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Effects of inclusion of poultry by-product meal and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation in grower diets on performance and feed digestibility of broilers

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1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of level of inclusion of poultry by-product and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation on grower diet digestibility and the performance of broilers. 2. Six grower diets were formulated to provide a similar nutrient profile with the exception of using three graded levels of poultry by-product, namely 0, 25, 40 g/kg of the diet with and without supplementation of enzyme preparation at the rate of 1 kg per tonne of feed and prebiotic preparation at the rate of 2 kg per tonne of feed. The experimental diets were used from 3 to 6 weeks of age. 3. Body weights, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were not affected by poultry by-product; however, enzyme-prebiotic had a significant positive effect on feed conversion efficiency at 0 to 6 weeks in experiment 1. 4. Crude protein digestibility was decreased by feeding the diet containing poultry by-product while ether extract digestibility was increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 25 g per kg of feed only. Dry matter retention, crude fibre digestibility and organic matter retention were not affected by poultry by-product. Dry matter and organic matter retentions, crude protein, ether extract and crude fibre digestibilities were not affected by enzyme-prebiotic. 5. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) values were increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 40 g per kg of feed and addition of enzyme-prebiotic.
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British Poultry Science
ISSN: 0007-1668 (Print) 1466-1799 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cbps20
Effects of inclusion of poultry by-product meal and
enzyme-prebiotic supplementation in grower diets
on performance and feed digestibility of broilers
F. Kirkpinar , Z. Açikgöz , M. Bozkurt & V. Ayhan
To cite this article: F. Kirkpinar , Z. Açikgöz , M. Bozkurt & V. Ayhan (2004) Effects of
inclusion of poultry by-product meal and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation in grower diets
on performance and feed digestibility of broilers, British Poultry Science, 45:2, 273-279, DOI:
10.1080/00071660410001715885
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660410001715885
Published online: 19 Oct 2010.
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Effects of inclusion of poultry by-product meal and enzyme-prebiotic
supplementation in grower diets on performance and feed
digestibility of broilers
F. KIRKPINAR, Z. AC¸IKGO
¨Z, M. BOZKURT
1
AND V. AYHAN
2
Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Feeds and Animal Nutrition,
_
IIzmir,
1
Erbeyli Research
Institute, Aydın and
2
Su¨leyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Feeds and Animal
Nutrition, Isparta, Turkey
Abstract 1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of level of inclusion of poultry
by-product and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation on grower diet digestibility and the performance
of broilers.
2. Six grower diets were formulated to provide a similar nutrient profile with the exception of using
three graded levels of poultry by-product, namely 0, 25, 40 g/kg of the diet with and without
supplementation of enzyme preparation at the rate of 1 kg per tonne of feed and prebiotic preparation
at the rate of 2 kg per tonne of feed. The experimental diets were used from 3 to 6 weeks of age.
3. Body weights, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were not affected by poultry by-product;
however, enzyme-prebiotic had a significant positive effect on feed conversion efficiency at 0 to 6 weeks
in experiment 1.
4. Crude protein digestibility was decreased by feeding the diet containing poultry by-product while
ether extract digestibility was increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 25 g per kg of feed only. Dry
matter retention, crude fibre digestibility and organic matter retention were not affected by poultry
by-product. Dry matter and organic matter retentions, crude protein, ether extract and crude fibre
digestibilities were not affected by enzyme-prebiotic.
5. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) values were increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 40 g per kg
of feed and addition of enzyme-prebiotic.
INTRODUCTION
Poultry waste management and disposal are
serious problems for the poultry industry in
Turkey. These by-products could be an envi-
ronmental liability if improperly disposed of
(Patterson, 1995). Fresh poultry waste can be
converted into quality animal feeding meal when
rendered. Poultry by-products, such as poultry
by-product meal (Escalona et al., 1986; Escalona
and Pesti, 1987; Mendonca and Jensen, 1989),
feather meal (Han and Parsons, 1991), hatchery
waste (Miller, 1984), inedible eggshell (Froning
and Bergquist, 1990) and spent hen meal (Kersey
and Waldroup, 1998; Douglas and Parsons, 1999)
are used in poultry diets. Poultry by-product
meals were acceptable and highly utilisable as a
protein and nutrient substitute in the diets of
commercial broiler chickens. Although poultry
by-product meal from broilers has the potential
of being included in broiler feeds, its feeding
value has not been studied to the extent that
would seem to be warranted. Escalona and Pesti
(1987) found that chick growth and feed effi-
ciency were significantly depressed when poultry
by-product meal was incorporated into the diet at
100 g/kg. The composition of poultry by-product
meals will vary depending upon source of raw
materials and method of processing ( Johnson
and Parsons, 1997). No research has been
published on the nutrient digestibility of poul-
try by-product meal except for amino acid
digestibility.
The present study was conducted to deter-
mine the effects of dietary inclusion levels of
poultry by-product and enzyme-prebiotic supple-
mentation on broiler diet digestibility and broiler
performance. Two experiments were conducted.
The first was conducted in order to determine
growth performance. The second was conducted
in order to determine dry matter and organic
matter retention and ether extract, crude fibre,
Correspondence to: F. Kırkpınar, Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Feeds and Animal Nutrition,
_
IIzmir, Turkey. Fax: þ90-232-
3881867. E-mail: fkirkpinar@hotmail.com
Accepted for publication 28th November 2003.
British Poultry Science Volume 45, Number 2 (April 2004), pp. 273–279
ISSN 0007–1668(print)/ISSN 1466–1799(online) 2004 British Poultry Science Ltd
DOI: 10.1080/00071660410001715885
crude protein digestibility and protein efficiency
ratio (PER).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Diets
Poultry by-product meal was obtained from
Keskinog˘lu Co. (Kayal|og˘lu Kasabas|, Akhisar,
Manisa, Turkey). The product was derived from
poultry including feathers, heads, feet and
inedible entrails (intestine, lung, spleen). The
product was boiled at 100C with a pressure of
2.2 kg/cm
2
for 15 min. Then, the product was
boiled at 100C for 5 h, followed at 130C for 1 h.
The resulting poultry by-product was cooled at
ambient temperature and some of its oil was
removed. The material was then ground in a
hammer mill. Ethoxyquin (1 g/kg) was incorpo-
rated into the product as an antioxidant. All the
material was blended and sampled for nutrient
analysis. Dry matter content was determined
by oven-drying at 105C for 16 h. Crude protein
was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Ether
extract content was obtained by Soxhlet extrac-
tion using anhydrous diethyl ether. The samples
were analysed for ash, calcium and phosphorus
according to the procedures of the AOAC
(1980). Amino acid composition of the poultry
by-product was determined by Eurolysine Custo-
mer’s Laboratory (ZI Longpre
´, Amiens, France).
Metabolisable energy (ME) was estimated using a
prediction equation (NRC, 1994):
ME, MJ=kg ¼001298 crude protein g=kg
þ003300 ether extract g=kg:
The nutrient make-up of the poultry by-product
meal is detailed in Table 1. All chicks were given
starter diets from 0 to 3 weeks of age and experi-
mental grower diets from 3 to 6 weeks of age in
both experiments 1 and 2. Six grower diets were
formulated to provide a similar nutrient profile
with the exception of using three graded levels of
poultry by-product, namely 0, 25, 40 g/kg of
the diet, with and without supplementation of
enzyme preparation at the rate of 1 kg per tonne
of feed and prebiotic preparation (Table 2) at the
rate of 2 kg per tonne of feed. The dietary
treatments consisted of 0, 25, 40 g/kg poultry
by-product meal replacing portions of other
ingredients with meat and bone meal content
kept unchanged. Maize
soybean based diets were
utilised and all were formulated using linear
programming to be isoenergetic, isonitrogenous
and to contain equal amounts of dry matter,
crude fibre, crude ash, calcium, total phosphorus,
sulphur amino acids and lysine. The experi-
mental diets containing poultry by-product were
adjusted to have similar lysine contents by
modification of the proportions of sunflower
meal and synthetic lysine. The experimental diets
used are given in Table 2.
Experimental feeds were ground through
a 1 mm screen in preparation for chemical analy-
sis. Dry matter content was determined by oven-
drying at 105C for 16 h. Crude protein was
determined by the Kjeldahl method (AOAC,
1980). Ether extract content was obtained by
Soxhlet extraction using anhydrous diethyl ether.
The crude fibre content was determined using
12.5% sulphuric acid and 12.5% sodium hydrox-
ide solutions (Naumann and Bassler, 1993).
The samples were analysed for starch, sugar,
ash, calcium and phosphorus according to the
procedures of the AOAC (1980). Estimates of ME
were based on protein, ether extract, starch and
sugar levels determined from the experimental
feeds. ME was estimated using a prediction
equation (Rose, 1997):
ME;MJ=kg ¼003431ðfat g=kgÞ
þ001551ðcrude protein g=kgÞ
þ001301ðtotal sugar g=kgÞ
þ001669ðstarch g=kgÞ:
Experimental design and traits measured
Experiment 1
A total of 1800 1-d-old male and female Ross-
PM3 broiler chicks were individually weighed,
and distributed into 24 floor pens with 75
chicks per pen. The number of males and
females were allocated to each of the pens
randomly. Each 3.3m1.7 m floor pen was
Table 1. Determined nutrient composition of poultry
by-product meal (PBP)
Nutrient composition g/kg
Dry matter 896.7
Crude protein 615.3
Crude fat 190.0
Crude ash 64.9
Total calcium 17.6
Total phosphorus 12.1
Crude fibre 26.5
ME (MJ/kg) 14.3
Linoleic acid 46.0
Lysine 20.2
Methionine 6.4
Methionine þcystine 21.9
Arginine 30.2
Tryptophan 3.8
274 F. KIRKPINAR ET AL.
furnished with wood shavings litter, two round
feeders and a round drinker. The diameter of
the feeder was 41 cm and that of the drinker
was 35 cm.
At the age of 21 d, birds were weighed
individually and three male birds of similar body
weight per pen were selected and moved from
floor pens to individual metabolic cages for
experiment 2. Birds were weighed individually
at 3 and 6 weeks of age. Body weight gain was
calculated from 0 to 3 and 3 to 6 weeks. Six dietary
treatments were replicated with 4 pens and fed
from 21 to 42 d of age. Feed and water were
consumed ad libitum. Temperature and relative
humidity were maintained within the optimum
range. Lighting was 23 h light:1 h darkness. Total
feed intake was measured per cage at 3 and
6 weeks of age. Mortality was recorded daily.
Feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were
adjusted for mortality.
Experiment 2
At 21 d of age, 72 male birds of similar
body weight were obtained from experiment 1.
Dietary treatments were the same as experiment 1.
Birds were placed into individual metabolic cages
and distributed into 6 groups of 12 chicks. The
metabolic cages were 31.5cm31 cm 48 cm
in width, length and height, respectively. Feed
and water were consumed ad libitum. Tempera-
ture and relative humidity were maintained within
the optimum range. Lighting was 23 h light:1 h
darkness.
Total feed intake was measured individually.
Feed digestibility was measured from d 31 to 38
Table 2. The composition of starter diet at 0 to 3 weeks and experimental grower diets at 3 to 6 weeks (g/kg) (Experiment 1 and 2)
Ingredient Starter diet (0–3 wk) Grower diets (3–6 wk)
CCþE-P 25 g/kg PBP 25 g/kg
PBP þE-P
40 g/kg PBP 40 g/kg
PBP þE-P
Wheat
95.07 95.07 116.00 116.00 119.26 119.26
Yellow maize 509.33 492.00 489.00 465.27 462.27 494.28 491.28
Soybean meal 252.07 237.23 237.23 212.97 212.97 208.21 208.21
Meat-and-bone meal
20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
Fish meal 50.97 27.07 27.07 15.50 15.50 15.69 15.69
Sunflower meal 100.00 60.31 60.31 74.76 74.76 46.19 46.19
Poultry by-product meal
——
25.00 25.00 40.00 40.00
Dicalcium phosphate 10.04
—— —
Ground limestone 19.76 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 6.86 6.86
Vegetable oil 48.83 47.74 47.74 49.52 49.52 38.51 38.51
Iodised sodium chloride 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Vitamin mixture
1
2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Trace mineral mixture
2
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
L-Lysine 1.00 1.64 1.64 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
DL-Methionine 1.00 1.94 1.94 1.98 1.98 2.00 2.00
Coccidiostat
3
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Enzyme-Prebiotic
4
——
3.00
3.00
3.00
Analysed composition (g /kg)
Dry matter 914.9 866.6 866.1 868.6 870.1 881.3 885.1
Crude protein 227.5 192.8 195.0 193.1 194.1 193.3 194.2
Crude fat 67.561
.761
.665
.765
.068
.868
.6
Crude fibre 40.045
.245
.147
.746
.647
.447
.0
Starch 375.0 378.3 375.0 375.0 375.9 375.6 380.3
Sugar 44.836
.833
.132
.235
.831
.832
.9
Crude ash 70.856
.556
.556
.656
.356
.356
.6
Total calcium 12.013
.313
.014
.014
.015
.215
.1
Total phosphorus 6.55
.35
.55
.35
.45
.66
.0
Calculated composition
ME (MJ/kg) 12.711
.911
.811
.912
.012
.012
.1
Lysine 12.911
.211
.210
.910
.910
.810
.8
Methionine 5.35
.55
.55
.55
.55
.45
.4
Methionine þcystine 8.98
.98
.99
.09
.09
.19
.1
Available phosphorus 4.23
.23
.23
.13
.13
.23
.2
1
Supplied mg/kg of diet: retinol acetate, 5.16; cholecalciferol, 0.0375; tocopheryl, 20; menadione, 5; thiamine, 3; riboflavin, 6; niacin, 25; calcium
D-pantothenate, 12; pyridoxine, 5; cyanocobalamin, 0.03; folic acid, 1; D-biotin 0.05; choline chloride, 400; carophyll yellow, 25.
2
Supplied mg/kg of diet: manganese, 80; iron, 60; zinc, 60; copper, 5; cobalt, 0.2; iodine, 1; selenium, 0.15; calcium carbonate, 447.
3
Supplied mg/kg of diet: 75 ppm Lasalocid sodium (Avatec, Roche).
4
The enzyme preparation (1 g/kg) is a potent source of protease (7500 U/g), as well as of cellulase (500 U/g), amylase (350 U/g) and xylanase (350 U/g),
endo-1,3; 1,4-beta glucanase (300 U/g), lipase (50 U/g) and b-glucosidase (40 U/g), phytase (10 U/kg) activities (Protosyn
2000
, Plastchim, Bulgaria).
The prebiotic preparation (2g/kg) is comprised of Aspergillus meal. Aspergillus meal is derived from an active fermentation of a primary Aspergillus sp.
It is the asporogenic mycelium contained in this totally dead product (Fermacto, PetAg Inc. USA).
E-P ¼enzyme-prebiotic; PBP¼poultry by-product.
POULTRY BY-PRODUCT MEAL AND ENZYME-PREBIOTIC 275
by total collection of excreta from each cage.
Excreta were collected from individual birds daily.
In all, 72 fresh excreta samples were collected in
plastic trays, weighed and stored in an air-tight
plastic bag in a freezer until excreta samples
were required for analysis, when they were
homogenised using a blender and analysed for
dry matter, nitrogen, ether extract and crude
fibre. Dry matter content of diets and excreta
was determined by oven-drying at 105C for 16 h.
Ether extract content of diets and excreta was
obtained by the Soxhlet extraction using anhy-
drous diethyl ether. The crude fibre content of
diets and excreta was determined using 12.5%
sulphuric acid and 12.5% sodium hydroxide
solutions (Naumann and Bassler, 1993). The
Kjeldahl method was used for the analysis of
total nitrogen content of diets and excreta and
crude protein was expressed as nitrogen 6.25
(AOAC, 1980). In order to estimate protein
digestibility, faecal and urinary nitrogen were
chemically separated according to the method of
Marquardt (1983). Digestibility was determined
by accurately measuring feed intake and excreta
output. From these measurements, together with
chemical analysis for nutrients, the digestibi-
lity was calculated. PER was calculated as body
weight gain divided by crude protein intake
( Johnson and Parsons, 1997).
Statistical analysis
Data were subjected to ANOVA using General
Linear Models (SAS, 1986). The model included
level of dietary poultry by-product content and
enzyme-prebiotic supplementation and inter-
actions between poultry by-product level and
enzyme-prebiotic supplementation. Pen means
served as the experimental unit for statistical
analysis. Data on feed intake and feed conversion
efficiency were analysed using the same model
across the sexes in experiment 1.
RESULTS
Performance (experiment 1)
Average liveability value was 98.70.49 (%) for
experiment 1 and there were no treatment
differences. Body weights of broilers at 6 weeks
were not affected by poultry by-product; how-
ever, body weight means were affected by
enzyme-prebiotic treatment (Table 3). Enzyme-
prebiotic supplementation significantly increased
body weights at 6 weeks. Total feed intakes of
broilers were not affected by poultry by-product
and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation. How-
ever, feed intakes were increased by feeding the
diet containing poultry by-product at the rate of
25 g per kg of feed as compared with the control
at 3 to 6 weeks. The poultry by-product
enzyme-prebiotic interaction was significant for
the feed intake at 3 to 6 weeks and 0 to 6 weeks
(Figure 1). No effects (P>0
.05) of poultry by-
product were found for feed conversion effi-
ciency. Enzyme-prebiotic supplementation had a
significant positive effect on feed conversion
efficiency at 3 to 6 weeks and 0 to 6 weeks.
These results indicate that the addition of
enzyme-prebiotic improved the feed conversion
efficiency (P<0
.05).
Digestibility and protein efficiency ratio(PER)
(experiment 2)
Dry matter and organic matter retention, ether
extract, crude fibre and crude protein digesti-
bilities, PER, feed intake and feed conversion
Table 3. Effects of dietary poultry by-product (PBP), enzyme-prebiotic (E-P) on the body weight, feed intake and feed conversion
efficiency, Experiment 1
Body weights (g) Feed intake (g) Feed conversion efficiency
(weight gain/feed intake)
3 wk 6 wk 0–3 wk 3–6 wk 0–6 wk 0–3 wk 3–6 wk 0–6 wk
PBP (g/kg)
0 766.72 1924 1207 2410
b
3618 0.60 0.48 0.52
25 765.04 1914 1200 2473
a
3673 0.60 0.46 0.51
40 771.17 1920 1213 2454
ab
3667 0.61 0.47 0.51
SEM 3.96 7.48 6.77 16.12 16.07 0.003 0.004 0.003
E-P
767.07 1902
b
1202 2452 3654 0.61 0.46
a
0.51
a
þ768.22 1936
a
1211 2439 3651 0.60 0.48
b
0.52
b
SEM 3.23 6.11 5.54 13.16 13.12 0.002 0.004 0.003
Source of variation Probabilities (P-values)
PBP 0.545 0.663 0.399 0.045 0.064 0.650 0.057 0.091
E-P 0.806 0.002 0.258 0.489 0.874 0.064 0.007 0.023
PBP E-P 0.997 0.186 0.755 0.008 0.009 0.881 0.268 0.299
a,b
Means within a column in each variable with no common superscript differ significantly (P0.05).
SEM ¼standard error of means (pooled).
276 F. KIRKPINAR ET AL.
efficiency for the period from 31 to 38 d are
presented in Table 4. Dry matter, organic matter
retention and crude fibre digestibilities were not
affected by poultry by-product or enzyme-
prebiotic supplementation. The poultry by-product
enzyme-prebiotic interaction was significant
(P<0
.05) for dry matter retention (Figure 2). This
interaction resulted because the birds fed on the
poultry by-product diets had the same (P>0
.05)
dry matter retention, while the birds fed on
the enzyme-prebiotic supplemented diet (25 g/kg
poultry by-product), had a higher dry matter
retention than birds fed on the 40 g/kg poultry
by-product supplemented diet and control
diet. Crude protein digestibility was signifi-
cantly reduced in birds fed on the 40 g/kg
poultry by-product supplemented diet compared
with that of birds fed on the 25 g/kg poultry
Table 4. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) retentions, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF) digestibility
coefficients, protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) (FCE) of broilers at
31–38 days, Experiment 2
DM OM EE CF CP PER FI FCE
PBP (g/kg)
00
.722 0.957 0.799
b
0.337 0.703
a
2.44
b
1076.81
a
0.47
a
25 0.735 0.931 0.871
a
0.365 0.663
a
2.46
b
1007.49
b
0.48
a
40 0.723 0.956 0.810
b
0.271 0.571
b
2.74
a
924.40
c
0.53
b
SEM 0.006 0.024 0.016 0.028 0.016 0.059 24.28 0.011
E-P
0.728 0.957 0.822 0.320 0.631 2.46
b
990.02 0.48
a
þ0.726 0.939 0.831 0.328 0.660 2.63
a
1019.78 0.51
b
SEM 0.005 0.019 0.013 0.023 0.014 0.049 20.06 0.009
Source of variation
PBP 0.147 0.621 0.007 0.073 0.000 0.004 0.001 0.001
E-P 0.721 0.502 0.615 0.821 0.143 0.016 0.369 0.017
PBP E-P 0.023 0.635 0.483 0.294 0.133 0.161 0.606 0.059
a,b,c
Means within a column in each variable with no common superscript differ significantly (P0.05).
SEM ¼standard error of means (pooled).
aaaa
2000
2250
2500
2750
3000
3250
3500
3750
4000
Feed intake (g)
With enzyme -
prebiotic
Without enzyme -
prebiotic
With enzyme -
prebiotic
Without enzyme -
prebiotic
0 g/kg PBP 25 g/kg PBP 40 g/kg PBP
0-6 wk
3-6 wk
b b
aa a a a a
Figure 1. Poultry by-product enzyme-prebiotic interactions on feed intake at 3
6 weeks and 0
6 weeks, Experiment 1. Each value
shows mean SEM of the feed intake. Bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).
ab
070
071
072
073
074
075
076
0 g/kg PBP 25 g/kg PBP 40 g/kg PBP
Levels of PBP (g/kg)
Dry matter retention (g/kg)
With enzyme - prebiotic Without enzyme - prebiotic
b
b b ab
Figure 2. Poultry by-product enzyme-prebiotic interactions on dry matter retention values at 31–38 d, Experiment 2. Each value
shows mean SEM of dry matter retention. Bars with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).
POULTRY BY-PRODUCT MEAL AND ENZYME-PREBIOTIC 277
by-product supplemented diet and control.
Ether extract digestibility was significantly
increased in birds fed on the 25 g/kg poultry
by-product supplemented diet compared with
that of birds given 40 g/kg poultry by-product
and control. Enzyme-prebiotic supplementation
did not affect crude protein and ether extract
digestibility. PER values of broilers at 31 and 38 d
were affected by poultry by-product and enzyme-
prebiotic treatment. PER values were significantly
increased by poultry by-product at 40 g per kg of
feed and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation.
DISCUSSION
In the present experiment, ME, crude protein,
ether extract, crude fibre, calcium, linoleic acid,
methionine þcystine in the poultry by-product
meal were higher and tryptophan in the poultry
by-product meal was slightly higher than NRC
(1994) values. The dry matter, lysine, methionine,
phosphorus in the poultry by-product meal were
lower and arginine in the poultry by-product meal
slightly lower than NRC (1994) values (Table 1).
Results of experiment 1 indicate that the
birds given poultry by-product meal from 3 to 6
weeks and the maize
soybean meal control diets
showed no differences (P>0
.05) in body weight
at 42 d of age, total feed intake and feed con-
version efficiency. The results agree with the
findings of Escalona and Pesti (1987), who found
no difference in the performance of broilers
when poultry by-product meal was incorpora-
ted at the 5% level into maize
soybean practical
diets when all essential nutrients were equalised.
Bhargava and O’Neil (1975) observed equal or sig-
nificantly superior results in a series of experi-
ments with chicks fed on a poultry by-product
and hydrolysed feather meal combination when
compared with feeding an animal protein-free
wheat
soybean control diet. Mendonca and
Jensen (1989) found that including poultry
by-product meal in broiler diets at 100 g/kg did
not significantly affect body weight gain, feed
intake or feed conversion in comparison to a
maize
soybean diet. Haque et al. (1991) reported
that broiler chicks fed on a diet with 93 g/kg
extruded poultry by-product meal had similar
body weights and feed utilisation to those given
an extruded, maize
soybean meal control diet.
Wessels (1972) investigated the protein
quality of poultry offal meal used in chick rations
with or without amino acid supplementation.
He observed an improvement in the nitrogen
retention of chickens when methionine and
lysine were added to the experimental diet
containing poultry offal meal. Thus, methionine
and lysine were reported to be the first and
second limiting amino acids in the protein
source. Daghir (1975) found that the addition
of methionine and lysine improved growth and
feed utilisation of chicks fed the poultry feather
or offal meal diet. However, body weight was not
improved to the same extent as that of fish meal.
In experiment 1, body weight at 42 d of
age for chicks given the enzyme-prebiotic supple-
mented poultry by-product meal was higher than
that of chicks fed on a maize
soybean meal
control diet. The results of experiment 1 indicate
that diets containing poultry by-product meal
were not different (P>0
.05) as measured by total
feed intake. Feed conversion efficiency for the
chicks fed the enzyme-prebiotic supplemented
poultry by-product meal was higher than the
maize
soybean meal control diet. Barbour et al.
(1995) reported that feed intake was significantly
increased in poults given enzyme-treated whole
turkey by-product meal compared with soybean
meal. Contrary to this report, feed intake (3 to 6
weeks) for chicks fed on the enzyme-prebiotic
supplemented diets were not different from
those of chicks fed on the unsupplemented diets
in the present study. Feed conversion efficiency
(3 to 6 weeks) of birds fed the enzyme-prebiotic
supplemented diets was better than those fed
the non-enzyme-prebiotic treated diets. These
results are in agreement with the findings of
Tadtiyanant et al. (1993), who found that enzyme
treatment of feathers improved growth rate
and enzyme-treated feather extruded products
were good feed ingredients for broilers giving
feed efficiency and growth responses compara-
ble to the maize
soybean meal control diet.
Tadtiyanant et al. (1993) reported that the enzyme
treatment was effective in releasing feather
nutrients for utilisation by broilers.
The results of experiment 2 indicate that dry
matter and organic matter retention, and crude
fibre digestibility were not affected by poultry
by-product meal. Crude protein digestibility was
decreased in birds fed on the 40 g/kg poultry
by-product supplemented diet compared with
control and birds fed on the 25 g/kg poultry
by-product supplemented diet. Ether extract
digestibility was significantly increased in birds
fed on the 25 g/kg poultry by-product meal
supplemented diet compared with that of birds
given 40 g/kg poultry by-product and control.
The enzyme-prebiotic addition had no positive
effect on digestibility (P>0
.05). However, enzyme-
prebiotic treatment tended slightly to improve
nutrient digestibility (P>0
.05).
PER values of broilers at 31 and 38 d were
affected by poultry by-product and enzyme-
prebiotic supplementation. PER values were sig-
nificantly increased in birds fed on the 40 g/kg
poultry by-product meal supplemented diet com-
pared with control and birds fed on the 25 g/kg
poultry by-product meal supplemented diet.
278 F. KIRKPINAR ET AL.
However, the 40 g/kg level of poultry by-product
meal slightly reduced body weight. Enzyme-
prebiotic treatment did result in increased PER.
Therefore, addition of amino acids (lysine and
methionine) to the poultry by-product meals may
have influenced the results. In the present study,
the increased PER value obtained with the 40 g/kg
level of poultry by-product meal may largely have
been due to differences in digestible amino
acid levels among the diets. This is probably a
function of the increased methionine and lysine
supplementation. As more information is gen-
erated regarding typical amino acid content and
digestibility of poultry by-product meal, the
product may be used with greater confidence in
commercial diets. Escalona et al. (1986) concluded
that the PER was the most discriminating method
of estimating protein quality, especially at lower
levels. PER value was determined as 2.88 for
poultry by-product meal diet and 3.83 for the
soybean meal plus methionine diet at 200 g/kg
protein. It has been previously reported that, in
chick bioassays, no significant differences were
found in PER between the control feather meal
and enzyme-treated feather meal (Kim and
Patterson, 2000). Barbour et al. (1995) reported
that body weight and PER were significantly
increased in poults fed enzyme-treated whole
turkey by-product meal compared with soybean
meal. Kim and Patterson (2000) reported that
enzyme treatment could improve the nutritional
quality of feathers from dead hens.
It is clear from these results that poultry
by-product meal has substantial nutritional value
for poultry. However, the nutritional quality may
vary greatly among samples. Further, the amino
acid digestibility of poultry by-product meal,
particularly cystine, may need to be considered
when using high dietary levels of this ingredient
in broiler feeds.
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POULTRY BY-PRODUCT MEAL AND ENZYME-PREBIOTIC 279
... Poultry by-product meal (PBM) is one of these ingredients and estimated as the potential replacement for fishmeal for a long time (Steffens, 1987;Piedad-Pascual and Hertrampf, 2000;Rodríguez-Serna et al., 1996). Well balanced amino acid compositions, high protein digestibility and good palatability properties make PBM as the valuable protein sources for many species, including mammal, poultry and fish species (Kirkpinar et al., 2004;Zier et al., 2004;Badillo et al., 2014). ...
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... On the other hand, experiences of other countries showed options and benefits in the use of available feed resources in poultry business [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. Similarly, various research findings indicated safety issues of the various feed trial options [15][16][17][18][19]. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the feeding value of students' FCFL and its inclusion in commercial poultry feed on the performance of Sasso T44 broiler chickens under Ethiopian conditions. ...
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A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of inclusion of fermented cafeteria food left-over (FCFL) in commercial ration on dry matter intake, growth performance, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics and bio-economics of production of Sasso T44 dual-purpose chickens. One hundred and eighty day-old unsexed broiler chicks were used for this experiment. Four treatment groups with three replicates, each having 15 animals per pen were employed. The experiment was conducted for 7 weeks after two weeks of adaptation period. Different levels of inclusion of FCFL (in percent) in concentrated commercial ration (T1: 0%; T2: 17%; T3: 34% and T4: 50%) were used in the four treatment groups. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design. Chicken Weight was taken at start and at weekly interval during the experiment. At the end of the experiment, 4 birds (2 males and 2 females) each were selected and sacrificed to evaluate carcass characteristics. To determine net return; partial budget analysis procedure was employed. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and body weight gain were not significant (P>0.05) during starter, finisher, grower and the entire experimental period among treatments. Significant difference (P<0.05) was not observed among the carcass traits (slaughter wt., dressing percentage, eviscerated carcass, drumstick, thigh, breast meat, heart, liver, gizzard, skin, back, wing and neck). The highest net return was observed in T4 (6774.3) followed by T3 (6616.7), T2 (6495.7) and T1 (6343.5). The score of chicks' sale to feed cost ratio was also increased from T1 to T4. This shows that as the inclusion level of FCFL in the ration increased, the feed cost decreased. Therefore, inclusion of FCFL up to 50% in broiler ration is economical.
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... The negative effect of XOS supplementation on IDE was unexpected. The literature often reports no effect of prebiotics on ileal nutrient digestibility (Kirkpinar et al.,2004;Mountzouris et al., 2010) however improvements in total tract retention have been reported (Mountzouris et al., 2010). This is achieved when populations of beneficial microflora are encouraged, which increases nutrient digestion and adsorption (De Measschalck et al., 2015) of SCFAs produced during fibre fermentation. ...
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• The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing broiler diets with xylanase or xylo- oligosaccharide (XOS) on growth performance, the concentration of non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) hydrolysis products in the ileum and concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the caeca of broiler chickens. • In total, 500 male Ross 308 broilers were used in this 29-day (d) study. The treatments were organised into a 2×2 plus 1 factorial arrangement consisting of two additives (xylanase or XOS) at two levels (low or high) plus a control treatment with no additives. This gave five treatments with 100 bird in each treatment group. The diets were slightly deficient in protein by 20 g/kg and energy by 1 MJ/kg. • On d 14 and 28, two birds per pen were euthanised, the caeca content collected and analysed for short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration. On d 29, six birds per pen were euthanised and ileal digesta were collected and analysed for the concentration of NSP fractions. • On d 14, caecal acetic acid, iso-butyric acid, iso-valeric acid, n-valeric acid and total SCFA concentrations were significantly greater (P≤0.05) when diets were supplemented with XOS compared with xylanase. • Ileal concentration of arabinose, galactose and glucuronic acid (GlucA2) were significantly greater (P≤0.05) in the insoluble NSP fraction when diets were supplemented with a high level of xylanase, compared with the control treatment. Ileal concentration of fructose was significantly greater (P≤0.05) in the water soluble NSP when a high level of xylanase or low level of XOS were included in the diet compared with the control. • It was concluded that xylanase and XOS had similar effects on NSP concentration and SCFA in the caeca, although there was little effect on performance. This observation demonstrated further benefits of xylanase supplementation in wheat-based broiler diets beyond digesta viscosity reduction and the release of extra nutrients.
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The objective was to measure energy concentrations and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus (P) in hatchery byproducts. In Experiment 1, 20 nursery barrows were used to measure energy concentrations in hatchery byproducts. A basal diet based on corn and dried whey and four additional diets containing 25% of infertile eggs, unhatched eggs, culled chicks, or a mixture of the three hatchery byproducts were prepared. In Experiment 2, the STTD of P was measured using 20 nursery barrows. Four diets containing 25% of the same hatchery byproducts used in Experiment 1 as the sole source of P were prepared, and a P-free diet was prepared to measure basal endogenous losses of P. The marker-to-marker method was employed for total collection. Metabolizable energy in culled chicks was the greatest (4560 kcal/kg as-is basis; p < 0.05), whereas infertile eggs had the lowest value (2645 kcal/kg as-is basis; p < 0.05). The STTD of P in infertile eggs (81.7%) was greater than that in unhatched eggs, culled chicks, and the mixture (61.6, 53.9, and 47.4%, respectively; p < 0.05). In conclusion, culled chicks had the greatest metabolizable energy and infertile eggs had the greatest phosphorus digestibility among the test ingredients.
... The excreta from the metabolic cages, which was weighed separately every day during the sample collection period, was collected in plastic trays and stored in a deep freezer until required for analysis (Kirkpinar, Açikgöz, Bozkurt, & Ayhan, 2004). At the end of the three-day collection period, the excreta from each replicate was mixed, ground and representative samples were then taken for proximate composition determination according to the methods of AOAC (2000). ...
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... However, these effects were not noted during finisher phase (22 to 42 days) in that study. Some workers ( Haque, Lyons, & Vandepopuliere, 1991;Kirkpinar, Açikgöz, Bozkurt, & Ayhan, 2004;Mendonca & Jensen, 1989) reported lack of effect of PBM addition in diets of broilers. The No 920 612 1.45 2,629 1,528 1.73 ...
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