%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61%), Cotugnia digonopora (3.6%), Capillaria sp. (1.5%), Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04%) and Syngamus trachea (0.40%). Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat such cases.
Short communication — Kort berig
Helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of indigenous poultry in
parts of Kenya
L W Irungua*, R N Kimaniaand S M Kisiab
INTRODUCTION
Indigenous poultry, which account for
about 70 % of the Kenyan poultry popula-
tion, are kept by a majority of the rural
population under the free-range system
of production. Indigenous poultry are a
major source of protein and income to the
population as they are hardier than the
exotic faster-growing and more produc-
tive breeds of poultry. That helminthiasis,
though not clinically manifested, contrib-
utes to production losses in the poultry
industry in developing countries is
becoming more apparent2. Several stud-
ies have been carried out on free-ranging
poultry and the prevalence of gastro-
intestinal parasites in the region. A study
on rural, scavenging chicken from Moro-
goro, Tanzania6found that all of the 600
chickens examined were infected with 1
or several species of helminths with an
average number of helminths per bird of
4.8 ± 1.7 during the wet seasons and 5.1 ±
1.8 during the dry season. Other studies3,5
showed infection prevalences of 88 % for
roundworms in Leku, southern Ethiopia,
and 93.5 % for mixed infections from
Dschang market in western Cameroon,
respectively.
The type of management system
adopted greatly influences the parasitic
load of poultry. It has been shown that
chickens reared under the cage system
gave negative results for helminth parasites
whereas free-ranging chickens had the
highest helminth infection rate1. Most of
the helminth parasites were nematodes.
The present study was undertaken to
establish the prevalence of helminthiasis
in free-ranging indigenous poultry as it
contributes to poor poultry productivity,
which affects the small scale farmer. The
study was to serve as a database on the
most common helminths in indigenous
poultry. This is important in controlling
the prevalence of helminthiasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Intestinal samples of 456 indigenous
poultry were collected from Kariokor
Market, Nairobi. Poultry from various
parts of the country are collected and
slaughtered there. The samples were
separated into foregut, midgut and hind-
gut, using ligatures, labelled and pre-
served in 10 % neutral buffered formalin.
The sample sections were later opened
using scissors and their contents washed
into Petri dishes using normal saline.
The worms were stored in bottles, fixed
in 70 % ethanol and then stored in
10 % formalin before identification. The
worms were identified using dichoto-
mous keys7,8. Microscopic examination of
faeces for helminth eggs was done at
×40–60 magnification after making a
direct smear of the faeces or after filtering
the faeces in normal saline through a
cheese cloth and centrifuging the con-
tents4.
RESULTS
Out of a total of 456 specimens observed
in the study, 414 were found to be positive
whereas 42 were negative for helmin-
thiasis, giving a prevalence rate of
90.78 %. The specimens used in the study
came from chickens derived from vari-
ous towns in Kenya, including Nairobi,
Machakos, Kitui, Makueni, Nyahururu
and Bomet. Their infection rates are
shown in Fig. 1. Birds examined from
Nairobi, Machakos and Nyahururu were
all infected with helminthes whereas
those from Bomet had the lowest preva-
lence rate (86.57 %).
The most prevalent helminths were
Raillietina sp. (47.53 %), Heterakis galli-
narum (21.33 %), Ascaridia galli (10.03 %),
Strongyloides avium (9.96 %), Choanotaenia
infundibulum (4.61 %), Cotugnia dignopora
(3.6 %), Capillaria sp. (1.51 %), Tricho-
strongylus tenius (1.04 %) and Syngamus
trachea (0.40 %).
Various helminth eggs observed in the
faeces included those of Heterakis galli-
narum (47.5 %), Ascaridia galli (27.7 %),
Capillaria (12.8 %) and Trichostrongylus
tenius (12.0 %).
Mostofthehelminthswerefoundinthe
mid- and hindguts with the exception of
C. dignopora and T. tenius which were
present only in the mid- and hindguts,
respectively, and S. trachea which was the
only helminth found in the foregut. The
latter usually inhabits the respiratory
tract.
DISCUSSION
The method used in the present study
to quantify the level of helminthiasis is
reliable as helminths were observed di-
58 0038-2809 Tydskr.S.Afr.vet.Ver. (2004) 75(1): 58–59
ABSTRACT
A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various
towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the
intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the
remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78 %. The main species of helminths
found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53 %), Heterakis gallinarum (21.33 %), Ascaridia
galli (10.03 %), Strongyloides avium (9.96 %), Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61 %), Cotugnia
digonopora (3.6 %), Capillaria sp. (1.5 %), Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04 %) and Syngamus trachea
(0.40 %). Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and
C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens
from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of
helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the
indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds
and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat
such cases.
Key words: helminths, indigenous poultry, Kenya.
Irungu L W, Kimani R N, Kisia S M Helminth Parasitesin the intestinal tract of indigenous
poultry in partsofKenya.Journalofthe South African Veterinary Association(2004)75(1):58–59
(En.). Department of Zoology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya.
aDepartment of Zoology, University of Nairobi, PO Box
30197, Nairobi, Kenya.
bDepartment of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Nairobi,
PO Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya.
*Author for correspondence. E-mail: lirungu@uonbi.ac.ke
Received: September 2003. Accepted: February 2004.
0038-2809 Jl S.Afr.vet.Ass. (2004) 75(1): 58–59 59
rectly whereas many cases of helminthia-
sis go unnoticed since clinical symptoms
are often undetected. Diagnosis of worm
infections by examination of fresh drop-
pings for presence of eggs or segments is
also unreliable even in some cases of
heavy infection. Although the present
study only covers a small area of Kenya
where indigenous poultry occur, it does
give an indication of the level of helmin-
thiasis in several parts of the country. In
Nairobi, Machakos and Nyahururu, the
100 % positive cases could beattributed to
the small number of specimens examined
(fewer than 20 from each town), which
made it less likely that negative cases
would be found. By contrast, from
Makueni (91.46 % prevalence), 150 speci-
mens and from Bomet (86.59 % preva-
lence), 116 specimens were examined.
Generally, a high percentage of helmin-
thiasis was observed in the present study.
This may pose a major problem to the
small scale poultry farmers by lowering
productivity in the industry. The hel-
minths compete for nutrients with the
host and also cause inflammation and le-
sions in the intestinal tract that interfere
with digestion and assimilation of nutri-
ents by the host.
In the absence of control of the parasites
and treatment of infected birds, a high
helminth load is to be expected in free-
ranging poultry as the intermediate hosts
of the helminths are normally ingested by
the poultry. For example, the larval form
of Railletinia sp. is found in various inter-
mediate hosts such as ground and dung
beetles as well as ants, and the larval
stage of H. gallinarum is found in earth-
worms. Nematodes were the most com-
mon helminths. Seven species of nema-
todes were identified whereas only 2
species of cestodes were seen. Trema-
todes were not observed in the study as
snails and fish serve as intermediate
hosts. Poultry are found in the homestead
and rarely have access to aquatic condi-
tions, which are habitats of these interme-
diate hosts.
A control measure that can greatly
reducethe helminth load in poultry is one
that interferes with the life cycle of the
parasite. The intermediate host should
not have access to the faeces of poultry
since free-ranging poultry will eventually
feed on potential intermediate hosts.
Although the disposal of poultry drop-
pings is unquestionably the most impor-
tant preventive measure towards the
control of helminth infestation because
faeces is the source by which intermedi-
ate hosts become infected, this is not
applicable in a rural setting. Such drop-
pings can be spread out thinly on land out
of reach of poultry or in places rarely
frequented by poultry. The dehydrating
effect of the sun and wind on the drop-
pings will quickly destroy the parasitic
material in the droppings and the drop-
pings will also enrich the land as a ferti-
liser. Such a practice can be accompanied
by rotation of the birds from one area to
another in order to reduce parasitism
among birds.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was funded by a grant from
the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute
(KARI). We thank Mr Nicodemus Muia
for technical assistance.
REFERENCES
1. Abebe W, Asfaw T, Genete, B, Kassa B,
Dorchies P 1997 Comparative studies of
external parasites and gastrointestinal
helminths of chickens kept under different
management systems in and around Addis
Ababa (Ethiopia). Revue de médecine
vétérinaire 22: 497–500
2. FAO (1992) Distribution and impact of
helminth diseases of livestock in develop-
ing countries. FAO animal production and
health paper 96. Food and Agricultural
Organization of the United Nations
3. Mpoame M, Agbede G 1995 The gastro-
intestinal helminth infections of domestic
fowl in Dschang, Western Cameroon. Revue
élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays
tropicaux. 48: 2, 147–51
4. Muller R 1975 Worms and disease. A manual of
medical helminthology. William Heineman
Medical Books, London. 136–137
5. Negesse T 1993 Prevalence of diseases,
parasites and predators of local chickens in
Leku, Southern Ethiopia. Bulletin of Animal
Health and Production in Africa 33: 317–321
6. Permin A, Magwisha H, Kassuku A A,
Nanssen P, Bisgaard M, Frandsen F,
Gibbons L 1997 A cross sectional study of
helminths in rural scavenging poultry in
Tanzania in relation to seasons and climate.
Journal of Helminthology 21: 233–240
7. YamagutiS 1959 Systema Helminthum Vol. II.
The cestodes of vertebrates. Interscience
Publishing, New York
8. Yamaguti S 1961 Systema Helminthum Vol.
III. The nematodes of vertebrates part I and II.
Interscience Publishing, New York
Fig. 1: Percentage infected specimens from various towns in Kenya.
... Poultry industries play a great role nowadays to share in meat demands of human life. Therefore, many authors studied the parasites of chickens in different localities as in kenya (Irungu et al., 2004), in Morocco (Hassouni and Belghyti, 2006), in South Africa (Mukaratirwa and Khumalo, 2010), and in Nigeria (Idika et al., 2016). Chickens are the most important white flesh in the Egyptian economy. ...
... There are more than 50 helminths species are known to be parasites of chickens. Different parasites of chickens are mostly enhanced by the geographic position, season of the year and climate of the area (Irungu et al., 2004;Hassouni and Belghyti, 2006;Phiri et al., 2007). ...
... The present study recorded that the prevalence of intestinal helminths in Baladi chickens was 18.13% and this observation was nearly closed to that recorded by (Hassan, 2011) in Qena Egypt. In Kenya (Irungu et al., 2004) In Qena Egypt (Hassan, 2011) recorded that the infection in chicken with Raillietina tetragona was (34.5 %), R. cesticillus (41.4 %), Cotugnia digonopora (24.1%) and A. galli (91.7%). The seasonal dynamics of nematodes and cestodes was the highest in summer (33.3 %) and the lowest in winter (13.9 %). ...
... The high prevalence of Cotugnia digonopora in this study could be an incidence of the infective stages and intermediate hosts of the parasite. These findings were higher than those results reported by (Zahrani et al 2012;Irungu et al 2004) [12,13] . In the present study, prevalence of Choanotaenia infundibulum was 89.5%. ...
... In the present study, prevalence of Choanotaenia infundibulum was 89.5%. This was higher than reported by (Medjouel et al 2013) [14] , 40.67% in Ethiopia by (Hussen et al 2012) [15] , 40.5% in Iran (Eslami et al 2011) [16] The prevalence of Raillietina cesticillus in the current study was 83.5%. This was in line with the results of (Shaikh et al 2010) [17] who found 82.35% and this was higher than earlier results reported by (Butt et al 2012) [1] , 70% by (Medjouel et al 2013) [18] , 12.8% from Faisalabad, Pakistan by (Shah et al 1999) [19] . ...
Article
Birds in a traditional and open environment carry a huge risk of parasitic infections. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence rate and species diversity of cestode parasites in local chicken (Gallus domesticus). For this purpose live chicken (Gallus domesticus) were randomly collected from different villages of district Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 200 chickens were dissected and examined. Over all prevalence of infection was (94.5%). Three species of cestode parasites were recovered from the intestine of infected chickens. The identified cestode species and their prevalence were Cotugnia digonopora (94.5%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (89.5%), and Raillietina cesticillus (83.5%). The results of present study revealed that substandard poultry farming is a major factor for parasitic infection in local chicken which ultimately cause heavy loss.
... The present study recorded a high prevalence (86.6%) of diverse GI parasites (predominantly nematodes and cestodes) in indigenous chickens from the three markets, similar to previous reports from various regions of Kenya [19,22,53]. The high prevalence observed in these chickens may be attributed to freerange scavenging production system, where chickens are exposed to intermediate or paratenic hosts of helminths that infect poultry [15,16]. ...
... Seven nematode species have been documented and are reported in local chickens in tropical Africa [54][55][56] including Kenya [19,53]. Heterakis gallinarum and A. galli were predominant as reported by Ondawsy et al. [57] in Kakamega County, Kenya, Maina et al. [22] in Nairobi County found H. isolonche, S. brumpt, and T. americana were most prevalent. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed at determining parasitic prevalence and probable haemato-biochemical changes that may occur from parasitic infections in marketed indigenous chickens in Kiambu County, Kenya. Thirty adult chickens were purchased and examined for ectoparasites, haemoparasites and haemato-biochemical changes. Post mortem was conducted to recover gastro-intestinal parasites and fecal samples taken for egg/oocyst counts. Forty-seven percent (14/30) of chickens examined were in poor body condition, 43% (13/30) in fair and 10% (3/30) in good body condition. Ectoparasites infection prevalence was 66.7% (20/30). Four haemoparasites were isolated. Overall helminths prevalence was 86.6% (26/30), nematodes at 76.7% (23/30) and cestodes at 40% (12/30). After processing fecal samples, 30% (9/30) were positive for helminth eggs and 30% (9/30) had coccidial oocysts. Relative to normal values, total erythrocyte count was low and total leucocyte count with band cells high. Mean haematocrit and heterophil values were high (p=0.0005; p=0.0061). Mean lymphocyte count was low (p=0.0128) in chickens with ectoparasitic infestation. Eosinophils increased significantly (p=0.0363) although mean erythrocytes counts decreased (p=0.0176), in chickens with gastrointestinal parasites. Creatine phosphokinase and blood glucose levels were high, serum protein and albumin levels were low. Blood glucose level decreased significantly (p=0.0239) and total plasma protein increased (p=0.045) in chickens with Haemoproteus spp. infection. The study showed, ecto- and endo-parasites are prevalent and may contribute to alteration of haemato-biochemical parameters of sub-clinically infected marketed indigenous chickens. These results are expected to contribute towards and encourage usage of clinico-pathological parameter testing as a measure of poultry health status for enhanced poultry disease diagnoses.
... Baroin et al., 1988 ) . Kisia et al., 2004 ) . (Railliet and Henry 1909) Czaplinski, 1962 ) , ( Baruš et al., 1978 ) Anderson, 2000) , (Ryšavỳ et al., 1982) , ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study was conducted in AL-Najaf Governorate on October 1/10/2018 until March 1/3/2020 . 200 tapeworms were isolated from the intestine of 30 of the local chicken Gallus gallus domesticus , 50 of the homing pigeon Columbae liva, which are Cotugnia sp. , Ophryocotyloides sp. Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina sonini, Raillietina tetragona and Raillietina sp. , 88 nematodes were isolated from the intestines of Columbae liva belonging to the species Ascaridia columbae , 78 nematodes from the Columbae liva gizzard of Hadjelia truncata , 60 nematodes from a gizzard 44 of Gallinula chloropus, are of Amidostomoides monodon, and 70 cecum nematodes in domestic chickens are of Heterakis gallinarum . The morphological characteristics of tapeworms and nematodes were studied by optical microscopy and a scanning electron microscope by examining the head, mature segments, and chordate segments for tapeworms and examining the anterior and posterior logic regions of both male and female nematodes. Raillietina sonini and Ophryocotyloides sp. was isolated and described by optical and scanning electron microscopy for the first time in The world and Iraq. The Amidostomoides monodon was isolated and described by optical and electron microscopy for the first time in Iraq. In the current study, the 18SrRNA and 28SrRNA genes and one of the CYTb mitochondrial genes were used to diagnose the mentioned worms using the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To enhance the genetic diagnosis, PCR, we used the phylogenetic tree and sequence to analyze the gene sequence. It was found through the current study that the worms under the current study have a high degree of similarity with those found in the countries of the world, approximately 99.43-100.00%. The present study recorded the tapeworms Raillietina tetragona and Raillietina sonini in the NCBI gene bank of homing pigeons and domestic chickens for the first time in Iraq and in accession number (MW182409.1, MW182408.1) respectively. The Raillietina sonini tapeworm has been shown to be the second record in the world after Bulgaria. The current study revealed that the roundworm Amidostomoides monodon is the second record in the world after Poland and the first registration in Iraq accession number (MW077222.1) . The current study used CYTb mitochondrial genes to diagnose Ascariadia columbae worm on the first open reading frame site in Iraq, and this record has been shown to be the second in the world after China. It was revealed from the current study that the nematode Hadjelia truncata was registered in the NCBI gene bank for the first time from pigeons In America, it was registered in the current study of pigeons for the first time in Iraq with two isolates the first is BHK1 the accession number (MW077135.1) and the second BHK2 the accession number (MW077136. 1) . The current study in the NCBI Genebank recorded four Heterakis gallinarum isolates isolated from the cecum of domestic chickens for the first time in Iraq, as follows: - First BHK1 accession number (MW073432.1) Second BHK2 accession number (MW073433.1) Third sq1 accession number (MW073554.1) Fourth sq2 accession number (MW073553.1)
... found a prevalence of (91.01%). In Kenya, Irungu et al17 found a prevalence of helminthiasis as 90.78%; in central Ethiopia, Ashenafi and Eshetu 6 found a prevalence of endoparasitism of 90.21%; and in Bahir Dar, Belete and Addis 18 found a prevalence of GIT helminths of 84.6%. Molla et al 19 in the North Gondar administration zone and Shiferaw et al 20 in and around Ambo, West Shewa zone also reported high prevalence of chicken gastrointestinal parasite similarly. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Chicken nematodes are found all over the world. Ascaris and Heterakis are among the cosmopolitan chicken nematodes. In different parts of Ethiopia, these parasites have long been thought to be the leading cause of illness and loss of productivity. However, there has been little research on their burden in Gondar city; hence, this study was carried out to establish a realistic estimate of the prevalence of Ascariasis and Heterakiasis in chickens. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Gondar city, North West Ethiopia, from November 2019 to May 2020 to evaluate the prevalence and different related risk factors of chicken Ascaris and Heterakis infections. A total of 384 hens were tested utilizing the faecal flotation technique, with 170 native and 214 alien varieties. During the collection of faecal samples, the breed, age, production system, and feces consistency of chickens were all taken into account. Results: One hundred seventy-one (44.5%) of the total (384) investigated feces tested positive for at least one of these parasite illnesses. The parasite's prevalence was influenced by age, breed, and the type of production technique used. A higher infection rate was observed in the younger (68.9%) indigenous (67.1%) chickens reared under the extensive production system (46.9%). Discussion and conclusion: The prevalence of ascariasis and heterakiasis was nearly half percent in this study, even though the study was conducted in dry season, which is relatively unfavorable to parasites living in the environment and it specified only on the two common chicken ascaris nematodes. This study strongly suggested that Ascaris and Heterakis parasites were serious problems for chickens in Gondar city, and appropriate control strategies needed to be advised.
... Згідно з результатами досліджень науковців, трихостронгільоз має значне поширення і зареєстрований на території Кенії, Нігерії, Мексиці, Австрії, Німеччини, Словаччини [1][2][3][4][5]. Представників родини Trichostrongylidae часто виявляють як у домашньої, так і в дикої птиці. ...
Article
Full-text available
Серед гельмінтозів гусей досить поширеними є інвазії, спричинені нематодами, що паразитують у шлункового-кишковому тракті птиці, до яких належить і трихостронгільоз. Збудник Trichostrongylus tenuis локалізується у птиці у сліпих кишках, рідше – в тонкому кишечнику. Інвазія зумовлює затримку в рості та розвитку молодняку, негативно впливає на продуктивність, якість продукції та функціональну активність імунної системи птиці. Метою досліджень було встанови-ти епізоотологічні особливості перебігу трихостронгільозу гусей у господарствах Полтавської об-ласті. За результатами проведених гельмінтологічних розтинів домашніх гусей встановлено, що се-редня екстенсивність трихостронгільозної інвазії на території Полтавської області становила 27,54 % (за коливань від 20,00 до 39,34 %, інтенсивність інвазії – 13,09±0,95 екз./гол. (за коливань від 1 до 42 екз./гол.). Встановлено, що трихостронгільоз гусей частіше (у 81,55 % інвазованої птиці) перебігає як мікстінвазії разом з нематодозами, цестодозами та трематодозами. Трихостронгільо-зну моноінвазію виявлено у 18,45 % хворої птиці. Мікстінвазії представлені дво-, три-, чотири-, п’яти- та шестикомпонентними різновидами. Домінуючими виявилися інвазії, що складалися з двох видів паразитів (екстенсивність інвазії становила 10,43 %), де співчленами Trichostrongylus tenuis були нематоди видів: Аmidostomum anseris, Heterakis dispar, Baruscapillaria anseris, Baruscapillaria obsignata, цестоди видів: Fimbriaria fasciolaris, Sobolevicanthus gracilis та трематоди виду Echinoparyphium aconiatum. Екстенсивність інших видів мікстінвазій коливалася в межах від 0,80 до 5,08 %. Усього виділено 28 різновидів асоціативного перебігу трихостронгільозу в гусей, де з двоком-понентних виявлено 7 різновидів, з трикомпонентних – 14, з чотирикомпонентних – 5, із п’ятикомпонентних – 1, із шестикомпонентних – 1. Основними співчленами нематод роду Trichostrongylus tenuis в організмі гусей виявилися нематоди H. dispar (екстенсивність інвазії стано-вила 9,89 %), B. anseris (9,89 %) та А. anseris (6,68 %). Менший відсоток становили асоціації трихо-стронгілюсів із H. conoideum (4,28 %), S. gracilis (3,74 %), F. fasciolaris (3,48 %), H. gallinarum (3,48 %) та B. obsignata (1,87 %).
... However, as important as poultry birds are to human dietary requirements, its production is limited by several factors, such as poor management, malnutrition, lack of bio-security, poor housing, poor veterinary services and parasite infestation [6]. Parasitic infestations manifest as late maturity, reduce egg output, induce emaciation, anaemia and death [7] [8]. Common among the poultry parasites are Mites, Gnats, Fleas, Lice and Ticks, Helminthes and Protozoa [9]. ...
... Other studies conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth infections in chicken in different countries indicated that the prevelance was 100% in Ghana, 99.9% in India, 91% in Sudan, 90.78% in Kenya, 89.9% in North Africa, 37% in South Africa, 16% in Iran and 1 to 3.4% in Poland (El-Khawad et al. 1977, Eslam and Anwar 1973, Fagasinski 1992, Irungu et al. 2004, Poulsen et al. 2000, Yodav and Tandon 1991, Hassouni and Belghyti 2006. Helminth infection rate was determined as 59.46% in the present study. ...
Article
Trichostrongylus tenuis Mehlin, 1846 is a helminth species that parasitizes in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and causes trichostrongylosis. Research on the differential features of the pathogen at various stages of development facilitates timely finding of the foci of infection and providing recommendations for prevention and control. In the present study, the differential species traits of male and female Trichostrongylus nematodes parasitizing in the domestic goose were examined. The nematodes were obtained in helminthological dissection of the intestine of birds kept at farms and private households in Poltava region, Ukraine. It was revealed that the morphological features of T. tenuis females that should be considered in species identification include the structural specifics of the reproductive system and the tail end. 22 metric parameters were suggested for species identification, including the female body measurements for different parts, specifics of vulva and anus location, sizes of the ovijector, sphincter, ejector and vulval area. Differences were found in the metric parameters of the lateral crests of the cuticle in female nematodes in relation to the position of crests on the parasite’s bodies. The cuticular crests were absent at 0.1 mm from the head and tail ends, and the length of crests was 9.3 mm in total. The longest and widest crests were observed in the middle of the body, the shortest were found in the anus area, and the narrowest crests were from the anterior part of esophagus to its middle. The distance between crests varied 0.2–3.0 μm, the longest at the transition of esophagus into the intestine and the shortest in area between the vulva and the anus. The metric parameters of T. tenuis eggs obtained from bird feces and in the nematode uterus differed significantly by 5 characters. The collected data on the morphological and metric parameters of females and eggs of T. tenuis can be used in species identification and understanding of the taxonomic position of that species.
Article
An attempt was made to study the influence of management system on the status of parasitism in local and exotic breeds of domestic fowls kept in and around Addis Ababa. Significant differences (X2 p < 0.05) in prevalence rate of internal and external parasites were found between different management system. Out of 93 chickens in cage system, the only detected ecto-parasite was Dermanysus gallinae Examination of 102 chickens kept under semi intensive system unveiled different species of lice such as Gonoides gigas (44.12%), Menopon gallinae (23.53%), Menacanthus stramineus (10.78%), Goniocotes gallinae (2.094%) and one species of mite (Dermanysus gallinae). While in free ranging chickens (n=109), six different species of lice : Menacanthus stramineus (26.6%), Menopon gallinae (60.55%), Gonoides gigas (78.9%), Goniocotes gallinae (10.09%) and Cuclotogaster heterographus (14.71%) were identified. In addition one species of mite (Dermanysus gallinae) and one species of flea Ctenocephalides felis (0.92%) were recorded. Examination of 98 gastro intestinal viscera from chickens kept in cage system showed negative results for helminth parasites. Whereas in semi intensive system (N = 104), 57.73% of chickens harboured at least one internal helminth parasite : Ascaridia galli (49.04%), Heterakis gallinarum (11.57%), Raillietina cesticillus (7.69%), Raillietina tetragona (1.92%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.8%) were detected. Out of 95 chickens from free range system. 97.89% harboured at least one species of internal helminth parasite : Ascaridia galli (71.58%), Heterakis gallinarum (21.05%), Subulura brumpti (13.68%)., Raillietina cesticillus (37.87%), Raillietina echinobothridia (29.47%) , Raillietina tetragona (26.32%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (22.16 %), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (12.63%) and Hymenolepis carioca (5.26%).
Article
Three hundred and fifty one chickens purchased from the Dschang animal market were examined for gastro-intestinal helminths. Ten species were found with the following prevalences: Heterakis brevispiculum (59.3%), Ascaridia galli (51.6%), Hymenolepis carioca (48.4%), Dispharynx spiralis (20.8%), Tetrameres americana (17.1%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (15.1%), Raillietina tetragona (14.5%), Syngamus trachea (13.7%), Hymenolepis cantaniana (5.7%) and Capillaria contorta (2.0%). Infections were predominantly mixed (93.5%). The infection rates were not influenced by host sex except for A. galli which was more prevalent in cocks. Older chickens showed some resistance to A. cuneata and S. trachea. Parasite prevalence and/or worm burdens were generally higher during the rainy season (April to October).
Article
A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of helminths in rural scavenging poultry on six hundred adult chickens selected randomly from six villages in the Morogoro Region, Tanzania during the wet and the dry seasons, was conducted. The trachea and gastrointestinal tract of each bird were examined for the presence of parasites. All chickens were infected with one or several species of helminths, the average being 4.8 +/- 1.7 helminths per chicken during the wet season and 5.1 +/- 1.8 during the dry season. A total of 29 different helminth species were shown in the trachea or the gastrointestinal tract. The following species were identified: Syngamus trachea (0.7% (wet season), 2% (dry season)); Gongylonema ingluvicola (6.3%, 17.7%); Tetrameres americana (54.3%, 60.3%); Dispharynx nasuta (0%, 2.7%); Acuaria hamulosa (8.3%, 19.3%); Ascaridia galli (28.3%, 32.3%); Heterakis gallinarum (74.0%, 78.7%); H. isolonche (18.7%, 5.0%); H. dispar (25.7%, 6.3%); Allodapa suctoria (40.0%, 52.0%); Subulura strongylina (3.3%, 1.0%); Strongyloides avium (0.3%, 3.0%); Capillaria annulata (2.0%, 0.0%); C. contorta (9.0%, 1.0%); C. caudinflata (2.0%, 4.3%); C. obsignata (8.7%, 25.0%); C. anatis (4.0%, 9.0%); C. bursata (1.0%, 2.7%); Raillietina echinobothrida (41.3%, 46.3%); R. tetragona (25.3%, 21. 3%); R. cesticillus (8.7%, 2.7%); Choanotaenia infundibulum (0.0%, 3. 7%); Hymenolepis carioca (9.0%, 18.0%); H. cantaniana (48.0%, 43. 0%); Amoebotaenia cuneata (39.3%, 36.0%); Metroliasthes lucida (1.0%, 0.3%); Davainea proglottina (5.7%, 0.3%) and Polymorphus boschadis (0.3%, 0.0%). No trematodes were found. No correlation was found between season and prevalence, or season and mean worm burdens. Twelve helminths of the species recovered represent new local records.
The nematodes of vertebrates part I and II
  • S Yamaguti
Yamaguti S 1961 Systema Helminthum Vol. III. The nematodes of vertebrates part I and II. Interscience Publishing, New York Fig. 1: Percentage infected specimens from various towns in Kenya.
Prevalence of diseases, parasites and predators of local chickens in Leku
  • T Negesse
Negesse T 1993 Prevalence of diseases, parasites and predators of local chickens in Leku, Southern Ethiopia. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 33: 317-321
Distribution and impact of helminth diseases of livestock in developing countries. FAO animal production and health paper 96
FAO (1992) Distribution and impact of helminth diseases of livestock in developing countries. FAO animal production and health paper 96. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
The cestodes of vertebrates
  • S Yamaguti
Yamaguti S 1959 Systema Helminthum Vol. II. The cestodes of vertebrates. Interscience Publishing, New York
The gastrointestinal helminth infections of domestic fowl in Dschang, Western Cameroon. Revue élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux
  • M Mpoame
  • G Agbede
Mpoame M, Agbede G 1995 The gastrointestinal helminth infections of domestic fowl in Dschang, Western Cameroon. Revue élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux. 48: 2, 147-51
1: Percentage infected specimens from various towns in Kenya
  • S Yamaguti
Yamaguti S 1961 Systema Helminthum Vol. III. The nematodes of vertebrates part I and II. Interscience Publishing, New York Fig. 1: Percentage infected specimens from various towns in Kenya.