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Validity and reliability of the the Spanish Modified of the Trait Meta-mood Scale 1, 2

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Abstract

This study examined validity and reliability of the Spanish modified version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in a sample of 292 Spanish undergraduates. The internal consistency estimates for subscales were all above .85, and the test-retest correlations after 4 wk. ranged from .60 to .83. The correlations between scores on the Spanish modified version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale subscales and criterion measures (Beck Depression Inventory, Satisfaction With Life Scale, and Ruminative Responses Scale) were in the expected direction. In summary, the Spanish modified version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale had appropriate reliability and significant relations with criterion variables as in previous studies with the English version.

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... Students were invited to respond online to the questionnaire. The questionnaire used to meet the research objective was the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) by Fernández-Berrocal et al. [22]. The scale used consisted of 24 items and three essential dimensions of EI, each with eight items: emotional attention, clarity of feelings, and emotional repair. ...
... In reference to the psychometric properties of the scale, the authors report high internal consistency for each dimension by Cronbach's alpha: Attention α = 0.90; Clarity α = 0.90; and Repair α = 0.86 [22]. With respect to the different subscales, the internal consistency obtained in this study were: Attention α = 0.87; Clarity α = 0.93; and Repair α = 0.90. ...
... A score can be obtained for each of the subscales by adding the results of each one. Next, the cut-off points were established by the scale's authors [22] and classified according to the scale's parameters. These cut-off points vary depending on the gender of the students and can be observed in Table 1. ...
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Self-perceived emotional intelligence in healthcare personnel is not just an individual skill but a work tool, which is even more necessary in times of crisis. This article aimed to determine emotional intelligence as perceived by students studying nursing at the University of Colima, Mexico, a year after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey of an academic year stratified population of 349 students was conducted, using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 instrument. A global descriptive analysis was performed for each school year. Additionally, an ANOVA was performed, and a Multiple Correspondence Analysis was executed. It is essential to highlight the high percentages for emotional attention within the results. However, a large percentage of students required improvement in emotional attention, clarity, and repair. According to their school year, significant differences were observed among student groups within the three emotional intelligence subscales (p < 0.05). Second-year students had low levels in the three subscales of emotional intelligence, while fourth-year students had adequate levels. We established that the scores were different depending on the school year, with a significant decrease in second-year students. The implementation of educational programs could aid in the development of emotional skills in students from the health field, especially in times of crisis.
... The Trait Meta-Mood Scale 24 (Salovey et al., 1995) was used in its Spanish version by Fernández-Berrocal, Extremera-Pacheco, and Ramos (2004). It is composed of 24 items, with a 5-point Likert-type response scale with anchors of 1 (strongly disagree) and 5 (strongly agree). ...
... It is composed of 24 items, with a 5-point Likert-type response scale with anchors of 1 (strongly disagree) and 5 (strongly agree). The responses are aggregated for each dimension (attention, clarity, and repair), and may be compared to normative categories (low, normal, and high) for the Spanish adult population (Fernández-Berrocal, Extremera-Pacheco, and Ramos, 2004). ...
... Previous validations in Spanish (Fernández-Berrocal, Extremera-Pacheco, and Ramos, 2004) showed high reliability (Cronbach's alphas were 0.90 for attention, 0.90 for clarity, and 0.86 for repair) and confirmed the threefactor structure, with good predictive validity. Similar results of reliability and structural validity were obtained in a sample of nursing students in Chile (Espinoza-Venegas, Sanhueza-Alvarado, Ramírez-Elizondo, and Sáez-Carrillo, 2015). ...
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Background Emotional intelligence (EI) and assertiveness are key abilities for physiotherapists. Clinical placements seem to affect students’ development of EI and assertiveness, and their construction of the professional role. Purpose This study aims to compare the EI of physiotherapy students with students from other health professions and explore the evolution of EI and assertiveness in physiotherapy students throughout their university education, focusing on the influence of clinical practice. Method Students (N = 753) completed a self-administered questionnaire to measure emotional intelligence (TMMS 24), assertiveness (CSES), and sociodemographic variables. Results EI levels were adequate and very similar across the three disciplines. Regarding assertiveness, physiotherapy students in year 4 obtained significantly higher levels than students in years 1, 2, and 3. Significant correlations (rs (207) = 0.35, p < .001) were found between assertiveness and the number of modules of clinical practice. Conclusion This study contributes with further evidence on the improvement of assertiveness in physiotherapy students through their university education and, in particular, with clinical placements. Practical implications highlight the importance of training in EI and assertiveness during university, coupled with clinical placements, in order to prepare for an effective and satisfactory professional life.
... EI is defined as the ability to perceive, evaluate, and express one's emotions accurately, the ability to access and generate feelings that facilitate thought, the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge, and the ability to regulate emotions and promote emotional and intellectual growth [9]. Specifically, these emotional abilities are configured through three dimensions: attention, abilities clarity, and emotional repair [9,10]. EI involves a set of emotional abilities to effectively use the information provided by emotions, which allows the application of more adaptive behavioural and cognitive repertoires when coping with stressful situations [11]. ...
... Emotional Intelligence: Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) [23], adapted to Spanish [10]. The test consists of 24 Likert items with options according to the level of agreement (from 1 "absolutely not agree" to 5 "totally agree"). ...
... It has a tri-factorial structure, including questions about how people attend to their emotions (emotional attention), how they identify them (emotional clarity), and how they solve them (emotional reparation), with eight items for each one. The test has good psychometric properties [10]. In this study, the internal consistency was α = 0.88 for attention, α = 0.88 for clarity, and α = 0.86 for reparation. ...
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Emotional intelligence (EI), problem-oriented coping, and resilience have been deeply studied as psychological predictors of wellbeing in stressful daily situations. The aim was to find out whether coping, EI, and resilience are predictors of well-being, using two statistical methodologies (hierarchical regression models and comparative qualitative models). With this objective in mind, we built an online evaluation protocol and administered it to 427 Spanish people, exploring these variables through a selection of validated tests. The extracted data were studied using linear predictive tests (hierarchical regression models), as well as fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis. We found that EI variables had important associations with coping, positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction, and also acted as relevant predictors for all of them, together with resilience and problem-oriented coping. The fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis showed a series of logical combinations of conditional causes and results of each potential configuration for these variables. The interaction between the presence of EI, resilience, and coping resulted in high levels of well-being. On the other hand, the presence of high emotional attention in interaction with low resilience and low coping abilities resulted in low well-being. These results increase knowledge about protective factors and allow for the creation of intervention programmes to enhance them.
... The dimensions are perception (e.g., "I think it is worth paying attention to my emotions and mood"), understanding (e.g., "I often notice my feelings in different situations"), and emotional regulation (e.g., "even if I feel bad, I try to think about pleasant things"). This questionnaire has adequate psychometric indices (Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2004). c) A single item measuring academic self-efficacy-"How confident are you that you will be able to effectively perform the tasks (papers, exhibits, exams, etc.) that your academic life demands of you?" (Domínguez-Lara and Merino-Soto, 2017). ...
... We also found an adequate level of academic selfefficacy, possibly allowing them to organize motivational and behavioral efforts to perform tasks, reports, exams, and other activities demanded by university academic life. Regarding emotional intelligence skills (Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2004), the participating students showed adequate attention. Students report the ability to read their emotions and feelings by being able to experience them. ...
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Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, educational centers and universities in Venezuela have closed their physical plants and are migrating to emergency remote education to continue with academic programs. This empirical study aimed to analyze the predictive capacity of academic self-efficacy and emotional intelligence skills on each of the dimensions of psychological well-being. We employed a cross-sectional predictive design. The sample comprised 277 university students, of which 252 were female (91.00%). Their ages ranged from 18 to 45 years, with a mean of 20.35 ( SD = 2.29). Non-probabilistic chance sampling was used. For data collection, we used an anonymous online form, contacted students by mail, and invited them to participate in the study. Questionnaires were available between 217 and 227 days of decreed quarantine in Venezuela. The results indicated average levels of academic self-efficacy (Me = 4; IQR = 2), emotional intelligence: clarity (Me = 27; IQR = 10), attention (Me = 25; IQR = 10) y repair (Me = 25; IQR = 12), and psychological well-being (Me = 35; IQR = 5). We found differences according to sex and age, specifically in emotional regulation ( z = 3.73, p < 0.001, d = 0.438) and in bonds of psychological well-being ( z = 2.51, p = 0.012, d = 0.276) favoring men (Me = 33, IQR = 9; Me = 8, IQR = 1), respectively. Regarding age, statistically significant differences were found in the group of students older than 21 years with higher perception of psychological well-being ( z = 3.69, p < 0.001, d = 0.43) and in each of its dimensions. Emotional intelligence and academic self-efficacy were found to be significant predictors of psychological well-being and its dimensions, specifically on control ( R ² -Cox = 0.25, R ² -Nagelkerke = 0.34, 69.90% of total correct classification), links ( R ² -Cox = 0.09, R ² -Nagelkerke = 0.12, 65.07% of total correct classification), projects ( R ² -Cox = 0.32, R ² -Nagelkerke = 0.46, 78.40% of total correct classification), acceptance ( R ² -Cox = 0.17, R ² -Nagelkerke = 0.23, 68.28% of total correct classification), and total well-being ( R ² -Cox = 0.52, R ² -Nagelkerke = 0.71, 87.16% of total correct classification). It was concluded that emotional intelligence and academic self-efficacy are protective psychological resources of psychological well-being that should be promoted at university to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic on the mental health of young people.
... The 3 subscales of The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) [18] were employed to assess emotional attention (i.e., to what extent individuals tend to observe and think about their feelings and moods), emotional clarity (i.e., the understanding of one's emotional states) and emotional regulation (i.e., individuals' beliefs about ability to regulate their feelings). The Spanish modified version of the TMMS [18] had appropriate reliability and validity. ...
... The 3 subscales of The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) [18] were employed to assess emotional attention (i.e., to what extent individuals tend to observe and think about their feelings and moods), emotional clarity (i.e., the understanding of one's emotional states) and emotional regulation (i.e., individuals' beliefs about ability to regulate their feelings). The Spanish modified version of the TMMS [18] had appropriate reliability and validity. Each subscale is comprised of 8 items which are rated on a 5-point Likert scale (1)(2)(3)(4)(5). ...
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Purpose The relation between diet and maternal mental health during pregnancy might be relevant to prevent adverse materno-foetal outcomes. This study examined the association of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence and MD components with mental health during pregnancy. Methods This secondary analysis of the GESTAFIT trial included longitudinal data from 152 pregnant women. Dietary habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire, and MD adherence was derived from it using the Mediterranean Food pattern. Psychological ill-being (i.e., negative affect, anxiety, and depression) and well-being (i.e., emotional intelligence, resilience, positive affect) were assessed with the Spanish version of well-established self-reported questionnaires. Cross-sectional (16th gestational week [g.w.]) and longitudinal associations (34th g.w.) between MD and mental health were studied using linear regression models. Results A greater MD adherence was inversely associated with negative affect and anxiety; and positively associated with emotional regulation, resilience and positive affect at the 16th and 34th g.w. (|β| ranging from 0.179 to 0.325, all p < 0.05). Additionally, a higher intake of whole grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, fish, olive oil and nuts, and a lower intake of red meat and subproducts and sweets were associated with lower negative affect, anxiety, depression and higher emotional regulation, resilience and positive affect throughout gestation (|β| ranging from 0.168 to 0.415, all p < 0.05). Conclusion A higher intake of whole grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, fish, olive oil and nuts, together with a lower intake of red meat and sweets, resulted in a higher MD adherence, which was associated with a better mental health during pregnancy.
... Specifically, they were asked about the importance of working on non-technical skills (PRE "I think it is important to work on non-technical skills in degree coursework"; POST "I think working on emotions in this course can help me in future care practice"), evaluation of the weight of nontechnical skills in the undergraduate curriculum (PRE "I think more hours should be devoted to degree training in the skills we are indicating"; POST "I think more hours should be devoted to degree training in the skills we are indicating") and finally on the need to promote/widen these contents in the training planned for the degree (PRE "I think it is appropriate to include non-technical skills in Nursing Degree education", POST "I would like training in emotional skills to be included throughout the degree coursework"). On the one hand, to evaluate the emotional intelligence we used the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24) by Fernández-Berrocal et al. [40] based on the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) by Salovey et al. [41]. It is a self-report measure consisting of expressing one's opinion of one's own emotional abilities and skills on a five-point Likert-type scale, from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. ...
... The TMMS-24 evaluates three dimensions of emotional intelligence in eight items for each component: Emotional attention, Clarity and Repair. The scale has optimum psychometric properties in different samples [40,42]. Emotional attention refers to the level of awareness of one's own feelings and moods (e.g., "I pay much attention to my feelings"), Clarity is the ability to understand one's own moods (e.g., "I am usually very clear about my feelings") and Repair refers to the capacity for regulating feelings and emotional states (e.g., "Although I sometimes feel sad, I usually have a mostly optimistic outlook"). ...
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There is a growing body of research on emotional intelligence and resilience in nursing students. However, there is little evidence of the development of these variables in intervention programs. This study aims to analyze the effects of a non-technical skills training program in emotional intelligence and resilience. Sixty students in the second year of Nursing Education from a Spanish public university completed this psychoeducational course. The pre-experimental design was longitudinal with pre- and post-intervention evaluation. The course consisted of 12 sessions of classroom education, three small-group workshops and a set of individual activities. Results in the emotional intelligence dimensions showed that Clarity (t = 3.10, p = 0.003) and Repair (t = 3.59, p < 0.001) increased significantly after participation in the program. Furthermore, the participants had a higher Resilience index when they had completed the program, with a statistically significant difference from the pre-course mean (t = 2.83, p = 0.006). This non-technical skills training program was an effective method of improving emotional intelligence and resilience in nursing students. Therefore, its use is recommended as a psychoeducational strategy for training undergraduate nursing students, as it improves their personal and professional competencies, resulting in higher-quality care.
... The third and final source was the evaluation of participant EI using the 24 items version of Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24). This is an abbreviated version devised by Fernández-Berrocal et al. [38], which utilizes the EI measuring instrument created by Salovey et al. [39] to measure perceived EI. The reduced version uses three dimensions in Spanish (attention, clarity, and repair), which are measured using 24 items in a fivepoint Likert scale (from 1, "totally disagree" to 5, "totally agree"). ...
... Contrast analysis of EI with other attributes only reveal significant differences in Women's Clarity; thus, we can conclude that female participants had greater emotional understanding, which partially supports the results obtained in the research by Alenezi [24] and Abbas et al. [25], who found improvements in the EI of women with respect to men. Nonetheless, Women did get higher scores on all three parameters [37], which is strongly supported by existing research [37][38][39]41]. ...
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The outbreak of the global pandemic derived from COVID-19 in early 2020 has represented a huge loss of social contact for most young people. The extent of these effects is still unknown, so it is necessary to ask what the effect of this new, unforeseen, and prolonged situation on the man-agement of emotional intelligence in university students is. This study aims to compare the aca-demic performance, test anxiety (before and during the online exams), and emotional intelligence of 91 students in a university Master’s degree program after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pan-demic. The emotional intelligence was measured by the TMMS-24, the academic performance was compiled in common subjects, and test anxiety was measured by self-assessment just after finish-ing each online exam. The comparisons between the variables were made through means differ-ence contrasts using Mann–Whitney U, Kruskal–Wallis, and One-way ANOVA and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient as a non-parametric test for correlational analysis. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic has not modified how these three variables are related, so it can be concluded that the prolonged social isolation suffered by young people has not had negative re-percussions on their emotional intelligence, anxiety before exams, and academic performance.
... The Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS-24;Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2004) was used. Each of the three subscales contains eight items: Attention, which conveys the extent to which individuals tend to observe and think about their feelings and moods (e.g., 'I pay a lot of attention to how I feel'); Clarity, which evaluates the understanding of one's emotional states (e.g., 'I am usually very clear about my feelings'); and Repair, which refers to the individuals' beliefs about their ability to regulate their feelings (e.g., 'Although I am sometimes sad, I have a mostly optimistic outlook'). ...
... Se utilizó la Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS-24;Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2004). Cada una de las tres sub-escalas contiene ocho ítems: Atención, que expresa la medida en la cual los individuos tienden a observar y reflexionar sobre su estado de ánimo y sus sentimientos (por ejemplo, 'Presto mucha atención a cómo me siento'); Claridad, que evalúa la comprensión de los propios estados emocionales (por ejemplo, 'Por lo general, tengo muy claro cuáles son mis sentimientos'); y Reparación, que se refiere a las creencias de los individuos sobre su capacidad para regular sus sentimientos (por ejemplo, 'Aunque a veces me siento triste, la mayor parte de las veces soy optimista'). ...
... , es la escala que evalúa el meta-conocimiento de los estados emocionales, la Traid Meta-Mood Scale-24 validada porFernández-Berrocal et al. (2004), está fundamentada en la Traid Meta-Mood Scale-48 deSalovey et al. (1995), compuesta por tres dimensiones. Consta de 8 ítems por cada dimensión, siendo un total de 24 ítems. ...
... Respecto al nivel de resiliencia los participantes mostraron niveles altos siendo más elevados en adaptabilidad y redes de apoyo y persistencia, tenacidad y autocontrol, relacionados con la superación de las experiencias negativas, convirtiéndolas en aprendizaje lo que conllevaría a un aumento de los niveles del constructo. Siendo en personalidad la extroversión la dimensión con mayor nivel como afirman Di Fabio y Saklofske (2014) mostrando así la relación positiva entre resiliencia y extroversión.En cuanto a la relación de los aspectos sociodemográficos en función de las variables psicosociales cabe destacar que no hay diferencia significativa en la sumatoria de inteligencia emocional entre género igual que en los resultados del estudio deFernández-Berrocal et al. (2004). De tal forma, se observaron niveles altos en el género masculino como genero más resiliente que el femenino, siendo el primero más persistente,DESAFÍOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN Y LA INNOVACIÓN EDUCATIVA ANTE LA SOCIEDAD INCLUSIVA ...
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Esta investigación trata de responder a las siguientes cuestiones siendo la primera si existe alguna relación entre la resiliencia, inteligencia emocional y personalidad en los estudiantes y si existen diferencias de género. Teniendo como objetivo principal describir y analizar los vínculos entre de resiliencia, inteligencia emocional y personalidad en estudiantes universitarios según el género y grado de educación. Una vez, propuesto el objetivo general, se proponen los objetivos específicos: 1. Describir los grados de resiliencia, inteligencia emocional, personalidad y variables sociodemográficas en los estudiantes universitarios de educación. 2. Analizar la relación entre resiliencia, inteligencia emocional, personalidad y aspectos sociodemográficos. Una vez expuestas estas cuestiones y objetivos, en esta investigación se considera y plantea las siguientes hipótesis, se espera que los universitarios de géneros masculinos presenten un mayor nivel de resiliencia mientras que el femenino manifieste mayores índices de Inteligencia Emocional, se prevé que los estudiantes universitarios de Educación Infantil posean altos niveles en todas las variables, y por último, se estima que la correlación entre los estudiantes universitarios de diferentes grados de educación será semejante. Estos tres parámetros resiliencia, Inteligencia Emocional y personalidad, tienen una fuerte influencia sobre nuestro futuro docente, de ahí esta investigación.
... Perceived Emotional Intelligence, was evaluated by The Trait Meta-Mood-Scale 24 (TMMS-24; Salovey et al. [21]; adapted by Fernández-Berrocal et al. [43]. This 24-item questionnaire assesses people's perception of their emotional abilities. ...
... Regarding the emotional clarity and repair dimensions, values below 23 represent low levels, between 24 and 34 pose adequate status, and above 35 indicate excellent emotional clarity and repair levels. The authors of the instrument found that the reliability coefficient, Cronbach's alpha, was 0.90 for emotional attention, 0.90 for emotional clarity, and 0.86 for emotional repair [43]. ...
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Breast cancer is the malignancy with the highest incidence in women worldwide. The empirical evidence is inconsistent with the prevalence of depression among breast cancer survivors (BCS), pointing to emotional competencies as protective factors against affective disorders. However, the mechanisms through which these competencies favor a more adaptive emotional state are unknown. Therefore, this study aims to explore the relationship between the experience of having survived the disease and depression levels in a group of BCS, and the mediating role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) in this relation. This was a cross-sectional study with 237 women divided into two groups: 56 BCS and 181 healthy controls who completed the Trait Meta-Mood Scale 24 (TMMS-24) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results showed that Survivorship and PEI explained and predicted 37.8% of the variance of depression, corresponding the 11.7% to the direct and/or the indirect effect of the PEI dimensions (Emotional Attention, Emotional Clarity, and Emotional Repair). In conclusion, interventions aimed at promoting an adequate PEI in this population—and in the Psycho-oncology field, in general—with a particular focus on the development of Emotional Clarity and Repair need to be implemented. Limitations and future research lines are discussed.
... Trait Meta-Mood Scale 24: Developed by Salovey et al. [19]. The Spanish version developed by Fernández-Berrocal et al. [27] was used in the present study. In this case, the version used for data collection is adapted for the study population [27]. ...
... The Spanish version developed by Fernández-Berrocal et al. [27] was used in the present study. In this case, the version used for data collection is adapted for the study population [27]. This questionnaire comprises a total of 24 items that are rated on a five-point Likert scale (1 = "Disagree" to 5 = "Strongly agree"). ...
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Adolescence is a key developmental period from a health, physical and psychological perspective. In view of this, the present research aimed to establish the relationship between emotional intelligence, Mediterranean diet adherence, BMI and age. In order to address this aim, (a) an explanatory model is developed of emotional intelligence and its relationship with Mediterranean diet adherence, BMI and age, and (b) the proposed structural model is examined via multi-group analysis as a function of whether students engage in more than three hours of physical activity a week. To this end, a quantitative, non-experimental (ex post facto), comparative and cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 567 students . The instruments used were an ad hoc questionnaire, the KIDMED questionnaire and the TMMS-24. Outcomes reveal that participants who engage in more than three hours of physical activity a week score more highly for emotional intelligence than those who do not meet this criterion. Furthermore, it was also observed that, whilst the majority of the sample was physically active, improvement was required with regards to Mediterranean diet adherence.
... Emotional intelligence is defined as the individuals' beliefs about their own emotional abilities, including the ability to observe and think about their feelings as well as to understand and regulate their own emotional states [1]. On the other hand, coping is defined as: "individual's attempts to use cognitive and behavioral strategies to manage and regulate pressures, demands and emotions in response to stress" [2]. ...
... The psychological measures included: stress, measured with the Cohen perceived stress scale (CPSS) [11,12], with the range of the instrument being 1-5; depression, measured with the CES-D scale [13,14], with the range of the instrument being 0-3; anxiety, measured with the GAD-7 scale [15,16], with the range of the instrument being 0-3, emotional intelligence, measured with the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS-24) [1,17], with the range of the instrument being 1-5; and coping strategies, measured with the brief-COPE scale [18,19], with the range of the instrument being 0-3. ...
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Emotional intelligence has been associated with adaptive coping in the adolescent and young population; however, the association of specific dimensions of emotional intelligence with each coping strategy has not been associated in general nor by each sex separately. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine such an association. The general population was invited to perform an electronic questionnaire via social networks. A sample of 984 individuals were included, from which 62.1% were women, in whom we detected higher levels of emotional attention, and lower levels of emotional clarity and emotional repair, as well as increased levels of stress, depression and anxiety than men. In the bivariate correlations we observed significant positive correlations between emotional attention with stress, depression and anxiety, and significant negative correlations between emotional clarity and emotional repair with the three negative psychological variables, in both sexes. Adaptive coping strategies (mainly active coping and planning) showed positive correlations with emotional attention, emotional clarity and repair, being higher for emotional clarity and repair in both sexes. In addition, these two subscales also showed low negative correlations between some maladaptive strategies in both sexes, which suggests that interventions addressed to increase these emotional abilities could be useful in increasing adaptive coping.
... The first scale which measured emotional intelligence was "Wong-Law's Emotional Intelligence Scale" [49], in a Spanish adaptation by Fernández-Berrocal et al. (2004) [52]. This instrument is based on the model of ability [13]. ...
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Emotional intelligence (EI), empathy, and prosocial behavior (PB) are widely studied in the early stages of life, up to adolescence. However, there have been few studies in older adults. Using a multivariate methodology, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied with structural equation models (SEM) in 271 older adults in Colombia, along with a Spanish sample made up of 139 adults over 60 years of age, for a total sample of 411 older adults. The results confirmed that EI, as measured with the WLEIS, scale is the best predictor of PB, with excellent adjustment criteria (GFI = 0.99; CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.064; PCLOSE = 0.28; SRMR = 0.023; AIC = 57.30). It is concluded that the path model yielded a reliable predictive explanation of PB, including EI as a key variable that explains prosocial tendencies.
... Por otro lado, la competencia emocional se evalúa con instrumentos basados en modelos la inteligencia emocional (Denham et al., 2009). «Trait Meta-Mood Scale» (TMMS) de (Salovey et al., 1995), validado en español (Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2004), y «Toronto Alexithymia Scale» (TAS-20) de Bagby et al. (1994), validado en español (Páez et al., 1999) Las competencias socioemocionales no han sido analizadas en Educación Primaria pero sí han sido estudiadas en adolescentes de Andalucía . En esta etapa superior a la Educación Primaria las chicas muestran puntuaciones mayores y significativas que los chicos en conciencia social y conducta prosocial, y en toma de decisiones responsable. ...
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Los currículos del siglo XXI en numerosos sistemas educativos han incorporado las competencias como nuevo elemento curricular, con el objetivo de potenciar una educación integral, permanente y práctica conectada con el contexto social. Numerosos cambios legislativos en España (Ley Orgánica 2/2006; Ley Orgánica 8/2013; Ley Orgánica 3/2020), documentos y recomendaciones supranacionales (Consejo de la Unión Europea, 2010; 2018; European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2012; Parlamento Europeo y Consejo de la Unión Europea, 2006, Sala et al., 2020), así como propuestas conceptuales y metodológicas (Moya & Luengo, 2010; Pérez-Pueyo et al., 2013; Proyecto Atlántida, 2008), han aparecido en las últimas décadas para contribuir a implantar un currículo por competencias en Educación Primaria. Monarca & Rappoport (2013) señalan que existe una desconexión entre las políticas educativas y las acciones didácticas, y este hecho puede explicar que las competencias no sean implantadas de forma sistemática, continuada y explícita. La implantación de las competencias a través de planificaciones didácticas requiere que se identifiquen de manera previa las relaciones entre las competencias y otros elementos curriculares. En consecuencia, el Marco Teórico revisa la literatura científica para ahondar en el concepto competencia y proponer fundamentos que respalden científicamente el diseño de una planificación didáctica por competencias. Los fundamentos obtenidos han sido concretados en una metodología que ha sido denominada como Aprendizaje Participativo Cíclico. Este método didáctico está basado en las premisas del Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos Cooperativos, pero introduciendo una peculiaridad, entre otras, de que se realiza de manera cíclica durante el curso académico. Los estudiantes se organizan en grupos heterogéneos de tres o cuatro estudiantes durante la realización de una tarea, en la cual cada miembro del grupo tiene asignado un rol. La competencia en comunicación lingüística (Consejo de Europa, 2018) y las competencias socioemocionales y morales (Saarni, 2000) han sido las seleccionadas en esta investigación para su estudio, debido a su importancia para garantizar una adecuada interacción social del alumnado. El objetivo general de la presente Tesis Doctoral es proporcionar evidencias científicas sobre el impacto de una planificación didáctica innovadora en el desarrollo de la competencia en comunicación lingüística, y de las competencias socioemocionales y morales en Educación Primaria. Este objetivo general ha sido concretado en cinco objetivos que han sido agrupados en tres ámbitos de investigación: conocimiento de las competencias, planificación de competencias y evaluación de competencias.
... Trait meta-mood scale. (Salovey et al., 1995;Spanish version;Fernandez-Berrocal et al., 2004). The TMMS was used to assess emotional self-awareness. ...
Article
Anxiety and depression are the most common mental health problems. They often occur together and significantly affect well-being and daily functioning. However, it is unclear to what extent the two dimensions of meta-mood knowledge play a role in their comorbidity. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the role of attention to emotion and emotional clarity in the relationship between anxiety and depression. A sample of 256 adults aged 32–66 years ( M = 46.21, SD = 5.53; 82.03% women) completed questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and meta-mood knowledge. Results showed that emotional clarity buffered the relationship between anxiety and depression. In addition, all combinations of attention to emotion and emotional clarity showed a significant and positive relationship with anxiety and depression symptom severity, with one exception. Interestingly, there was no statistically significant relationship between anxiety and depression when attention to emotion was low and emotional clarity was high. This last condition was interpreted as beneficial rather than detrimental, which in turn could help promote psychological resilience to better cope with emotional difficulties. Given these findings, this study highlights the role of attention to emotion and emotional clarity in assessing anxiety and risk of comorbid depression.
... Regarding this second question, although men and women broadly share the same response strategy to humor, activation of the left prefrontal cortex, used in attention, is greater in women than in men [42], and tasks requiring greater emotional processing tend to generate more extensive activation of the limbic system in women [43]. In this regard, various studies have noted that women pay greater perceived attention to their emotions than [44][45][46], and, in general, women integrate emotional aspects into the various cognitive processes to a greater extent than men [47]. This would partially explain why the girls in our study obtained higher parental humor scores than the boys and why parental humor had a greater impact on emotional problems (internalizing problems) in girls. ...
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In order to prevent the development of emotional and behavioral problems, risk and protective factors must be identified. This study aims to establish a link between perceived parental humor and children mental health. The sample comprises 762 pupils aged 10 to 15 (M = 12.23; SD = 1.12), who completed self-reports evaluating perceived parental humor (EEE-H) and their own emotional and behavioral strengths and difficulties (SDQ). The results indicate that parental humor is negatively associated with internalizing problems in children; no association with externalizing problems is observed. According to the study, girls who perceive low parental humor are the most likely to display internalizing problems, while girls perceiving high parental humor are the least likely to do so. Parental humor, characterized by calmness, cheerfulness, and optimism, is a protective factor against internalizing problems in children, especially girls. We recommend training for parents and training and intervention programs for families to encourage activities that boost parental humor.
... Previously, studies conducted to assess the gender differences on the variable of emotional intelligence have found controversial findings. Studies in which self report measures were used to assess gender differences on the variable of EI do not generally find significant differences (Fernández-Berrocal, Extremera, & Ramos, 2004) or, in other cases, males scored slightly higher on intrapersonal sub domain than women (Bar-On, Brown, Kirkcaldy, & Thomé;2000;Petrides & Furhman, 2000). ...
... The TMMS-24 was used to assess emotional intelligence. It is a version of the Trait-Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), which was originally developed by Salovey et al. (1995) and reduced and validated by Fernández-Berrocal et al. (2004); the scale had a Cronbach α = 0.929. Burnout was assessed using the MBI-HSS, which comprises 22 items regrouped into three subscales: EE, DP, and personal accomplishment (PA) (Ibtissam et al., 2012); it had a Cronbach α = 0.842. ...
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Objectives The main objective of this study is to assess the effect of soft skills and emotional intelligence on burnout among health-care professionals in Lebanon. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among health-care professionals working all over Lebanon for a period of 3 months starting from March till June 2021. In total, 324 out of 345 contacted health-care professionals responded. The survey was anonymous and administered via social networks as a link to an electronic form. The study included general sociodemographic questions and validated scales to measure emotional intelligence (Trait Meta-Mood Scale [TMMS-24]), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory for Health Services Survey [MBI-HSS]), and soft skills. Results Higher burnout was associated with lower soft skills (β = −0.137). Job satisfaction was negatively associated with burnout (β = −8.064). Nurses had higher burnout levels than dentists, radiologists, midwives, nutritionists, psychotherapists, and speech therapists (β = −4.595). Also, people working in Baalbek, Akkar, Beqaa, North and South had lower burnout levels compared to those working in Beirut (β = −9.015). As for emotional intelligence, no statistically significant association was found with burnout (P = 0.116). Conclusion This study showed that soft skills and emotional intelligence can affect job burnout. Additional research should be conducted in order to support our findings.
... The TMMS-24 test, the Spanish validation of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale [40] in its original version [16] is used. This is a scale of 24 items, which contains three key dimensions of emotional intelligence, with 8 items in each. ...
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The main activating variables of psychological well-being and Emotional Intelligence that influence teachers include the process of evaluating well-being, their motivation, and their ability to perceive and regulate sources of stress and burnout. The relationship and influence of psychological well-being and emotional intelligence was analyzed with the adequate regulation of burnout. Those who participated included 386 active teachers (55%), and teachers in training (45%), studying for degrees in Pre-School and Primary Education, and Master’s degrees in Secondary Education Teacher Training of which 71.5% were women. The following were used: Psychological Well-Being Scales, Trait Meta-Mood Scale and the Spanish Burnout Inventory. Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results showed that enthusiasm for the teaching job is related to psychological well-being, especially domain of the environment and personal growth. Multiple regression analysis made it possible to establish a predictive model of well-being, showing that psychological well-being is the main adjustment predictor and/or the mismatch in the work of the teaching staff in both samples, through an adequate regulation of positive relationships, mastery of their environment and having a purpose in life.
... Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, & Palfai, 1995) This scale measures "individual differences in the ability to reflect upon and manage one's emotions" (Salovey et al., 1995, p. 126) and includes three dimensions: Attention, Clarity, and Repair. We used the Spanish 24-item version (Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2004), whose scores showed adequate internal consistency (Attention α = 0.90; Clarity 0.90, and Repair 0.86) and test-retest reliability (0.60, 0.70, and 0.83, respectively). In our sample, internal consistency was also adequate (0.91, 0.93, and 0.89, respectively). ...
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This study provides validity evidence for the scores interpretations of an 18-item emotion self-regulation questionnaire (ESQ) which measures both adaptive and maladaptive emotion regularion (ER) strategies (Positive Reappraisal, Controlled Expression, Arousal Regulation, Suppression, Rumination, and Unhealthy Behaviors). Participants (N = 622 adults) completed the ESQ and other measures of ER and ER beliefs, stress, and satisfaction with life. Structural Equations Modeling was used to compare four-factor models (one correlational, two hierarchical, and one bifactor) and to cross-validate the results across randomized and gender subsamples. The correlated model showed the best fit and demonstrated invariance between subsamples. Internal consistency (McDonald’s ω) was acceptable for most strategies scores and their temporal stability (Intra-class Correlation Coefficients) on a 1-month follow-up was moderate. Correlation analyses also provided evidence of validity of the ESQ scores interpretations. This study provides an instrument whose scores and scores interpretations have received empirical support in terms of internal consistency, temporal stability, and evidence of validity.
... Las características sociodemográficas evaluadas fueron la edad y fecha de nacimiento de los participantes, el sexo, la universidad, la titulación, el curso académico y las carreras universitarias previas. b) "Escala rasgo de metaconocimiento de los estados emocionales" (Trait Meta-Mood Scale, TMMS; Salovey et al., 1995), adaptado y validado al español por Fernandez-Berrocal et al. (2004). El TMMS evalúa las habilidades de las que dispone la persona para ser consciente de sus propias emociones, así como la capacidad para regularlas. ...
Article
En las últimas décadas han aumentado las tasas de depresión y ansiedad en adultos emergentes en comparación con otros grupos de edad. El objetivo del estudio fue examinar la relación entre inteligencia emocional y problemas psicológicos, teniendo en cuenta el rol mediador de los factores emocionales como empatía, autoestima y felicidad. Participaron 399 jóvenes adultos (M= 20,38; DT= 2,46; 76,9% mujeres) que completaron un dosier de evaluación que incluía medidas de inteligencia emocional, empatía, autoestima, felicidad, síntomas emocionales y quejas somáticas. Se estimó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM) con análisis de mediación. La inteligencia emocional se asoció positivamente con felicidad, empatía y autoestima y negativamente con ansiedad, depresión, estrés y quejas somáticas. La felicidad fue la variable mediadora más relevante en la relación entre inteligencia emocional y síntomas emocionales. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de promover el desarrollo de las habilidades emocionales en los adultos emergentes, lo que fomenta un estado de ánimo feliz y una buena salud mental.
... Socio-demographic characteristics of participants were measured through an ad hoc questionnaire regarding their age and date of birth, gender, degree, university, academic year, and previous university studies. b) Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24; Salovey et al., 1995), adapted and validated to Spanish by Fernandez-Berrocal et al. (2004). The self-report instrument assesses the abilities of the respondents to be aware of their own emotions, as well as their ability to regulate them. ...
Article
In the last decades, the rates of depression and anxiety in emerging adults have increased compared to other age groups. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological problems, considering the mediating role of emotional factors such as empathy, self-esteem, and happiness. The participants were 399 young adults (M= 20.38, SD= 2.46, 76.9% women) who completed an assessment dossier that included measures of emotional intelligence, empathy, self-esteem, happiness, emotional symptoms, and somatic complaints. A cross-sectional design with self-report data was used and structural equation modeling (SEM) with mediation analysis was performed. Emotional intelligence was positively associated with happiness, empathy, and self-esteem, and negatively with anxiety, depression, stress, and somatic complaints. Happiness was the most relevant mediator in the relationship between emotional intelligence and emotional symptoms. These results stress the need to promote the development of emotional abilities in emerging adults, which fosters happiness and good mental health.
... This version presents evidence of adequate validity and reliability (α > .85) for the total scale and for each factor (Pablo Fernandez-Berrocal et al., 2004). ...
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The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale for measuring emotional intelligence in Peruvian students. A total of 699 Peruvian students participated. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed with 210 students and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed with 489 students. The Spanish version of the TMMS-24 scale was used. A descriptive analysis of the items was made. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed with the unweighted least squares estimation method with promin oblique rotation, and the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed through the modeling of structural equations. Internal consistency was estimated with the ordinal α coefficient. The EFA yielded a three-factor structure, and the correlations between factors were high (between 0.530 to 0.689). With the CFA, adequate goodness-of-fit indices are observed (X2 = 385.868, TLI = 0.963, CFI = 0.967, RMSEA = 0.034, SRMR = 0.041). The α-ordinal coefficient shows adequate internal consistency (α = 0.93). The TMMS-24 presents good psychometric properties for measuring emotional intelligence in Peruvian students. Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala Trait Meta-Mood para medir la inteligencia emocional en estudiantes peruanos. Un total de 489 estudiantes peruanos participaron en el estudio. Se aplicó la escala TMMS-24, versión española. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los ítems. El análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE) se realizó con el método de estimación de mínimos cuadrados no ponderados con rotación oblicua promin, y el análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC) se realizó mediante el modelado de ecuaciones estructurales. La consistencia interna se estimó con el coeficiente α ordinal. El AFE arrojó una estructura de tres factores y las correlaciones entre factores fueron altas (entre 0,530 y 0,689). Con el CFA se observan índices de bondad de ajuste adecuados (X2 = 385.868, TLI = 0.963, CFI = 0.967, RMSEA = 0.034, SRMR = 0.041). El coeficiente α-ordinal muestra una adecuada consistencia interna (α = 0,93). El TMMS-24 presenta buenas propiedades psicométricas para medir la inteligencia emocional en estudiantes peruanos. Palabras Clave TMMS-24, inteligencia emocional, análisis factorial, fiabilidad, estudiantes.
... The COVID- 19 The data establish a relationship between EI and anxiety and depression mediated by the ability to cope with the negative consequences of distress. In this way, some authors have analysed possible cognitive mechanisms that influence distress. ...
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The relationship between emotional intelligence (EI), anxiety, depression and stress has been analysed through the application of self-reported questionnaires. The objective of this work is to expand the research on the subject, in general population, applying a tool based in mixed theoretical model of Emotional Self-efficacy. A sample of 623 Spanish adults of both sexes participated in the study. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF), the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS), and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) were administered online. The results obtained support the existence of a negative relationship between trait EI and the variables analysed. Reporting data indicating an explained variance for the global trait EI of 29.7 to 32.9% for anxiety, 27.7 to 29.1 for depression and 37.2 to 47.3% for stress, confirming the greater importance of the factors of well-being and self-control in the total effect. The demographic factors of gender, and income have a significant but low or very low influence in the incremental validity of global TEI. These results are consistent with previous studies, based on other population samples and/or with skills-based tools, opening a path for news interventions in this matter.
... Esta escala evalúa el metaconocimiento de los estados emocionales. Fernández, Extremera y Ramos (2004) realizaron la validación y la traducción al idioma español en adolescentes de secundaria entre los 12 y 16 años. La escala proporciona un indicador de los niveles de IE; está compuesta por 24 reactivos y contiene las tres ...
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Introducción: el alcohol y la mariguana son las drogas de mayor uso en la actualidad y su consumo se presen-ta principalmente durante la adolescencia. En México se han elaborado diferentes programas preventivos del consumo de drogas, uno de ellos es el programa "Tú Decides", de Rodriguez et al. (2011). Este programa se realizó bajo el marco de la Teoría de la Conducta Planeada (Ajzen, 1991), se compone de cinco sesiones de 50 minutos cada una y tiene como objetivo reducir el uso experimental de drogas ilícitas y el consumo de alcohol y tabaco. El programa fue aplicado en una población vulnerable del centro del país, donde tuvo un efecto moderado en el control conductual percibido y la intención del consumo de drogas. Objetivo: describir las etapas de adaptación y extensión de la base teórica de la intervención "Tú Decides", enfocándola en la prevención del consumo de alcohol y/o mariguana entre adolescen-tes del noreste de México. Método: para llevar a cabo este proceso de adaptación y modificación se tomó como base el modelo de adaptación de Barrera y Castro (2006). Resultados: la adaptación y modificación preliminares fueron bien aceptadas y evaluadas exitosamente por los adolescentes. Conclusiones: La intervención adaptada se nombró "Tú Decides +". Está compuesta por cuatro sesiones de la intervención original, una sesión de autoeficacia y tres sesiones de inteligencia emocional, lo que da un total de 8 sesiones con duración de 45 minutos; tiene como objetivo disminuir la intención de con-sumo y el consumo de alcohol y/o mariguana. Se espera que con la adaptación y modificación a las necesidades de la población específica se obtengan resultados más efectivos y duraderos.
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Research shows a strong link between neuroticism and internalizing psychopathology, such as depression and anxiety. However, it is unclear to what extent meta-mood knowledge (i.e., attention to emotion and emotional clarity) plays a role as a moderator in this relationship. To investigate this, we collected data on meta-mood knowledge, personality traits, depression, and anxiety in a sample of adolescents (N = 244; 53.7% girls) aged 12 to 18 years (M = 14.6, SD = 1.7) from Catalonia, Spain. Regarding the relationship between neuroticism and depression, results showed that emotional clarity buffered this relationship. Although attention to emotion did not, the joint moderating effect of attention to emotion and emotional clarity was significant. The results on the four different combinations of attention to emotion and emotional clarity showed that the relationship between neuroticism and depression was strongest for high attention and low clarity, less strong for low attention and low clarity, and even lower for high attention and high clarity. And importantly, these similar patterns of association disappeared at low attention and high clarity. In contrast to the relationship between neuroticism and depression, we found no statistically significant moderating effects for the relationship between neuroticism and anxiety. Based on these results, we argue the importance of examining individual differences in emotion-based cognition and understanding when the benefits of emotional clarity are associated with fewer disadvantages of excessive attention. These results provide preliminary evidence that the combination of low attention and high clarity may be an adaptive version of emotional self-awareness in relation to neuroticism and depression.
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Las emociones sociales son fundamentales en las relaciones sociales interindividuales específicas a largo plazo. Forman parte de la complejidad interna de una sociedad que deriva de las interacciones entre sus individuos, los patrones de relación entre ellos y sus principios de organización. Los procesos emocionales subyacen a formas complejas de interacciones y relaciones sociales, por lo que deben participar en todos los niveles de complejidad social: interactúan de abajo hacia arriba (bottom-up) y de arriba hacia abajo (top-down). La capacidad de autorregular las respuestas emocionales, así como el comportamiento en las interacciones sociales, se conoce como habilidades socioemocionales, fundamentales para el desempeño y el éxito de los individuos. Estas competencias son relevantes en el contexto educativo de los estudiantes, ya que contribuyen a su desempeño académico y en su aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida. Existen varios enfoques, definiciones e instrumentos para medir y evaluar las competencias socioemocionales. Los objetivos de este artículo son, a partir de la distinción entre habilidades y competencias socioemocionales, revisar cómo el desarrollo socioemocional abarca funciones que integran cognición-emoción, e identificar los diversos enfoques de las competencias socioemocionales, así como la metodología y los instrumentos de medición utilizados en su evaluación.
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Poor perception, understanding and regulation of emotions often play a key role in the development and maintenance of psychopathological disorders. The aim of this study was to analyze differences in attention, compression, regulation of emotion and anger, taking into account some variables that may influence results (age, anxiety and depression). Participants were 315 adolescents (213 boys and 102 girls) aged between 12 and 18 years old (M= 14.92, SD= 1.98), high (≥ 90th percentile) and low (< percentile 21) ratings in obsessive-compulsive dimension in The Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1975). Statistically significant differences between groups were observed in emotions and anger variables except internal expression of anger and physical expression of anger. Age, anxiety and depression influenced some variables. These findings are relevant for treatment.
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El autocuidado constituye un conjunto de acciones y comportamientos que contribuyen a mantener la vida, la salud y el bienestar de los individuos y representa un constructo de relevancia en diversas áreas de la psicología. El propósito del presente estudio fue desarrollar la “Escala de conductas de autocuidado” y evaluar sus propiedades psicométricas. La muestra incluyó a 235 personas (M= 29,11 años; DT= 10,53) de México, siendo el 61,3% mujeres. Para analizar la estructura de la escala se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio, que reveló la existencia de tres factores (físico, psicológico y espiritual) que explicaron el 54,18% de la varianza total. Un análisis de covarianzas de tres factores produjo índices de bondad de ajuste adecuados y el cálculo de varianza media extraída. La escala obtuvo evidencias de validez convergente y discriminante. Los índices de consistencia interna de la puntuación total y las subescalas fueron elevados (entre 0,93 y 0,96). La correlación significativa entre estos factores con variables personales arrojó pruebas sobre la validez concurrente de la escala.
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Self-care constitutes a series of actions and behavior that contributes to individuals life, health and well-being maintenance and represents a relevant construct in diverse psychological areas. The purpose of this study is to develop the Self-Care Behaviors Scales and evaluate its psychometric properties. The sample included 235 individuals (M= 29.11 years, SD= 10.53) from northern Mexico. To analyze the structure, a factorial exploratory analysis, revealed the existence of three factors (physical self-care, psychological self-care, spiritual self-care) that would explain 54% of total covariance. A three-factor analysis of covariance allowed adequate goodness-of-fit indices and the calculation of the mean variance extracted. The scale obtained evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The internal consistency indices of the total score and the subscales were high (between .93 to .96). The significant correlation between these factors with personal variables provided evidence of the concurrent validity of the scale.
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential moderator role of poor mentalization in the association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and somatization, specifically focusing on the polarities of self- and other-mentalizing. Design: This is a cross-sectional, general population study evaluating adolescents (n = 162, 61.3% female; ages 12-18, M = 14.63, SD = 1.02). The relationship between BPD traits and somatization was evaluated with self-mentalization (attention to emotions and clarity of emotions) and other-mentalizing as moderator variables. Methods: One hundred sixty-two adolescents without serious mental health disorders were evaluated using self-report measures for borderline personality disorder traits (screening questionnaire for the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II), somatic symptoms using the Somatic Symptoms Questionnaire (SSQ), self-mentalizing using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS) and other-mentalizing using the Adolescent Mentalizing Interview (AMI)). Linear regressions were conducted to test the moderation effects of self- and other-mentalizing in the relationship between BPD symptoms and somatic complaints, controlling for age and sex. Moderation analysis was conducted using PROCESS version 3.5. Results: The association between BPD symptoms and somatic complaints was moderated by a self-mentalizing dimension (emotional clarity) (b = -0.019, 95% CI = -0.0379 to -0.0002, p = .0476), but not other-mentalizing (b = 0.027, 95% CI = 0.000 to 0.053, p = .051). The effect of BPD symptoms on somatization disappears when emotional clarity is high, regardless the level of attention to emotions. Conclusions: Self-mentalizing appears to be an adaptive skill as it attenuates the relationship between BPD traits and somatization. Specifically, emotional clarity rather than simple attention to emotions is the aspect of self-mentalizing attenuating this association. These results support that self-mentalization is an important function in the management of body-associated emotions even in non-clinical levels of BPD traits. Findings suggest that strengthening self-mentalizing skills across development might contribute to resilience and salutogenesis.
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Resumen Abstract Tabla de Contenido Dentro del campo de la Psicología, el bienestar vital del individuo es un aspecto esencial por su gran relevancia y repercusión a lo largo de todas las etapas y ámbitos. Los objetivos de este estudio son examinar el grado alcanzado por los estudiantes universitarios en inteligencia emocional, apoyo social percibido y satisfacción vital, valorar las diferencias en función del sexo y analizar el nivel predictivo de las dos primeras variables sobre la tercera. 381 estudiantes universitarios completaron el Trait Meta Mood Scale, el Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support y el Satisfaction With Life Scale. Los resultados muestran que tanto la inteligencia emocional como el apoyo social se relacionan y predicen la satisfacción vital y que existen diferencias entre sexos. En conclusión, tanto la inteligencia emocional como el apoyo social son aspectos clave a la hora de intervenir con los estudiantes para promover su satisfacción vital.
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Introduction The development of emotional competences may be a protective factor for mental health problems, promoting well-being at such a complex age as adolescence. Technologies may be used to carry out this empowerment because adolescents are attracted to them. The purpose of the study is to design a serious game based on the Mayer et al ’s emotional intelligence ability model and analyse the effectiveness of the emoTIC programme to develop emotional competences, well-being, mental health, and personal strengths immediately after completion and at 12 months. Methods and analysis The new version of emoTIC will be designed following the suggestions of the adolescents who participated in the pilot study and the results obtained from the statistical analysis. The participants will be 385 adolescents aged 11–16 years who will be randomly assigned to the control group and the experimental group. The experimental group will complete the emoTIC programme. The primary outcomes include emotional competences and subjective well-being. The secondary outcomes are self-esteem; general self-efficacy; personality; social and personal responsibility; school social climate; somatic complaints; depression, anxiety and stress symptoms; emotional and behavioural difficulties; suicidal behaviour; and subjective happiness. Data will be collected at three moments: baseline (T1), immediately post-intervention (T2) and 12-month follow-up (T3). The effectiveness of the programme will be analysed using different statistical packages. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Ethics Commission of the University of Valencia (H152865096049), and the standards of the Declaration of Helsinki to collect the data will be followed. Results will be disseminated across the scientific community. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov Registry ( NCT04414449 ). Trial sponsor University of Valencia. Principal investigator: Inmaculada Montoya-Castilla.
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One of the aims of Educational Guidance is social development and learning in Secondary Education students who are in multicultural contexts. An increase in socio-emotional competencies is promoted through Guidance program interventions. The Guidance Program for Socio-emotional Competencies (in Spanish, POCOSE) not only improves students' learning process and academic performance, it also favors their integration socially and at school, thus exercising a preventive function against future school failure and other risk factors, such as absenteeism, school drop-out, or violence (bullying). The broad cultural diversity which characterizes our Educational System requires identification of socioemotional competencies that are positively related to optimal learning and better socio-educational adjustment of secondary students who are in multicultural contexts , as well as identifying existing cultural differences in the process of teaching and learning these competencies. There is also a need for scientifically-validated programs for guidance and training in socio-emotional competencies, since these are an appropriate way to improve learning and socio-educational adjustment of Secondary Education students.
Nowadays, emotional intelligence is not only understood as the recognition of our own emotions but also the regulation of these emotions. In the field of sports, the concept of sports leadership is increasingly relevant, understood as a behavioral and cognitive process closely related to sports success, based on interpersonal relationships, trust, respect and the feeling of coherence. In this study, we intend to analyze the relationship between sports success and emotional intelligence to verify their relationship and the influence of other variables such as sports anxiety. As a sample, we took a total of 165 active sportsmen and women studying for both undergraduate and master’s degrees related to the sciences of physical activity and sport. The expected results aim to demonstrate the relationship between emotional intelligence, sports leadership and sports anxiety.
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Casi cincuenta años después de la publicación del concepto sexo-género y de todos los discursos y campos de investigación feministas generados, el avance en los derechos de las mujeres está todavía lejos de llegar a ser una realidad plena cuando se observa la brecha salarial, el techo de cristal, el acoso sexual y laboral o la falta de igualdad en el reparto de los cuidados, al mismo tiempo que escandalizan las cifras de violencia de género. En este libro de artículos escrito por 98 personas (74 mujeres y 24 varones) se muestran 61 pinceladas en profundidad de todos los temas imprescindibles para conocer la realidad en la que nos encontramos como sociedad, desde el punto de vista de género. https://www.dykinson.com/libros/estudios-de-genero-en-tiempos-de-amenaza/9788413773278/
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La Inteligencia Emocional (IE) suscita un gran interés en el ámbito de la educación como vía para mejorar el completo desarrollo de los alumnos. A pesar de ello, no son frecuentes las investigaciones sobre IE en adolescentes. Entre los objetivos de este estudio se encuentra identificar el grado de desarrollo de la IE presente en los jóvenes y promover su implantación desde las instituciones educativas. Además, se pretende conocer si existen diferencias en función de la edad o el sexo. En ambos objetivos se observó la relación con la IE en general y con cada aspecto particular que la componen: atención, claridad y regulación emocional. Para llevar a cabo este análisis se utilizó el cuestionario Trait Meta-Mood Scale 24 (TMMS-24) con una muestra de 75 jóvenes de edades comprendidas entre los 12 y 15 años. Entre los principales resultados, se observa que a pesar de que no hay muchas diferencias significativas entre las variables analizadas, existe una correlación hacia un mejor control de las emociones a medida que aumenta la edad.
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This study aims to analyze the incidence of formal and non-formal emotional training in the acquisition of emotional skills in Pre-school and Primary Education teachers. Participants were 127 Primary Education and Pre-school Education teachers who responded to the TMMS-24 test of Emotional Intelligence, which provides a meta-emotional personal assessment of the emotional experience. Results show the significant influence of teachers' training in the acquisition of emotional repair skills, one of the dimensions within the instrument used (TMMS-24), which refers to using regulation strategies of the more complex psychological processes involving implementing the rest of the emotional skills. The study findings reveal the training needs of educators in emotional intelligence in terms of their professional deployment and students' comprehensive development.
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This research investigated the effect of the food values, positive anticipated emotions, attitude toward the brand, and attitude toward eating a hamburger on purchase intention in fast-food restaurants in Mexico conjointly. The purpose of this study was to discover which variables influenced the consumer´s intention to buy. Data was collected from a survey of 512 Mexicans fast food consumers. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized associations. The results showed that food values and positive anticipated emotions absolutely impact the attitude toward the brand, which impacts the purchase intention of the Mexican consumers. Nonetheless, the positive anticipated emotions impact stronger than food values, and the best way to get a purchase intention is toward the attitude of the brand rather than attitude toward eating a hamburger. The authors discussed inferences and suggestions for consumer approaches.
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La promoción de hábitos de vida saludables y del bienestar integral de la ciudadanía constituye un objetivo sólidamente compartido por las instituciones universitarias en el ejercicio de su responsabilidad social. La Universidad de Burgos (UBu), miembro de la Red Española de Universidades Promotoras de la Salud (REUPS), contribuye, con fuerza incremental al ODS 3 - Salud y Bienestar de la Agenda 2030, dirigido a garantizar una vida sana, y promover el bienestar para todos y todas con independencia de la edad. De acuerdo con el Informe de Responsabilidad Social de la Universidad de Burgos 2021 y las líneas de acción del Aula Campus Saludable de la UBu, este objetivo, extensible a las entidades sanitarias locales, regionales, estatales y globales, se articula en el diseño, ejecución y evaluación de proyectos y programas intencionalmente orientados. En el ejercicio de su responsabilidad en la transferencia del conocimiento e innovación, la presente guía ofrece, de forma pionera, un amplio y selecto conjunto de buenas prácticas para la promoción de hábitos saludables en el contexto universitario iberoamericano, reflejo de la intensa actividad desarrollada en los países participantes en su redacción.
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The study of bullying implies analyzing the emotional competences of students, and it has been demonstrated that this phenomenon is due to the poor management of emotions. This study explores whether high scores in Emotional Intelligence (EI) are positively related to academic performance and negatively to bullying. The sample composition focused on students of Compulsory Secondary Education, formed by 3451 subjects aged between 11 and 18 years (50.88% women and 49.12% men). The selection of the high schools was made for non-random convenience, administering Peer Bullying Questionnaire (CAI), TMM-24 and school grades. To analyze the results, a model of structural equations was used by estimating the maximum likelihood together with the bootstrapping procedure. We concluded that EI stands as a protector against bullying and has a positive impact on academic performance. This infers that having greater clarity, repair and emotional attention correlates with a lower possibility of being bullied, at the same time, a school climate without aggressiveness generates positive links towards the school and towards optimal learning environments.
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The role of emotions in the educational context is one of the lines of research that has generated most interest in recent years. This study explores the level of emotional intelligence (EI) and motivation towards studying of primary school (PS) students, as well as the relationship between both variables. For this, a quasi-experimental design has been used with an accidental sample of 541 students from public centers in the province of Pontevedra (Spain). The instruments used were a School Motivation Scale and an EI questionnaire for primary school students, based on the five areas of Goleman EI. The results maintain a mid to high level of EI in all of the factors (self-conscience, self-control, emotional use, empathy and social skills) and a good level of academic motivation. Therefore, they show a positive and significant correlation of both variables. Girls have a higher emotional intelligence index and there is no difference in academic motivation in terms of gender. Based on these results, it is suggested to implement programs that consolidate emotional competences given their importance in the psychoevolutionary development of students and their relationship with academic motivation.
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In the diverse and complex society in which we live, the support that an appropriate emotional intelligence can provide to adolescents to achieve a satisfactory, balanced, and peaceful coexistence is increasing. The aim of this research was to determine whether personal, academic, and social variables influenced emotional intelligence in adolescent populations. A descriptive-inferential study was carried out with 964 students of compulsory secondary education (M = 14.18; SD = 1.28), applying the emotional intelligence scale Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24). The results show better emotional attention in boys who practice physical exercise and have good social skills; better emotional clarity in girls who practice physical exercise and have good social skills; and better emotional repair in girls under 13 years of age, who practice physical exercise, have a good academic record and good social skills. In conclusion, a solid and specific knowledge of the personal, academic, and social variables that may influence the development of emotional intelligence in the adolescent period allows helping students in the prevention or modification of undesirable aspects they may have in their relationships with society.
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Resumen La inteligencia emocional es un constructo que se ha logrado medir para entender las emociones y aprender a usar las herramientas emocionales a favor de uno mismo y del entorno (BarOn, 2006). Uno de los instrumentos más utilizados es el BarOn ICE (Inventario Emocional de Reuven BarOn) (Robles-Bello y Sánchez-Teruel, 2018), el cual fue utilizado como guía base para la presente investigación. Así, se realizó un estudio de construcción de una prueba de Inteligencia Emocional en adolescentes de Lima Metropolitana con el fin de recoger las aptitudes emocionales limeñas. La prueba se dirigió a adolescentes de la Universidad de Piura como población y a una muestra de 336 alumnos de 17 a 19 años elegida a partir de la técnica de muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. El estudio pasó por un procedimiento evaluativo y estadístico a través de la herramienta Factor Analysis. De este modo, se validó la hipótesis y se comprobó que la prueba tiene la validez y confiabilidad del 95% conforme al concepto. La validez interna fue ratificada a través de la evaluación de jueces con la V de Aiken y la validez externa fue comprobada a través del análisis de comunalidades y la varianza explicada. Así también, la confiabilidad se pudo validar con el coeficiente del Alfa de Cronbach. Se consideraron limitaciones como el nivel de deseabilidad social y las modalidades de aplicación de la prueba, en el que el 50% de la muestra tomó la prueba digital y el otro 50% tomó la prueba en presencial, para el encuentro de los hallazgos principales del estudio. Abstract Emotional intelligence is a construct that has been measured to understand emotions and learn to use emotional tools in favor of oneself and the environment (BarOn, 2006). One of the most used instruments is the BarOn ICE (Reuven BarOn Emotional Inventory) (Robles-Bello and Sánchez-Teruel, 2018), which was used as a base guide for this research as well. Thus, a study was carried out on the construction of an Emotional Intelligence test in adolescents from Metropolitan Lima in order to collect their emotional aptitudes. The population's test was aimed at adolescents from the University of Piura and the sample's test at 336 students aged 17 to 19, chosen from the non-probability sampling technique for convenience. The study went through an evaluative and statistical procedure through the Factor Analysis tool. In this way, the hypothesis was validated and it was found that the test has the validity and reliability of 95% according to the concept. The internal validity was ratified through the evaluation of the judges with the V of Aiken and the external validity was verified through the analysis of communalities and the explained variance. Likewise, the reliability could be validated with the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. Limitations such as the level of social desirability and the modalities of application of the test were considered, in which 50% of the sample took the digital test and the other 50% took the test in person, in order to meet the main findings of the study.
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Purpose: Many studies conclude that emotional quotient significantly affects students’ aggressive behaviour. By reviewing existing research articles the researcher focuses on the association between emotional intelligence and aggressive behaviour. The study's second goal is to call attention to specific facets of the relationship that were investigated. We also hoped to find research gaps that could lead to more research, in the future, in this area. The findings could be used as a foundation for developing emotional intelligence and emotional regulation programmes aimed at reducing adolescents’ aggressive behaviour. Design/Methodology/Approach: We looked for articles published between 2000 and 2021 using the primary databases; Google Scholar, Research Gate, Academia, SSRN, Shodhganga, PubMed, Rayyan, and Elsevier. The words like emotional intelligence, aggressive behaviour, interventions, and aggression were used for searching articles. Findings/Result: These findings reveal a clear link between emotional abilities and aggressive behaviour: those with greater emotional intelligence have less aggression, while people with lower emotional intelligence have more aggression. This relationship shows to hold true across a range of ages i.e., from childhood onwards, cultures, aggression kinds, and emotional intelligence assessments. Based on these review study it also discussed and put forward future research into emotional intelligence tactics and strategies for preventing and regulating aggressiveness. Originality/Value: The study concluded that there exists a need for future research on psychological intervention and coping strategies, anger rumination, emotional regulating training program and relaxation therapy for enhancing the emotional wellbeing of adolescents. Both child’s interventions as well as parental interventions may raise mental health. Paper Type: Systematic analysis of literature review.
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In two samples of college students (Ns = 116 and 141), this research investigated the ways in which individuals differ in their experience of emotion. Four latent traits emerged from scales assessing such differences—Intensity, Attention, Expression, and Clarity. In both samples, these latent traits were found to be involved in reports of personality, well-being, coping, and explanatory style. Clarity was positively associated with measures of positive well-being and nega- tively associated with measures of negative well-being. Individuals who experi- ence intense emotions (Intensity), who attend to them often (Attention), or who notably express them (Expression), reported coping by focusing on and venting their emotions and by seeking social support. Individuals who are adept at iden- tifying their emotions (Clarity) reported engaging in active, planful coping and in positive reinterpretations of events. Individuals high on Clarity made self- affirming attributions for good events.
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We examined the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI), measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), and psychophysiological measures of adaptive coping. The TMMS assesses perceived ability to (a) attend to moods (Attention), (b) discriminate clearly among moods (Clarity), and (c) regulate moods (Repair). Study 1 showed significant positive associations between PEI and psychological and interpersonal functioning. In Study 2, skill at mood Repair was associated with less passive coping and perceptions of repeated laboratory stressors as less threatening; Clarity was related to greater increases in negative mood, but lower cortisol release during repeated stress. In Study 3, Repair was associated with active coping and lower levels of rumination; Attention was associated with lowered cortisol and blood pressure responses to acute laboratory challenges. These findings suggest that psychophysiological responses to stress may be one potential mechanism underlying the relationship between emotional functioning and health.
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The relative importance of emotions versus normative beliefs for life satisfaction judgments was compared among individualist and collectivist nations in 2 large sets of international data (in total, 61 nations, N = 62,446). Among nations, emotions and life satisfaction correlated significantly more strongly in more individualistic nations ( r = .52 in Study 1; r = .48 in Study 2). At the individual level, emotions were far superior predictors of life satisfaction to norms (social approval of life satisfaction) in individualist cultures, whereas norms and emotions were equally strong predictors of life satisfaction in collectivist cultures. The present findings have implications for future studies on cultural notions of well-being, the functional value of emotional experiences, and individual differences in life satisfaction profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in middle-aged women. 99 middle-aged Spanish women, who studied in two adult schools, volunteered to participate. 49 were premenopausal and 45 were postmenopausal. These women completed the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and Health Survey SF-36. Scores were analyzed according to social, physical, and mental health, menopausal status, and scores on perceived emotional intelligence. Then, the data regarding the mental and physical health of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women were compared after controlling for age. No associations between menopausal status and health-related quality of life were found. Perceived skill at mood repair was significantly associated with scores on health-related quality of life in these middle-aged women. These findings provide empirical evidence that aspects of perceived emotional intelligence may account for the health-related quality of life in midlife including social, physical, and psychological symptoms.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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It was hypothesized that women are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than men because they are more likely to experience chronic negative circumstances (or strain), to have a low sense of mastery, and to engage in ruminative coping. The hypotheses were tested in a 2-wave study of approximately 1,100 community-based adults who were 25 to 75 years old. Chronic strain, low mastery, and rumination were each more common in women than in men and mediated the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Rumination amplified the effects of mastery and, to some extent, chronic strain on depressive symptoms. In addition, chronic strain and rumination had reciprocal effects on each other over time, and low mastery also contributed to more rumination. Finally, depressive symptoms contributed to more rumination and less mastery over time.
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The current prospective study examined how characteristic beliefs about mood affect illness and symptom reporting. Using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, 134 undergraduate (76 females and 58 males) reported their beliefs about attention to, clarity, and reparability of mood. Self-reported stress, illness, and symptoms were collected at three times following assessment of trait meta-mood, during times of general stress, and immediately prior to a class examination. Results indicate that, at increasing levels of distress, those who believe in greater attention to mood were more likely to report physical symptoms. In addition, those individuals who said that they generally make efforts to maintain positive mood were less likely to report illness than those less likely to engage in mood repair. The findings suggest that a person's general manner of evaluating or appraising mood is an important moderator of the relation between distress and symptom and illness reporting.
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It was hypothesized that women are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than men because they are more likely to experience chronic negative circumstances (or strain), to have a low sense of mastery, and to engage in ruminative coping. The hypotheses were tested in a 2-wave study of approximately 1,100 community-based adults who were 25 to 75 years old. Chronic strain, low mastery, and rumination were each more common in women than in men and mediated the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Rumination amplified the effects of mastery and, to some extent, chronic strain on depressive symptoms. In addition, chronic strain and rumination had reciprocal effects on each other over time, and low mastery also contributed to more rumination. Finally, depressive symptoms contributed to more rumination and less mastery over time.
Validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the Ruminative Responses Scale Adaptaci6n a1 castellano de la escala rasgo de metaconocimiento so-bre estados emocionales de Salovey
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EXTREMERA, N., & FERNANDEZ-BERROCAL, P. (submitted) Validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the Ruminative Responses Scale. FERNANDEZ-BERROCAL, l?, ALCAIDE, R., DOM~NGUEZ, E., FERNANDEZ-MCNALLY, C., RAMOS, N. S., & RAVIRA, M. (1998) Adaptaci6n a1 castellano de la escala rasgo de metaconocimiento so-bre estados emocionales de Salovey, et a/.: datos preliminares. Actas del V Congreso de Evaluacidn Psicoldgica, 1, 83 -84.
(in press) Cultural influences on the relation between perceived emotional intelligence and depression Four latent traits of emotional experience and their in-volvement in well-being, coping, and attributional style
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FERNANDEZ-BERROCAL, P., SALOVEY, P., VERA, A., EXTREMERA, N., &RAMOS, N. (in press) Cultural influences on the relation between perceived emotional intelligence and depression. Inter-national Review of Social Psychology. GOHM, C. L., & CLORE, G. L. (2002) Four latent traits of emotional experience and their in-volvement in well-being, coping, and attributional style. Cognition and Emotion, 16, 495-518.
Cognitive therapy of depression Manual for the revised Beck Depression Inventory The Satisfaction With Life Scale
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