Article

Effect of Opuntia ficus indica on Symptoms of the Alcohol Hangover

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Abstract

The severity of the alcohol hangover may be related to inflammation induced by impurities in the alcohol beverage and byproducts of alcohol metabolism. An extract of the Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) plant diminishes the inflammatory response to stressful stimuli. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 64 healthy, young adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive OFI (1600 IU) and identical placebo, given 5 hours before alcohol consumption. During 4 hours, subjects consumed up to 1.75 g of alcohol per kilogram of body weight. Hangover severity (9 symptoms) and overall well-being were assessed on a scale (0-6), and blood and urine samples were obtained the following morning. Two weeks later, the study protocol was repeated with OFI and placebo reversed. Fifty-five subjects completed both the OFI and placebo arms of the study. Three of the 9 symptoms-nausea, dry mouth, and anorexia-were significantly reduced by OFI (all P<.05). Overall, the symptom index was reduced by 2.7 points on average (95% confidence interval, -0.2 to 5.5; P =.07), and the risk of a severe hangover (>/=18 points) was reduced by half (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.88; P =.02). C-reactive protein levels were strongly associated with hangover severity; the mean symptom index was 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-7.1; P =.007) higher in subjects with morning C-reactive protein levels greater than 1.0 mg/L. In addition, C-reactive protein levels were 40% higher after subjects consumed placebo compared with OFI. The symptoms of the alcohol hangover are largely due to the activation of inflammation. An extract of the OFI plant has a moderate effect on reducing hangover symptoms, apparently by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators.

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... It can cause tissue damage [20,21] and its presence in the body has been associated with hangover-like symptoms, including nausea, sweating, rapid pulse and headache [22,23]. It has been argued that increased acetaldehyde concentration and its long-lasting effects contribute to the presence of hangover symptoms [24,25]. However, the one human study to assess the effects of blood acetaldehyde levels on AH severity failed to find any evidence for a correlation between peak acetaldehyde concentration and hangover severity [26]. ...
... Several studies have demonstrated evidence for elevated cytokine levels during hangover [31,[36][37][38]. Another marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), has been reported in two studies to correlate with AH severity [25,39], while another study has failed to find an association between CRP levels and AH [40]. However, the reliability of one of the studies that reported an association [25] is questionable as the assays that were used to measure CRP had limited detection sensitivity. ...
... Another marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), has been reported in two studies to correlate with AH severity [25,39], while another study has failed to find an association between CRP levels and AH [40]. However, the reliability of one of the studies that reported an association [25] is questionable as the assays that were used to measure CRP had limited detection sensitivity. This resulted in almost one-quarter of the data being outside the detection limit. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of putative hangover treatment, Rapid Recovery, in mitigating alcohol hangover (AH) symptom severity. Using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover design, 20 participants attended the laboratory for two evenings of alcohol consumption, each followed by morning assessments of AH severity. Participants were administered Rapid Recovery and placebo on separate visits. In the first testing visit, participants self-administered alcoholic beverages of their choice, to a maximum of 1.3 g/kg alcohol. Drinking patterns were recorded and replicated in the second evening testing visit. In the morning visits, AH severity was assessed using questionnaires measuring AH symptom severity and sleep quality, computerized assessments of cognitive functioning as well as levels of blood biomarkers of liver function (gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)) and inflammation (high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)). There were no differences in the blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) obtained in the Rapid Recovery (mean = 0.096%) and placebo (mean = 0.097%) conditions. Participants reported significantly greater sleep problems in the Rapid Recovery compared to placebo condition, although this difference was no longer significant following Bonferroni’s correction. There were no other significant differences between Rapid Recovery and placebo. These data suggest that Rapid Recovery has no significant effect on alcohol hangover nor on associated biomarkers.
... At visit 2, after eating only the standardized foods in the 36 h prior, subjects were given several shots (1.5 fluid oz.) of alcohol (Jack Daniel's Whisky, TN, USA) to reach a blood alcohol level (BAL) of 0.12% to create a high enough level of impairment to result in positive hangover scores the following morning (visit 3), measured using a breathanalyzer (AlcoMateV R PRO, Korea). Whisky was chosen for its high congener content relative to other types of alcohol (Wiese et al. 2004). The number of shots was estimated based on gender and body weight. ...
... The secondary endpoints were the Hangover Severity Score and POMS. The Hangover Severity Score is a unit of measurement on a seven-point scale from 0 to 6. Healthy subjects should have a score of 0. Symptoms on the scale include nausea, headache, lack of appetite, dry mouth, soreness, weakness, tremulousness, diarrhoea and dizziness (Wiese et al. 2004). Two additional questions were added to assess the overall feeling of the subject at that time point and their ability to attend work or school if applicable. ...
... Another biomarker that is commonly associated with inflammation is CRP, which in this study did not show group difference, whereas in another study, supplementation of the medicinal herb Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) was shown to reduce CRP levels while improving total antioxidant levels in serum ischaemic stroke patients (Thanoon et al. 2012). In a study on hangover symptoms, decreased levels of CRP were associated with reduced hangover symptoms; however, liver enzymes (AST and ALT) were not reduced (Wiese et al. 2004). It is possible that the alcohol toxification in this study was not chronic enough to warrant an intense inflammatory reaction. ...
Article
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Context: Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. and Thonn. (Euphorbiaceae) is traditionally known to improve general liver health. However, its effect on hangover is unknown. Objective: This study evaluated PHYLLPRO™, a standardized ethanol extract of P. amarus leaves for protection against oxidative stress and recovery from hangover symptoms. Material and methods: Ten days daily oral supplementation of 750 mg/day followed by intoxication was evaluated in a randomized placebo-controlled (containing only excipient), crossover study in 15 subjects (21–50 years old), for oxidative stress, liver damage, alleviating hangover symptoms (Hangover Severity Score: HSS) and mood improvement (Profile-of-Mood-Scores: POMS). Results: PHYLLPRO™ was able to remove blood alcohol in the active group while the placebo group still had 0.05% at 12 h post-intoxication (p < 0.0001). For HSS, the active group showed reduced hangover symptoms while there were higher levels of nausea, headache, anorexia, tremulousness, diarrhoea and dizziness in the placebo group (p < 0.05) at hour 10 post-intoxication. Increased fatigue at hour 2 and tension (p > 0.05) from baseline to hour 22 was reported in the placebo group using POMS. Significant anti-inflammatory group effect favouring the active group, by the upregulation of cytokines IL-8 (p = 0.0014) and IL-10 (p = 0.0492) and immunomodulatory effects via IL-12p70 (p = 0.0304) were observed. The incidence of adverse events was similar between groups indicating the safety of PHYLLPRO™. Discussion and conclusion: Preliminary findings of PHYLLPRO™ in managing hangover, inflammation and liver functions following intoxication, is demonstrated. Future studies on PHYLLPRO™ in protecting against oxidative stress and hangover in larger populations is warranted.
... Alcoholic liver disease has been demonstrated to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in individuals with consistently excessive alcohol intake [1]. Hangover is characterized by a number of unpleasant physical and mental symptoms that occur after heavy alcohol drinking [2,3]. Alcohol is initially oxidized to acetaldehyde by the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzyme; this is subsequently converted to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the liver [2,3]. ...
... Hangover is characterized by a number of unpleasant physical and mental symptoms that occur after heavy alcohol drinking [2,3]. Alcohol is initially oxidized to acetaldehyde by the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzyme; this is subsequently converted to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the liver [2,3]. Acetaldehyde is much more toxic than ethanol and this metabolite may cause the physical symptoms of hangover such as fatigue, headache, increased sensitivity to light and sound, redness of the eyes, muscle aches, and thirst [3]. ...
... Heavy alcohol drinking can result in several alcoholinduced hangover symptoms, which are attributed to the physiological effects of alcohol and its metabolites. It is well established that accumulation of acetaldehyde, an intermediate alcohol metabolite, plays a pivotal role in the development of hangover [2,3]. In order to determine the effects of DA-5513 on hangovers, we measured rat blood alcohol and acetaldehyde levels at different timepoints after the administration of alcohol. ...
Article
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Hangover is characterized by a number of unpleasant physical and mental symptoms that occur after heavy alcohol drinking. In addition, consistently excessive alcohol intake is considered as a major reason causes liver disease. The present study investigated the in vivo effects of DA-5513 (Morning care® Kang Hwang) on biological parameters relevant to hangover relief and alcoholic fatty liver. Blood alcohol and acetaldehyde concentrations were determined in rats administered a single dose of alcohol and treated with DA-5513 or commercially available hangover relief beverages (Yeomyung® and Ukon®). The effects of DA-5513 on alcoholic fatty liver were also determined in rats fed alcohol-containing Lieber-DeCarli diets for 4 weeks. Serum liver function markers (aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities) and serum/liver lipid levels were assessed. Blood alcohol and acetaldehyde concentrations were lower in the groups treated with DA-5513 or Yeomyung®, as compared with control rats. However, Ukon® did not produce any significant effects on these parameters. Treatment with DA-5513 significantly reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities and markedly reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as compared with control rats. Histological observations using Oil Red O staining found that DA-5513 delayed the development of alcoholic fatty liver by reversing hepatic fat accumulation. These findings suggest that DA-5513 could have a beneficial effect on alcohol-induced hangovers and has the potential to ameliorate alcoholic fatty liver.
... Remaining articles were progressed to full-text screening, where results were filtered to include 20 manuscripts investigating consumption associated effects of various components of the Opuntia spp. on blood GLU and INS resistance measures. Of the included studies; four studies [39][40][41][42] investigated the Opuntia spp. fruit (Table 1), twelve studies [43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55] investigated the Opuntia spp. ...
... The included studies were scored for risk of bias (Table 4) by two researchers (C.G. and N.N.) following the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool [38]. Investigations into single plant products (fruit; cladode) tended to have a high selection (3; 3) and performance bias (3; 9), with the exception of Wiese et al. (2004) [41] and Bacardi-Gascon et al. (2007) [55]. Across all included studies, detection bias was rated as high, or unclear, if not detailed within the methodology of the article. ...
... The included studies were scored for risk of bias (Table 4) by two researchers (C.G. and N.N.) following the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool [38]. Investigations into single plant products (fruit; cladode) tended to have a high selection (3; 3) and performance bias (3; 9), with the exception of Wiese et al. (2004) [41] and Bacardi-Gascon et al. (2007) [55]. Across all included studies, detection bias was rated as high, or unclear, if not detailed within the methodology of the article. ...
Article
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Background and Objectives: There is confusion as to which component of the Opuntia spp. cacti has demonstrated anti-hyperglycemic effects or anti-diabetic properties. It is important to clarify these health benefits due to the increasing need for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. The aim of this review is to identify the effects of Opuntia spp. cacti consumption on biomedical measures; glucose and insulin with consideration of its’ components; fruit, leaf and combined or unidentified Opuntia spp. products. Materials and Methods: Prior to commencing the searches, this systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018108765). Following the PRISMA 2009 guidelines, six electronic databases (Food Science and Technology Abstracts (EBSCO), Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science and Cochrane) were searched for articles investigating the effect of Opuntia spp. consumption on glucose and insulin in humans. Results: Initially, 335 articles were sourced and filtered by exclusion criteria (human interventions, control trials and articles published in English) resulting in 20 relevant articles. The included studies were characterized by such plant components as fruit (n = 4), cladode (n = 12), and other Opuntia spp. products (n = 4), further separated by clinical populations (‘healthy’, hyperlipidemic, hypercholesterolemic, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus). The findings of this review indicate variations in effects between cacti components and products. Cladode and select Opuntia spp. products predominately demonstrated significant reductions in serum glucose and insulin, indicating potential as a functional food candidate. Prickly Pear fruit was predominately reported to have no significant effects on glucose or insulin. The quality of evidence appeared to vary based on the type of Opuntia spp. product used. Studies that used specifically the fruit or cladode had high risk of bias, whereas studies which used combined Opuntia spp. products had a lower risk of bias. Numerous mechanisms of action were proposed where positive findings were reported, with emphasis on dualistic glucose-dependent and independent actions, however, mechanisms require further elucidation. Conclusion: Currently, there is a lack of evidence to support the recommendation of using Opuntia spp. fruit products as an alternative or complementary therapy in the reduction of risk or management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The Cladode does however show promise in potential glucose-lowering effects which warrant further investigation.
... 43 Contradictory findings were reported in the other three RCTs. 16,42,44 Grube et al. found no changes in SBP and DBP when overweight and obese individuals (n = 123, 30 male and 93 female, aged 33-57) consumed 3 g day −1 of litramine tablets (fibre complex from cactus pear) or placebo for a total of 56 days. 16 Similarly, Wiese et al. showed in their acute RCT crossover trial that cactus pear extract (1600 IU) did not significantly reduce SBP and DBP in healthy individuals (n = 55, 23 male and 32 female, aged [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. ...
... 16 Similarly, Wiese et al. showed in their acute RCT crossover trial that cactus pear extract (1600 IU) did not significantly reduce SBP and DBP in healthy individuals (n = 55, 23 male and 32 female, aged [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. 44 Lastly in an exercise trial, 42 SBP and DBP also did not change in male athletes (n = 22, aged 20-22) after consuming 150 mL of prickly pear juice daily for two weeks before they were being tested with the yo-yo intermittent recovery exercise test. ...
... The cacti's effect on HR and HRV were only investigated in human RCTs. 16,42,[44][45][46] Besides the lack of significant impact on BP, the same RCTs conducted by Grube et al. and Wiese et al. also showed no changes in HR. 16,44 In contrast, data presented in three sports and exercise RCTs suggested otherwise. 42,45,46 Firstly, a crossover RCT concluded that prickly pear was able to significantly lower HR (−9 beats per min) and simultaneously increase HRV in both high (HF) and low frequency (LF) components of both supine (SU) and standing (ST) positions. ...
Article
Dragon fruit (Hylocereus) and cactus pear (Opuntia) are cacti species that have been widely used globally as a reliable source of food as well as traditional folk remedies. They have become of scientific interest recently due to their high levels of bioactive phytochemical compounds, in particular betalains. Earlier systematic reviews have explored the impact of supplementation of these cactus species on obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors: body weight and composition, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, blood glucose and blood pressure. However, effects on vascular health and endothelial function have yet to be reviewed. In order to address this gap in the literature, a systematic review has been conducted to evaluate the physiological effects of Hylocereus and Opuntia cacti on endothelial and vascular function in in vivo animal models and human studies. An electronic search was performed in the following databases: PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE (via Ovid), CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science®, and The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL). All journals were searched since inceptions up to January 2020 without language restriction. Outcomes of interest were blood pressure, arterial stiffness, vascular reactivity and biochemical markers of endothelial dysfunction. Two investigators independently performed the study selection and data extraction. From 394 references, only 16 studies (9 animal and 7 human) fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Animal studies suggested a potential increase in vasodilation and serum nitric oxide and a reduction in vascular stiffness and blood pressure. The small number of human studies showed a reduction in heart rate as well as an increase in heart rate variability. Although these findings appear to indicate improvement in vascular health, there is a severe lack of robust, randomised human intervention studies to identify underlying mechanisms, optimal dose and long-term effects of cacti consumption.
... Physiological symptoms of hangover include fatigue, headache, redness of eyes, sensitivity to light and sound, muscle aches, thirst, dizziness, vertigo, anxiety, irritability and mood disturbance. Wiese (2004) reported that Opuntia extract reduces hangover symptoms by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators [160]. ...
... Physiological symptoms of hangover include fatigue, headache, redness of eyes, sensitivity to light and sound, muscle aches, thirst, dizziness, vertigo, anxiety, irritability and mood disturbance. Wiese (2004) reported that Opuntia extract reduces hangover symptoms by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators [160]. ...
Article
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Background: Opuntia species, locally known as prickly pear was used for various purpose as food, medicine, beverage, source of dye and animal food. Many studies revealed its pharmacology activity time to time. This review is a collection of chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacology and bioapplications of cactus family. Method: Many source were used to collect the information about Opuntia species such as Pub med, Google scholar, Agris, science direct, Embase, Merk index, Wiley online library, books and other reliable sources. This review contains studies from 1812 to 2019. Result The plants from cactus family were offer various pharmacological active compound including phenolic compounds, carotenoids, betalains, vitamins, steroids, sugar, amino acids, minerals and fibers. These bioactive compound were served various pharmacological activity such as anticancer, antiviral, anti-diabetic, Neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, antibacterial, antiulcer and alcohol hangover. According to various studies Opuntia species were offer many bioapplications such as fodder for animal, soil erosion, prevention, human consumption and waste water decontamination. Finally different parts of plants were used in various formulation that offer many biotechnology applications. Conclusion Different parts of Opuntia plant (fruits, seeds, flowers and cladodes) were used in various health problems include wound healing, anti-inflammatory and urinary tract infection from ancient time. Nowadays, researches were extended several pharmacological and therapeutic used of Opuntia species as discussed in this review. Many in-vitro and in-vivo model were also discussed in this review as the proofs of research finding. Various research gaps were observed in current studies that need attention in future.
... The therapeutic properties of O. ficus-indica can be attributed to its constituents (e.g., polyphenols, vitamins, polysaccharides, amino acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids) (Slimen et al. 2016). In one study, 64 volunteers were randomly divided into two groups whereby one group consumed 1600 international unit of O. ficus-indica extract and the other took placebo 5 h before alcohol drinking (Wiese et al. 2004). Interestingly, there was an enhancement in the overall well-being of volunteers and a reduction in alcohol hangover in the group who consumed O. ficus-indica (Wiese et al. 2004). ...
... In one study, 64 volunteers were randomly divided into two groups whereby one group consumed 1600 international unit of O. ficus-indica extract and the other took placebo 5 h before alcohol drinking (Wiese et al. 2004). Interestingly, there was an enhancement in the overall well-being of volunteers and a reduction in alcohol hangover in the group who consumed O. ficus-indica (Wiese et al. 2004). ...
... Though long known for its antioxidant properties (reviewed in [42]), an extract from the skin of the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit (EOFI) has been shown to promote the synthesis of heat shock proteins in various organisms [8,45,54]. In humans, the consumption of EOFI before alcohol consumption was reported to reduce the hangover symptoms by dampening the inflammatory response [62]. Along similar lines, an extract of Padina pavonica (EPP) was found to be protective against both colon and liver injury in mice through anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [1,37]. ...
... EOFI gave opposite results, thereby having a marked impact only on an early-onset or aggressive AD fly model based on the expression of the Arctic A␤42 variant. In this respect, EOFI is thought to have good bioavailability properties and possibly is more effective in situations with heighted levels of cellular stress [54,62]. ...
Article
A signature feature of age-related neurodegenerative proteinopathies is the misfolding and aggregation of proteins, typically amyloid-β (Aβ) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and α-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson’s disease (PD), into soluble oligomeric structures that are highly neurotoxic. Cellular and animal models that faithfully replicate the hallmark features of these disorders are being increasing exploited to identify disease-modifying compounds. Natural compounds have been identified as a useful source of bioactive molecules with promising neuroprotective capabilities. In the present report, we investigated whether extracts derived from two ubiquitous Mediterranean plants namely, the prickly pear Opuntia ficus-indica (EOFI) and the brown alga Padina pavonica (EPP) alleviate neurodegenerative phenotypes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fly (Drosophila melanogaster) models of AD and PD. Pre-treatment with EPP or EOFI in the culture medium significantly improved the viability of yeast expressing the Arctic Aβ42 (E22G) mutant. Supplementing food with EOFI or EPP dramatically ameliorated lifespan and behavioural signs of flies with brain-specific expression of wild-type Aβ42 (model of late-onset AD) or the Arctic Aβ42 variant (model of early-onset AD). Additionally, we show that either extract prolonged the survival of a PD fly model based on transgenic expression of the human α-syn A53T mutant. Taken together, our findings suggest that the plant-derived extracts interfere with shared mechanisms of neurodegeneration in AD and PD. This notion is strengthened by evidence demonstrating that EOFI and to a greater extent EPP, while strongly inhibiting the fibrillogenesis of both Aβ42 and α-syn, accumulate remodelled oligomeric aggregates that are less effective at disrupting lipid membrane integrity. Our work therefore opens new avenues for developing therapeutic applications of these natural plant extracts in the treatment of amyloidogenic neurodegenerative disorders.
... Cortisol is known primarily for its role as psychophysiological marker of the stress response and has been found to negatively affect cognitive processes and mood states in both healthy and non-healthy subjects [49][50][51][52]. Alcohol ingestion has been associated with changes in cortisol levels [42,53] in a dose-response relationship [53,54], which have been found to continue into the hangover state [55]. Light social drinkers exhibit greater cortisol reactivity compared with heavy social drinkers [56], who have been shown to exhibit reduced responses to increases in cortisol levels due to their intrinsic tolerance to alcohol [57]. ...
... Aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid involved in the regulation of electrolytes, water retention and overall body homeostasis [58] has been found to increase during alcohol hangovers [1]. Several studies have also highlighted the elevation of the hormone vasopressin, which has anti-diuretic effects, further contributing to dehydration [55,59,60]. ...
Article
Alcohol hangovers are a commonly experienced consequence of drinking and are frequently associated with worsened mood and cognitive functioning. The physiological changes that occur with an alcohol-induced hangover state are largely unknown. This review focuses on key physiological factors of an alcohol-induced hangover, more specifically, oxidative stress, lack of sleep, hormonal fluctuations, dehydration, headaches, fever and changes to the immune system. Increased understanding of the relationship between the physiological factors and symptoms of a hangover is needed to further elucidate the mechanisms of an alcohol-induced hangover and potentially identify a treatment. The direct effects of the physiological factors occurring during an alcohol-induced hangover state should be further assessed under laboratory settings.
... The first scientific report where Opuntia ficus-indica was used against hepatotoxic substances was by Wiese et al. (2004); they reported that cactus reduced the hangover symptoms after consuming alcohol in excess. ...
... Humans (Wiese et al., 2004) Protection against nickel-induced toxicity O. Ficus-indica cladode extract Rats (Hfaiedh et al., 2008) ...
Conference Paper
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Cacti have been used by ancient civilizations for centuries to cure diseases and to heal wounds. Cactus cladodes, fruits, and flowers have been traditionally used in folk medicines in several countries. Cladodes are still used for gastric ulcer treatment and for its healing activity as therapeutic agents. The properties of the infusions of cactus dried flowers to prevent prostate cancer and urological problems are also well-known. Recent scientific investigations confirmed that cactus products may be efficiently used as a source of phytochemicals, such as mucilage, fibres, pigments and antioxidants. This article presents an overview of the latest scientific reports about the medicinal properties of cactus products. Scientific studies in experimental models confirmed that lyophilized cladodes have significant anti-ulcer effect, protective effect against gastric lesions as well as anti-inflammatory activity. Diet supplementation with cactus pear fruits in healthy human has shown to decrease the oxidative stress, and, therefore, improves their overall antioxidant status. Cactus pear fruits have also been studied as ovarian-cancer preventive. Their ability in suppressing carcinogenesis of in vitro and in vivo models has been assessed. The antiviral action of cactus cladode extracts have been successfully conducted against viruses such as herpes, HIV-1 virus and influenza A. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes were supplied to hypercholesterolemic rats and a marked decrease in cholesterol and triglycerides levels was found in plasma samples. Experiments concerning the hypoglycemic effects of Opuntia streptacantha cladodes have been confirmed in diabetes mellitus non-insulin-dependent patients. Moreover, consumption of cactus young cladodes has shown to reduce obesity and blood glucose. Functional properties of cactus products can be exploited more efficiently in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries if research is encouraged.
... As a source of food, the PP is eaten fresh or dried and exists in an extensive array of products [4][5][6], ranging from confectionary such as jams, jelly sweets, teas, tinctures and more recently, supplements, many with associated health claims [1][2][3][4]. Numerous consumption associated properties are reported including; anticarcinogenic [8-10], anti-arteriosclerotic [11,12], antiulcerogenic [13][14][15][16][17], hypoglycaemic [18][19][20][21][22][23] and hepatoprotective [24,25] properties. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prickly Pear (PP) is often overlooked due to its’ short shelf-life. Juicing may improve marketability but often affects quality, thereby warranting investigation. Purple PP (whole (WF) and flesh (FF)) was juiced using blenders; stick (SB) and jug (JB); and juicers; commercial (CJ) and cold-pressed (CP). Juices and methanolic (70%) pomace extracts were analysed for; bioactives; Total Phenolic (TPC; µgGAE/mL), Flavonoid (TFC; µgCE/mL) and Betalain Content (TBC; mg/100 g; Betacyanin; BE; Betaxanthin; IE); and antioxidant characteristics; DPPH, FRAP (µMTE) and vitamin C (mgAAE/mL). Juicing techniques had effects on phytochemicals in; juice: TPC (WF/FF; p = 0.022–0.025), TFC (FF; p = 0.034), Betacyanin (WF/FF; p = 0.029–0.026), FRAP (WF/FF; p = 0.016–0.024) and Vitamin C (WF/FF; p = 0.015–0.016); and pomace: TPC (WF/FF; p = 0.015), TBC (FF; p = 0.034), Betacyanin (FF; p = 0.047), Betaxanthin (FF; p = 0.017), DPPH (WF/FF; p = 0.016–0.024), FRAP (WF/FF; p = 0.015–0.023) and Vitamin C (WF/FF; p = 0.016–0.022). Processing-style (blend/juice) affected; TPC, DPPH and FRAP in juice and pomace. Overall, fruit-preparation (WF/FF) had minimal effects. Additionally, correlations existed between; juice TFC and TBC (p = 0.001; τ = −0.044); TBC and vitamin C (p = 0.001; τ = −0.637); pomace TPC and DPPH (p = 0.003; τ = 0.440), TPC and vitamin C (p = 0.011; τ = 0.440); and TFC and FRAP (p = 0.001; τ = 0.519). The best methods overall for juice were SB (FRAP), JB (TPC, TBC), CJ (TFC) and CP (DPPH, VitC); and for pomace extracts; SB(FRAP), JB (TPC, VitC), CJ(TFC), and CP (TBC, DPPH).
... The Opuntia preparations have also shown therapeutic potential for managing alcohol intoxication, alcoholism, and alcohol dependence (Tomczyk et al., 2012). In one study, Opuntia extract was provided to participants for a few hours before alcohol consumption and demonstrated a reduction in alcohol consumption side effects in 50% of the participants (Wiese et al., 2004). The potential mechanisms of action were ascribed to the anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia as serum C-reactive protein was reduced in the treatment group (Tomczyk et al., 2012). ...
Article
Opuntia is a plant that grows in wild, arid, and semi-arid regions, and it is a renowned food source that is presently undervalued. The chemical composition and properties of the Opuntia genus have attracted research and commercial interest as its species are rich in phytochemicals, nutrients, and bioactive compounds. Several of these constituents have revealed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-cancer, anti-atherosclerotic, antidiabetic, neurological, and gut protective characteristics. This review provides an extensive and up-to-date evidence synthesis of the nutrients in the Opuntia genus, its phytochemical composition, health benefits, the influence of the processing technologies on its bioactive components, and the potential for functional food product development. Due to its high nutritional value, Opuntia genus has the potential to contribute to improving food security and contribute to the food industry as food additive or preservative. Accordingly, Opuntia products can be utilized as food substitutes as part of a well-balanced diet and may potentially have pharmacological properties. The Opuntia genus is also used as animal feed, a source of nutraceuticals, an addition to edible packaging materials, wastewater treatment, and land rehabilitation in arid regions. Opuntia is a rich source of minerals, essential amino acids, and vitamins, and is high in antioxidants, making it a promising candidate for the management of non-communicable diseases. The potential health-promoting effects of Opuntia consumption remain relatively unexplored, and further research human trials are required to unravel its mechanisms of action.
... Alcohol-induced oxidative stress and free radicals production has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol hangover (Das and Vasudevan, 2007;Karadayian et al., 2015;Karadayian et al., 2017). Consistent with these mechanisms, most of the compounds that have been tested and used for hangover prevention/treatment hold anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties (Jayawardena et al., 2017;Karadayian et al., 2014a;Min et al., 2010;Park et al., 2009;Pittler et al., 2005;Wiese et al., 2004). It is plausible to speculate that ghrelin's effect in reducing alcohol hangover may be mediated through similar processes, as ghrelin has been extensively shown to attenuate inflammation and oxidative stress (Baatar et al., 2011;Dixit and Taub, 2005;El Eter et al., 2007;Ezquerro et al., 2017;Ishii et al., 2018;Jiao et al., 2017;Kheradmand et al., 2010;Lilleness and Frishman, 2016;Prodam and Filigheddu, 2014;Stasi and Milani, 2016;Sukumaran et al., 2018). ...
Article
Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide synthesized in the stomach, is a key player in the gut-brain axis. In addition to its role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis, ghrelin has been shown to modulate alcohol-related behaviors. Alcohol consumption frequently results in hangover, an underexplored phenomenon with considerable medical, psychological, and socioeconomic consequences. While the pathophysiology of hangover is not clear, contributions of mechanisms such as alcohol-induced metabolic/endocrine changes, inflammatory/immune response, oxidative stress, and gut dysbiosis have been reported. Interestingly, these mechanisms considerably overlap with ghrelin's physiological functions. Here, we investigated whether pharmacological manipulation of the ghrelin system may affect alcohol hangover symptoms. Data were obtained from two placebo-controlled laboratory studies. The first study tested the effects of intravenous (IV) ghrelin and consisted of two experiments: a progressive-ratio IV alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) and a fixed-dose IV alcohol clamp. The second study tested the effects of an oral ghrelin receptor inverse agonist (PF-5190457) and included a fixed-dose oral alcohol administration experiment. Alcohol hangover data were collected the morning after each alcohol administration experiment using the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS). IV ghrelin, compared to placebo, significantly reduced alcohol hangover after IV-ASA (p = 0.04) and alcohol clamp (p = 0.04); PF-5190457 had no significant effect on AHS scores. Females reported significantly higher hangover symptoms than males following the IV-ASA experiment (p = 0.04), but no gender × drug condition (ghrelin vs. placebo) effect was found. AHS total scores were positively correlated with peak subjective responses, including 'stimulation' (p = 0.08), 'sedation' (p = 0.009), 'feel high' (p = 0.05), and 'feel intoxicated' (p = 0.03) during the IV-ASA. IV ghrelin blunted the positive association between alcohol sedation and hangover as shown by trend-level drug × sedation effect (p = 0.08). This is the first study showing that exogenous ghrelin administration, but not ghrelin receptor inverse agonism, affects hangover symptoms. Future research should investigate the potential mechanism(s) underlying this effect.
... Its active compounds are allyl sulfides, allyl cysteines, fructosyl aminoacids, allixin, selenium, and tetrahydro-beta-carbolines; it provides suppression of lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage [89]. Opuntia ficus indica (tuna), an edible cactus fruit, has shown not only to be beneficial in reducing the negative effects of ethanol consumption withdrawal [90], but also hepatoprotective by reducing free-radical chain reactions [91]. The active ingredients of Optunia are vitamin C and E, polyphenols, carotenoids, flavonoids such as kaempherol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin, taurine, and betalains: betacyanin and betaxanthine [92][93][94]. ...
... In testing these possibilities the use of sub-lethal heat shock may not be an ideal way to enhance Hsp production because acute temperature shifts are often detrimental, causing significant mortalities and adversely affecting physiological balance. Hence, less traumatic approaches are required and in this context, the regulatory effects of bio-active compounds derived from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) which accelerate and elevate Hsps synthesis in humans(Wiese et al., 2004), may be tested. Furthermore, heat shocked algae, rotifers and other live food other than bacteria could be employed as a feed source for exogenous Hsps.Quorum-sensing molecules from Bacillus sp. ...
Thesis
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Disease imposes an important constraint on aquaculture and in this context vibriosis brings about massive mortalities in many commercial species, ranging from fish to shrimp, with resultant heavy monetary losses. During my work the application of heat shock proteins (Hsps) as an approach to disease control in aquaculture was explored, with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia larvae as the model organism. The thesis contains several findings, featuring the interesting observation that a non-lethal heat shock at 37°C for 30 min followed by a 6 h recovery period and a combined hypothermic/hyperthermic shock with temperature reduction from 28°C to 4°C for 1 h followed by incubation at 37°C for 30 min and a 6 h recovery at ambient temperature optimally enhanced resistance of gnotobiotic Artemia larvae against pathogenic vibrios and induced Hsp70 maximally. The resulting two-fold increase in survival of larvae in concert with stress protein synthesis suggested that endogenous Hsp70 functions in protection. Likewise, feeding gnotobiotic Artemia with E. coli cells over-producing prokaryotic heat shock proteins, particularly the 70kDa DnaK, promotes resistance to infection by a pathogenic bacterium. This study demonstrates for the first time that Hsp70 homologs can induce a protective effect towards a pathogen when it is supplied via the feed to the host, perhaps via immune enhancement. Importantly, this work reveals the potential application of Hsps as a way to enhance shrimp resistance and as a novel microbial countermeasure to infection. These techniques represent efficient strategies to control Vibrio infection in brine shrimp and may serve as alternatives to antibiotic use in aquaculture. Moreover, we provide new evidence for relationships between Hsps and immunity in Artemia.
... Natural products containing fruit, vegetable, and herbal substances increased alcohol degrading enzyme activities and have been reported to alleviate alcohol hangover symptoms. Dandelion (12), pear (13), tomato (14), red ginseng (15), Hovenia dulcis (16), and Opuntia ficus indica (17) are reported to relieve hangovers by stimulating alcohol metabolism and have antioxidant effects on alcohol-induced oxidative stress. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed fruit and vegetable juice on alcohol hangover in healthy adults in a randomized crossover trial. Angelica keiskei/green grape/pear juice (AGP juice) was a mixture of A. keiskei juice, green grape juice, and pear juice at 1:1:1 ratio. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities of AGP juice were measured in vitro. Fifteen healthy adults consumed alcohol (1.25 g/kg weight), and either water (control group) or AGP juice (AGP juice group). Blood was collected and expiratory-air alcohol levels were measured at 0~360 min after drinking the alcohol. Compared with control, AGP juice had higher ADH and ALDH activity in vitro. The peak alcohol levels in expiratory-air and plasma after drinking AGP juice were significantly lower than those after drinking water. The area under the curves for expiratory-air and plasma alcohol of the AGP juice group were lower than those of the control group. Thirst and headache scores after intake of alcohol were significantly reduced by AGP juice consumption compared with the control group. These data demonstrated that AGP juice could contribute to eliminate alcohol toxicity and hangover symptoms by enhancing alcohol metabolizing enzyme activities.
... Opuntia, which can live challenging environments, is a member of the cactus family and is shown in Figure 1. It has a big parallel surface and sparse prickly leaves (Wiese et al. 2004). ...
Article
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In this study, dielectric permittivity of Opuntia were calculated and modeled in simulation program at 2G, 3G, 4G and WI-FI communication technology frequencies. Waveguide measurement method was utilized to measure the scattering parameters of Opuntia in order to calculate dielectric constant in the frequency range from 1.7 to 2.6 GHz. The measurement system was setup with two waveguide adaptors WR430, an Anritsu network analyzer (MS4624B), sample holder, and a computer. The error coefficients were identified by TRL calibration technique and the accuracy of the system was checked. New Non-Iterative Method (NNIM) was used to calculate the dielectric constant from measured S parameters. Furthermore, according to the variation of humidity and frequencies the dielectric constant and loss tangent of Opuntia was examined. Opuntia simulation model is defined in the CST program.
... According to several studies, cactuses are known for their high content of fibre, mineral, vitamins, fatty acids and carotenoids (Tesoriere et al. 2005). It can be used as an antidiabetic, ulcerogenic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, and may protect against numerous chronic diseases (Wiese et al. 2004;Alimi et al. 2011;Antunes-Ricado et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Context: Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Castaceae) (cactus) is used in Tunisian medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Objective: This study determines phytochemical composition of cactus cladode extract (CCE). It also investigates antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of CCE against lithium carbonate (Li2CO3)-induced liver injury in rats. Materials and methods: Twenty-four Wistar male rats were divided into four groups of six each: a control group given distilled water (0.5 mL/100 g b.w.; i.p.), a group injected with Li2CO3 (25 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.; corresponding to 30% of the LD50) twice daily for 30 days, a group receiving only CCE at 100 mg/kg of b.w. for 60 days and then injected with distilled water during the last 30 days of CCE treatment, and a group receiving CCE and then injected with Li2CO3 during the last 30 days of CCE treatment. The bioactive components containing the CCE were identified using chemical assays. Results: Treatment with Li2CO3 caused a significant change of some haematological parameters including red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit (Ht) and mean corpuscular volume (VCM) compared to the control group. Moreover, significant increases in the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were observed in the blood of Li2CO3-treated rats. Furthermore, exposure to Li2CO3 significantly increased the LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the hepatic tissues. Conclusion: CCE possesses a significant hepatoprotective effect.
... Por su parte Ahamd et al. (1996) estudiaron las propiedades antivirales de un extracto de Opuntia streptacanha. Wiese et al. (2004) indican que un producto elaborado en Estados Unidos, calificado como un suplemento alimenticio y elaborado a base de un extracto deshidratado de la piel de frutos de Opuntia ficus-indica, en forma de gelatina, podría actuar moderando los efectos posteriores de la ingesta de alcohol. ...
Article
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Las extensas zonas áridas y semiáridas existentes en el mundo, junto a la escasez de agua en regiones de tradi-ción agrícola, hacen deseable la búsqueda y cultivo de especies de bajo requerimiento hídrico, que a la vez puedan controlar la desertificación a la que están expuestas muchas áreas de nuestro planeta y ser fuente de alimentos o ingredientes alimentarios naturales. Una de estas especies es el nopal o tuna (Opuntia spp.), ampliamente distribuido en Latinoamérica, África, Sur de Europa y Sur de Estados Unidos. El nopal es una planta arbustiva, rastrera o erecta, que se ubica en zonas templadas-semiáridas y tropicales secas, que pueden alcanzar de 3 a 5 m de altura. Su tronco es leñoso y mide entre 20 y 50 cm de diámetro. Sus hojas están formadas por cladodios de 30 a 60 cm de largo por 20 a 40 cm de ancho y de 2 a 3 cm de espesor (Zamora, 2011). El cladodio recibe el La Alimentación Latinoamericana Nº 322 60
... Humans (Wiese et al., 2004) FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF CACTUS PRODUCTS 15 ...
Chapter
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The chapter refers to the cactus plants, specially the Opuntia genus, that grow up in arid and semiarid environments under hard hydric stress conditions. The functional phytochemicals of the plant parts, such as fruits, cladodes, flowers, and seeds, and their uses in food preparations are described. A revision of the bioactive constituents, like mucilage, fibers, pigments, and antioxidants, was done, indicating that the cactus plants may be efficiently used as a source of these compounds. This plant is consumed both as fresh foods, e.g., fruits, fresh cladodes named “nopalitos,” and their juices, and processed products such as nopal flour, keeping its functional properties. A review of the latest reports about the medicinal properties of the cactus products is included, showing the benefits to prevent different diseases. This chapter describes cacti as multifunctional plants that offer the possibility of taking advantages from the whole plant, which impacts positively on regional economies of arid and semiarid lands where population deals with subsistence economies.
... An alcohol dosage of 1.2-1.75 g/kg has been used in several studies that have examined the effects of food materials or constituents on intoxication or the presence of a hangover [23][24][25][26][27]. An alcohol dosage of 1.2 g/kg was used in this study because of the difficulty in evaluating the physiological effects of the subjects after drinking excessive alcohol. ...
Article
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Background Little is known about the effects of dietary components on the regulation of the gastric emptying rate of alcohol and its impact on alcohol metabolism. We recently found that the crude water-insoluble dietary fibers from several types of botanical foods maintained aqueous ethanol solutions. Additionally, the ethanol-absorbing ability of the dietary fibers correlated with the inhibition of the blood ethanol elevation by delaying gastric emptying. Moreover, we found that the synergism between tomatoes and alanine to reduce the absorption of alcohol in rats was attributable to the effect of alanine on precipitates, such as the crude water-insoluble dietary fibers of tomatoes. In the present study, we assess whether an alanine-fortified tomato (AFT) is effective in relieving acute alcohol-induced adverse effects by lowering the alcohol action in healthy human volunteers following the ingestion of alcohol with a meal. Methods Twenty healthy males ingested the AFT or sugar as the control, with 1.2 g/kg of alcohol and a micronutrient-fortified meal in a randomized cross-over study. Breath alcohol concentrations were temporally measured, and blood and urine samples were obtained during the trial. The study protocol was repeated with the AFT and sugar groups reversed 4 weeks later. Results Various analyses were performed using the data from the 15 subjects. The breath alcohol concentrations significantly decreased when AFT was ingested. A decrease in the urinary pH was also noted following the ingestion of AFT. Moreover, the sum of seven sedative scores as subjective sensation after alcohol ingestion was significantly reduced by AFT the next morning. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the simultaneous ingestion of AFT under the consumption of excess alcohol and a micronutrient-fortified meal relieved the acute alcohol-induced adverse effects in male volunteers. These results are consistent with the effectiveness observed in rats as previously reported.
... Sung et al. (2012) tested another patented product Pro-Tex â (Bradan Limited, a soluble variant of TEX-OE â ) to determine whether it improved the resistance of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) to high ammonia levels. Pro-Tex â contains an extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, (L.) Miller 1925) which increases heat shock protein expression in humans and fish (Wiese et al. 2004;Roberts et al. 2010;Sandilands et al. 2010). Exposure of carp to Pro-Tex â (2 lL 50 L À1 water) for 2 h increased survival from 50% to 95% and 0% to 20% when exposed to 5.92 mg L À1 and 14.21 mg L À1 of NH 3 , respectively for 1 h. ...
Article
The transport of live fish for aquaculture, either for food or as companion animals, presents a major issue for animal welfare. The stressors associated with live transportation are well documented with a focus on maintaining water quality during transport to reduce stress. Far less considered is our ability to enhance health and welfare during transport through the use of dietary and water additives prior to and during transport. With increasing interest in the use of plant essential oils as feed additives in food fish aquaculture and the increased availability of products claiming to alleviate stress in ornamental species, there is a need for scientific investigation into these potential welfare-promoting methods. Here, we summarise current knowledge on the use of food additives, water conditioners, antibiotics, antimicrobials and probiotics to promote fish health during transport. This review aims to highlight the gaps in our knowledge surrounding promising ways of promoting fish health during transport and to stimulate new research in this area.
... As a source of food, the PP is eaten fresh or dried and exists in an extensive array of products [4][5][6], ranging from confectionary such as jams, jelly sweets, teas, tinctures and more recently, supplements, many with associated health claims [1][2][3][4]. Numerous consumption associated properties are reported including; anticarcinogenic [8-10], anti-arteriosclerotic [11,12], antiulcerogenic [13][14][15][16][17], hypoglycaemic [18][19][20][21][22][23] and hepatoprotective [24,25] properties. ...
... [17][18][19][20] Moreover nopal has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases and conditions such as gastric ulcers, 21 inflammation, 22 burns, hangovers, and indigestion. 20,21,23 Nopal has gained special attention as a dietary supplement due to the high content of soluble fibers, minerals, and other active components. 17,18,24 Prickly pads of Opuntia have been included in Mexican diets, consumed as a vegetable in different ripening stages, varying from 24 to 48 days. ...
Article
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease in adult women caused by menopause and some other factors, which entails deficiency of calcium in diet. Natural products are the best source of nutriments to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a plant characterized by its nutritional components and benefits to health. Its calcium content increases with maturation process that could be beneficial for consumers. Nopal powder (NP) was elaborated from nopal harvested within 16-24 weeks of maturation, and the nutritional content was determined. An experimental clinical trial was performed to evaluate the effect of NP. A total of 69 women between 40 and 60 years old participated in the study. During 24 weeks, experimental group (n = 56) consumed a daily dose of 5 g of NP and control group (n = 13) continue with habitual diet. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage and serum calcium were assessed. Between baseline and after 24 weeks of consumption, no significant changes were found in BMD P = .885 experimental group and P = .970 control group, BMI P = .865 experimental group and P = .984 control group, body fat P = .744 experimental group and P = .740 control group and serum calcium P = .282 experimental group and P = .959 control group. These results indicate that advanced maturation NP does not have influence in bone health, BMI, and body composition in adult women.
... However, to date, little research has been devoted to the development of effective and safe hangover treatments, and currently there is no evidence-based hangover treatment [16][17][18]. The pathology of alcohol hangover is not yet elucidated [19][20][21], although alcohol metabolism and the immune response to alcohol consumption are current research foci [22][23][24][25]. ...
Article
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Background: Despite a clear market need and many hangover products available, currently there is no hangover treatment that is supported by substantial scientific evidence demonstrating its efficacy and safety. A pilot study was conducted to investigate the effects of a potential new hangover treatment, SJP-001, and its constituents (220 mg naproxen and 60 mg fexofenadine) on hangover severity. Methods: N = 13 healthy social drinkers (36.3 ± 8.9 years old) participated in a double-blind, factorial design, cross-over study. On each test day, they consumed their own choice of alcohol up to a self-reported level sufficient to elicit a next-day hangover. Treatments were administered prior to onset of drinking. Next morning, hangover severity was assessed with the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS). Subjects were included in the efficacy analysis only if they reported a hangover after placebo. Results: N = 5 subjects (60% male, 35.2 ± 9.0 years old) were included in the analysis. They consumed a mean (SD) of 4.6 ± 1.1 units of alcohol and had an average peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) of 0.065% across conditions. Compared to placebo, SJP-001 significantly improved the AHS overall hangover severity score (0.8 ± 0.3 versus 1.5 ± 0.9, p = 0.042). Compared to placebo, SJP-001 also reduced scores on the individual item 'hangover', although the observed improvement (-1.6) did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.102). The differences from placebo after naproxen alone and fexofenadine alone were not statistically significant. SJP-001 also improved scores for the individual hangover symptoms tired, thirsty, headache, dizziness, nausea, and loss of appetite, but these effects did not reach statistical significance. Discussion: Compared to placebo, SJP-001 significantly reduced overall hangover severity. The effects of SJP-001 should be further examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a larger sample size and controlled administration of sufficient amounts of alcohol to provoke a more substantial alcohol hangover.
... Despite the various therapeutic uses attributed to the genus Opuntia, scientific research on its hepatoprotective capacity began in 2004, when Wiese et al [69] reported that OFI could reduce the symptoms (nausea, dry mouth and anorexia) characteristic of hangover after consuming excess alcohol. Subsequently, Galati et al. (2005) examined the effects of prickly pear fruit (JPPF) juice against CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity. ...
Article
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Opuntia spp. is a diverse and widely distributed genus in Africa, Asia, Australia, and America. Mexico has the largest number of wild species; mainly O. streptacantha, O. hyptiacantha, O. albicarpa, O. megacantha and O. ficus-indica. The latter being the most cultivated and domesticated species. Throughout history, plants and their phytochemicals have played an important role in health care and Opuntia spp. has shown a high nutritional, medicinal, pharmaceutical, and economic impacts. Its main bioactive compounds include pigments (carotenoids, betalains and betacyanins), vitamins, flavonoids (isorhamnetin, kaempferol, quercetin) and phenolic compounds. Together, they favor the different plant parts and are considered phytochemically important and associated with control, progression and prevention of some chronic and infectious diseases. This first review (Part 1), compiles information from published research (in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies) on its preventive effects against atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity, hepatoprotection, effects on human infertility and chemopreventive and/or antigenotoxic capacity. The aim is to provide scientific evidences of its beneficial properties and to encourage health professionals and researchers to expand studies on the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Opuntia spp.
... A few trials have been performed to investigate the effects of foods and their constituents on alcohol hangover including red ginseng [12], sprout ginseng [3], artichoke [13], Opuntia ficus-indica [14] and H. dulcis [5,15]. In the case of H. dulcis, there have been a few reports that show preventive and therapeutic properties against alcoholic liver injury but used only the fruits or peduncles [5,15]. ...
Article
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Hovenia dulcis, known as the oriental raisin tree, is used for food supplements and traditional medicine for the liver after alcohol-related symptoms. However, little information exists about the use of its leaves and branches. In this study, we established a method to use the leaves and branches to develop anti-hangover treatment and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Oxidation-treated leaves (OL) exhibited high antioxidant content comparable to that of the peduncles and showed an anti-hangover effect in male mice. The branch extract (BE) was enriched in the flavonoid catechin, approximately five times more than OL extract. The mixture of OL and BE (OLB) was formulated in a 2:1 ratio with frozen-dried extract weight and was tested for anti-hangover effects and protective properties against binge alcohol-induced liver injury. OLB showed better anti-hangover effect than OL. In addition to this anti-hangover effect, OLB protected the liver from oxidative/nitrosative damage induced by binge alcohol intake.
... benefits in treating alcohol hangover symptoms in humans. For example, Wiese et al. (2004) carried out a double-blind cross-checking trial of 64 adult volunteers with placebo checking. Volunteers were given two O. ficus indica extract capsules and equivalent placebo 5 h before alcohol use in this randomized study. ...
Chapter
There is a growing trend for the use of nutritional and medicinal natural compounds to manage chronic diseases. In particular, flavonoids have gained much interest because of their regulation effects on oxidative stress and inflammatory events linked to chronic disorders initiation and progression, including metabolic, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. For centuries, Opuntia species have served as food and traditional folk medicine for their nutritional features and their benefits in chronic conditions like obesity, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The plant is globally distributed and has high economic potential. The different parts of the plant, including pear, cladodes, roots, and seeds, have favorable biological activities. The plant parts are rich in phenolic acids, biopeptides, ascorbate, flavonoids, betalains, carotenoids, and soluble fibers, which possess favorable pharmacological activities promising agent in the development of drugs for chronic disease intervention. In this chapter, the role of the most commonly studied Opuntia spp. and its bioactives in the management of chronic diseases has been described. Also, a special focusing has been paid on the safety aspects and potential toxicities, which should be considered to achieve the maximum benefit of the Opuntia spp. in chronic disease therapies.
... Dried peels from Opuntia ficus-indica serve as dietary supplements and functional food (Fig. 42.4) in places like the United States. This use is linked to its ability to reduce the hangover effect associated with excess alcohol consumption (Wiese et al., 2004). Thus, new potential applications continue to emerge from research on the Opuntia species, even in the medical industry. ...
Chapter
Research interest in the Opuntia species has been increased, especially in the past decade. Although it was previously thought to be a weed menace and underutilised, the Opuntia plant possesses several food and non-food applications. This chapter reviews the industrial applications of Opuntia spp. and the real prospects that could guide future research directions. In food applications, Opuntia can be used as feed/fodder, nutraceuticals, beverages, sweeteners, and food additives. Non-food applications have broadened to include the textile, fuel, bioplastic, wastewater treatment, pharmaceutical, medical, cosmeceutical, agrochemical, agroforestry, and pollution control industries. Opuntia aerial parts such as cladodes, fruits and peel by-products are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals, many of which are yet to be profiled and identified. It is therefore envisaged that biotechnological applications of the plant will continue to increase. Although the Opuntia plant has shown promise for several industries, many Opuntia-based products have not yet been commercialised. Factors contributing to this challenge are highlighted, and possible workable solutions suggested.
... Many other fruits such as apricot [162], guava [163], pomegranate [148], lemon [164], Citrus depressa [165], noni fruit [166], Opuntia ficus indica [167], jujube [168], and persimmon [147] were also reported to mitigate ALD. These findings confirm that daily intake of fruits may be an effective strategy for alleviating ALD. ...
Article
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Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one type of liver disease, causing a global healthcare problem and mortality. The liver undergoes tissue damage by chronic alcohol consumption because it is the main site for metabolism of ethanol. Chronic alcohol exposure progresses from alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) to alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), which further lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular cancer. Therapeutic interventions to combat ALD are very limited such as use of corticosteroids. However, these therapeutic drugs are not effective for long-term usage. Therefore, additional effective and safe therapies to cope with ALD are urgently needed. Previous studies confirmed that edible food plants and their bioactive compounds exert a protective effect against ALD. In this review article, we summarized the hepatoprotective potential of edible food plants and their bioactive compounds. The underlying mechanism for the prevention of ALD by edible food plants was as follows: anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, lipid regulation, inhibition of apoptosis, gut microbiota composition modulation, and anti-fibrosis.
... Kim, et al. found that the extract from the fruit of Hovenia dulcis, containing heteropolysaccharides and dihydromyricitin, significantly reduces the level of proinflammatory cytokines in the blood plasma and reduces the severity of hangover symptoms [40]. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, Opuncia ficus indica extract was shown to reduce C-reactive protein levels, increase heat shock protein synthesis, halve the likelihood of developing severe HS, and significantly reduce the severity of HS symptoms [41]. Another study showed that a blend of polyphenols from Viscum album, Lycium chinense, Inonotus obliquus, and Acanthopanax senticosus significantly reduced blood alcohol content two hours after drinking [42]. ...
... Heavy alcohol drinking leads to the accumulation of acetaldehyde in blood causing hangover symptoms. [34] Our results showed that pretreatment with Turcuron (200, 300, and 400 mg/kg) significantly lowered the blood levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in comparison with control. Further, there was a significant increase in the hepatic ALDH activity at 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg doses of Turcuron in rats. ...
... Other studies also reported no significant correlation between IL-6 concentration and hangover severity [10,14]. The finding by Mammen et al. [23] that CRP concentration did correlate significantly with hangover severity is in line with previous findings [11]. In contrast to other studies [10,15], we did not find significant correlations between hangover severity and blood ethanol concentration. ...
Article
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An increasing number of studies are focusing on the inflammatory response to alcohol as a potentially important determinant of hangover severity. In this article, data from two studies were re-evaluated to investigate the relationship between hangover severity and relevant biomarkers of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress and the inflammatory response to alcohol. Hangover severity was significantly and positively correlated with blood concentrations of biomarkers of the inflammatory response to alcohol, in particular, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP). At 4 h after alcohol consumption, blood ethanol concentration (but not acetaldehyde) was significantly and positively associated with elevated levels of IL-6, suggesting a direct inflammatory effect of ethanol. In addition, biomarkers of oxidative stress, i.e., malondialdehyde and 8-isoprostrane, were significantly correlated with hangover severity, suggesting that oxidative stress also contributes to the inflammatory response. The timing of the assessments suggests initial slow elimination of ethanol in the first hours after alcohol consumption. As a consequence, more ethanol is present in the second half of the night and the next morning, which will elicit more oxidative stress and a more profound inflammatory response. Together, these processes result in more severe hangovers.
... creams, shampoos and lotions from cladodes, as well as colorants from fruits, as the plant is also the host of cochineal insects;  food supplement industry, e.g. flour and fibre-rich products extracted from partially lignified and dried cladodes, of which the latter can help the control of diabetes mellitus (Frati-Munari et al., 1992) and obesity, insoluble fibre, to be added to foods for reducing their calorie content, and a product based on the dehydrated extract of fruit peel, made in USA to alleviate the effects of alcohol ("hangover") (Wiese et al., 2004);  natural additive industry, e.g. mucilage or gum from mature cladodes, fruit peel and pulp, to be used as a thickening agent for the food and pharmaceutical industries (Cardenas et al., 1997;Medina-Torres et al., 2003) or fat replacement in various foods or flavour binder according Copyright © FrancoAngeli N.B: Copia ad uso personale. ...
Article
Among the potential uses of cactus pear, the generation of bioenergy (biogas) and biofertiliser (digestate), from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD) of cladodes and fruits, is surveyed in this paper. Data for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) was drawn from a farm located in Roccapalumba (Palermo, Sicily, Italy), where three cultivars were cultivated: 1) yellow pulp cultivar; 2) red pulp cultivar; 3) white pulp cultivar. LCIA was applied to six scenarios: 1) current dry crop; 2) current irrigated crop; 3) dry crop for fruit and bioenergy production; 4) irrigated crop for fruit and bioenergy production; 5) dry crop for bioenergy production; 6) irrigated crop for bioenergy production. According to LCIA, the highest total GHG emissions were found in Scenarios 2 and 4, while the lowest ones were found in Scenario 5. Moreover, the highest share of environmental impact for Scenarios 2, 4 and 6 is associated with the consumption of cardboard boxes used for collecting and transporting fruits, crop irrigation and a higher human work load. Furthermore, the digestate obtained from the AD process contains nutrients which make it a valuable biofertiliser, so that it reduces the expenditure for mineral fertilisers.
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Objective To assess whether the symptoms of veisalgia can be reduced by intense water supply and the intake of antioxidative supplements and plant extracts. Methods We performed the world’s largest randomised double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study (214 participants) on the efficacy of a food for special medical purposes (FSMP) against veisalgia symptoms. We analysed the effectiveness of: (1) an FSMP, including distinct plant extracts, vitamins and minerals, and additional (antioxidative) compounds; (2) a dietary supplement only comprising vitamins and minerals and additional (antioxidative) compounds; and (3) a placebo containing only glucose. The study followed the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines and trial registration was not necessary. Results Our study showed no statistically significant relationship between the variation of body water content and alcohol consumption. Contrary to common belief, the results showed that intervention with a supplement containing vitamins and minerals and additional antioxidative compounds did not lead to a statistically significant improvement in hangover symptoms. Additionally, our results confirmed a high individual variability in developing hangover symptoms depending on the amount of alcohol. Thus, standardisation of the amount of alcohol consumed in hangover studies does not necessarily contribute to the validity of the results. Finally, this study found a number of positive effects on certain hangover symptoms as a result of the FSMP, which were most likely due to the plant extracts contained within the food. Conclusion This study significantly supports the finding that haemostasis of electrolytes and minerals caused by alcohol consumption might be negligible and that no significant dehydration due to alcohol consumption seems to occur. Additionally, only the FSMP provides evidence for a significant efficiency in the reduction of hangover symptoms such as headache and nausea following moderate and non-excessive alcohol consumption.
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The liver performs many vital functions to eliminate toxins and harmful substances from the body. Hepatotoxic agents can directly interact with the liver through the formation of reactive radicals and consequently induce liver lesions with the progression of alcoholic liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare against ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The male and female rats with an average body weight (245 – 255g) were divided into ten groups as (Group 1 – Group 5) males and (Group 6 – Group 10) females in each group (n = 6) respectively. The rats were intoxicated with 30% of ethanol for 30 days. At the start of 31st day the rats (males: Group 4 – Group 5 and females: Group 9 – Group 10) were treated with 50 mg/kg and 1 g/kg of very fine powder of F. vulgare suspended in PBS. The males (Group 3) and Females (Group 8) were treated with suspension of Silymarin (50 mg/kg) for 30 days. At the end of experimental period all the animals were sacrificed to isolate the liver and blood samples. The biochemical markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total and direct bilirubin are increased in alcohol intoxicated groups. Supplemented with F. vulgare in the treatment period decreased and stabilized the concentration of all parameters in male and female rats. The reduction in total protein and albumin levels of alcohol intoxicated groups were significantly increased in F. vulgare treated male and female rats. The results of F. vulgare are in consistent with the Silymarin and control rats. This study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of F. vulgare in alcohol intoxicated male and female albino rats.
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Aims To compare quantitatively the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacologically active interventions in the treatment and prevention of alcohol-induced hangover. Methods Systematic review of placebo-controlled randomised trials in healthy adults that evaluated any pharmacologically active intervention in the treatment or prevention of hangover. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and CENTRAL from database inception until 1st August 2021. The primary efficacy outcome was any continuous measure of overall hangover symptoms and the primary tolerability outcome the number of people dropping out due to adverse events (AEs). Quality was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. Results 21 studies were included reporting on 386 participants. No two studies reported on the same intervention; as such, meta-analysis could not be undertaken. Methodological concerns and imprecision resulted in all studied efficacy outcomes being rated as very low quality. When compared with placebo, individual studies reported a statistically significant reduction in the mean percentage overall hangover symptom score for clove extract (42.5% vs. 19.0%, p<0.001), tolfenamic acid (84.0% vs. 50.0%, p<0.001), pyritinol (34.1% vs. 16.2%, p<0.01), Hovenia dulcis fruit extract (p=0.029), L-cysteine (p=0.043), red ginseng (21.1% vs. 14.0%, p<0.05) and Korean pear juice (41.5% vs 33.3%, p<0.05). All studied tolerability outcomes were of low or very low quality with no studies reporting any drop-outs due to AEs. Conclusions Only very low quality evidence of efficacy is available to recommend any pharmacologically active intervention for the treatment or prevention of alcohol-induced hangover. Of the limited interventions studied, all had favourable tolerability profiles and very low quality evidence suggests clove extract, tolfenamic acid, and pyritinol may most warrant further study
Chapter
Wine has historically been associated with religious rights, used as a salubrious beverage, employed as a medication as well as a medicinal solvent, and consumed as a food accompaniment. It is the last use that is most intimately associated in the minds of most modern consumers. Despite this, there is little flavor commonality on which pairing could be based. The first section of the chapter examines this feature and wine's primary role as a palate cleanser and food condiment. The synergistic role of food and wine in suppressing each other's least pleasant attributes is also explained. The final section deals with the latest evidence relating to the many beneficial health effects of moderate wine consumption, shortfalls in the data, headache induction, dental erosion, and conditions under which wine intake is contraindicated.
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The liver performs many vital functions to eliminate toxins and harmful substances from the body. Hepatotoxic agents can directly interact with the liver through the formation of reactive radicals and consequently induce liver lesions with the progression of alcoholic liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare against ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The male and female rats with an average body weight (245-255g) were divided into ten groups as (Group 1-Group 5) males and (Group 6-Group 10) females in each group (n = 6) respectively. The rats were intoxicated with 30% of ethanol for 30 days. At the start of 31 st day the rats (males: Group 4-Group 5 and females: Group 9-Group 10) were treated with 50 mg/kg and 1 g/kg of very fine powder of F. vulgare suspended in PBS. The males (Group 3) and Females (Group 8) were treated with suspension of Silymarin (50 mg/kg) for 30 days. At the end of experimental period all the animals were sacrificed to isolate the liver and blood samples. The biochemical markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total and direct bilirubin are increased in alcohol intoxicated groups. Supplemented with F. vulgare in the treatment period decreased and stabilized the concentration of all parameters in male and female rats. The reduction in total protein and albumin levels of alcohol intoxicated groups were significantly increased in F. vulgare treated male and female rats. The results of F. vulgare are in consistent with the Silymarin and control rats. This study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of F. vulgare in alcohol intoxicated male and female albino rats.
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Objective: The objective of this study was to examine associations between symptoms of alcohol hangover and depression, both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Method: Data were from a survey of young adults (N = 986, 60% female) initially recruited as part of an observational study of youth smoking. Participants reported past-year hangover symptoms, past-year frequency of heavy episodic drinking (HED), and past-week depression symptoms on two occasions separated by 1 year. Path analysis was used to evaluate prospective, directional associations linking symptoms of depression and hangover after taking into account their stabilities and cross-sectional associations. Individual differences in HED frequency were accounted for to permit interpretation of residual hangover score variance in terms of susceptibility to hangover effects. Results: Past-week depression and past-year hangover symptoms were associated at Time 1. Path analysis indicated that Time 1 depression symptoms were associated with elevated hangover symptoms a year later at Time 2. In contrast, Time 1 hangover symptoms did not predict future depression. Conclusions: Depression symptoms are associated with current and future hangover susceptibility. Hangover and depression overlap symptomatically and are empirically associated with one another, suggesting the possibility that common underlying causal mechanisms may contribute to both phenomena.
Article
Aims: Alcohol-related hangover symptoms: nausea, headache, stress and anxiety cause globally considerable amount of health problems and economic losses. Many of these harmful effects are produced by alcohol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde, which also is a common ingredient in alcohol beverages. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the amino acid L-cysteine on the alcohol/acetaldehyde related aftereffects. Methods: Voluntary healthy participants were recruited through advertisements. Volunteers had to have experience of hangover and/or headache. The hangover study was randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. Nineteen males randomly swallowed placebo and L-cysteine tablets. The alcohol dose was 1.5 g/kg, which was consumed during 3 h. Results: The primary results based on correlational analysis showed that L-cysteine prevents or alleviates hangover, nausea, headache, stress and anxiety. For hangover, nausea and headache the results were apparent with the L-cysteine dose of 1200 mg and for stress and anxiety already with the dose of 600 mg. Conclusions: L-cysteine would reduce the need of drinking the next day with no or less hangover symptoms: nausea, headache, stress and anxiety. Altogether, these effects of L-cysteine are unique and seem to have a future in preventing or alleviating these harmful symptoms as well as reducing the risk of alcohol addiction.
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Cacti of the genus Opuntia, which are widely distributed throughout Latin America, South Africa, the Mediterranean, and Korea, have been used not only as ornamental plants but also for their medicinal value. For example, Opuntia spp. have traditionally been used as hypoglycemic plants for treating diabetes mellitus. In this article, we review published papers dealing with the biological and medicinal properties of Opuntia spp.
Thesis
L’objectif des travaux de cette thèse concerne la caractérisation du germoplasme marocain du cactus Opuntia. Les études réalisées pour atteindre cet objectif ont portées sur le comportement phénologique, les caractéristiques génétiques et la composition physicochimique du cactus, ainsi que sur les molécules à fort potentiel thérapeutique, susceptibles d’avoir des effets bénéfiques pour les cellules du système nerveux central, dans les extraits de cactus (fruit, fleur, graine, huile, raquette et épine) et ceci en comparaison avec l’huile d’Argan. Les travaux ont été réalisés dans quatre laboratoires partenaires partageant des compétences dans les domaines d’analyses agronomique, biochimique et moléculaire. Les résultats de nos travaux sont présentés dans trois volets : (i) la caractérisation agronomique du cactus, (ii) la purification et la caractérisation des extraits et des molécules naturelles et (iii) l’évaluation des effets biologiques de ces molécules sur un modèle cellulaire. L’étude phénologique sur des écotypes âgées de 4 ans, issus du site expérimental de l’INRA d’Ain Nezagh, nous a permis de les classer selon le taux de fructification ou la production de biomasse de manière à mieux orienter leur utilisation en fonction de l’origine géographique et de l’espèce. L’étude de la diversité génétique, basée sur les traits morphologiques et les marqueurs moléculaires, a permis d’identifier sur le site d’Ain Nezagh sept espèces de cactus dont deux n’avait jamais été décrites au Maroc, O. leucotricha et O. inermis. Les analyses morpho-anatomique et physico-chimique de la fleur, du jus, du fruit et de la raquette d’écotypes âgées de 10 ans provenant du site de l’INRA de Jemâat Riah ont démontré la présence de deux espèces différentes de cactus du genre Opuntia, comportant quatre variétés non identifiées auparavant sur ce site. Nos travaux montrent donc l’existence d’une grande diversité génétique intra-espèces (variétés) et inter-espèces chez le cactus au Maroc. Paralèllement à ces études, les compositions chimiques des huiles essentielles de raquette et de graine de cactus ainsi que celle d’huile d’argan ont été déterminées. A partir de ces analyses, nous avons choisi d’étudier les effets de deux stérols, le spinastérol et le schotténol, ainsi que d’extraits de stérols sur l’activation du récepteur nucléaire LXR (Liver X receptor, impliqué dans la régulation du métabolisme du cholestérol) dans les cellules cérébrales de la microglie (lignée murine BV-2). Nos résultats montrent que le spinastérol et le schotténol, sans être cytotoxiques, peuvent moduler les expressions des deux isoformes de LXR, LXR-α et LXR-β, ainsi que de leurs gènes cibles ABCA1 et ABCG1. De plus, le schotténol provoque une activation spécifique de LXR-β. Ces résultats suggèrent que ces deux phytostérols pourraient avoir un rôle protecteur dans la modulation du métabolisme du cholestérol dans la microglie.
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2020; 19(7): 49-55. Aim: to discuss the state of art of patogenesis and treatment of hangover syndrome (HS). Methods: The review of the Russian and English language literature related to this problem. Results: It was shown, that there is a significant gap in the understanding of patogenesis of HS, which hamper the elaboration of means of metabolic correction of this condition. The target of majority of currently existing means of treatment of HS is one of the patogenic mehanisms of HS. The effectiveness of majority of currently existing medicine is not supported by the results of clinical trials. conclusions: The actual task of future research is the detailed investigation of patogenic mehanisms of HS. This will allow to ellaborate the comprehensive medicine for HS treatment targeting all links of it's patogenesis. З лоупотребление алкоголем наносит значитель-ный ущерб здоровью и ассоциируется с более чем с двумя сотнями различных заболеваний [1]. Од-ним из наиболее частых негативных последствий зло-употребления алкоголем является так называемый по-стинтоксикационный, или похмельный синдром (ПС), который представляет собой симптомокомплекс психо-физиологических нарушений, развивающихся на сле-дующее утро после алкогольного эксцесса (употребле-ние алкоголя в большой дозе) накануне вечером [2-9]. Клиническая симптоматика ПС достаточно сильно ва-рьирует. В классическом виде ПС манифестирует кон-стелляцией физиологических (общее недомогание, го-ловная боль, утомляемость, тошнота, сухость во рту, оБЗорЫ
Article
Background Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. Objective To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). Materials and Methods The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Results Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. Conclusions OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. SUMMARY Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Hovenia dulcis, known as the oriental raisin tree, is mainly found in East Asia. It has long been used as traditional folk remedies for alcohol intoxication. Aim of the study: To examine the anti-hangover effect of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. fruit extract (HDE) in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Materials and methods: Twenty-six eligible male adults with heterozygous ALDH2 (23.7 ± 0.3 years old) consumed 360mL of Korean Soju (50g alcohol) together with HDE (2,460mg) or matched placebo with subsequent crossover. The blood samples were taken at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 12h post-treatment. Results: Blood alcohol, acetaldehyde, and total hangover scores were highest at 1h post-treatment with no difference between groups, but declines in hangover symptom scores were significant in the HDE group compared to the placebo group. Significant differences between groups were also observed on interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-10/IL-6 ratio, and aspartate aminotransferase levels, but not on endotoxins. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between total hangover symptom scores and IL-6 and IL-10 level. Further analyses by CYP2E1 polymorphism at rs10776687, rs2031920, rs3813867, and rs4838767 alleles showed a reversed association, suggesting that CYP2E1 polymorphism might be an effect modifier. Conclusions: The results suggest that a favorable effect of HDE on alcohol hangovers might be associated with enhancing homeostatic regulation of inflammatory response. The magnitude of impact might be different in the presence of CYP2E1 polymorphism.
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La agricultura es básica para producir alimentos y el agua indispensable en esta actividad. Este recurso, cada día es más limitado debido al mal manejo y el cambio climático. En México, la producción agrícola consume el 76% del agua dulce. Esto debido a que el riego se realiza de forma empírica, originando el uso excesivo de agua y dando pie a la escasez de esta. En este proyecto, se realizarán dispositivos electrónicos de bajo costo conectados en red para conocer información climatológica directamente de los campos agrícolas mexicanos, calcular la evapotranspiración de los cultivos y conocer la cantidad exacta de agua que necesitan. La presente propuesta generará soluciones que puedan ser adquiridas por gran parte de los agricultores mexicanos para mejorar el uso del agua de riego. El presente protocolo ha sido galardonado con una beca de postdoctorado del CONACYT y será realizado en una colaboración conjunta entre investigadores de la Facultad de Ciencias y la Facultad de Agronomía.
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Muscular exercise results in an increased production of radicals and other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent evidence suggests that radicals and other ROS are an underlying aetiology in exercise-induced disturbances in muscle redox status. These exercise-induced redox disturbances in skeletal muscle are postulated to contribute to both muscle fatigue and/or exercise-induced muscle injury. To defend against ROS, muscle cells contain complex cellular defence mechanisms to reduce the risk of oxidative injury. Two major classes (enzymic and non-enzymic) of endogenous protective mechanisms work together to reduce the harmful effects of oxidants in the cell. Primary antioxidant enzymes include superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD), GSH peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9; GPX), and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6); these enzymes are responsible for removing superoxide radicals, H2O2 and organic hydroperoxides, and H2O2 respectively. Important non-enzymic antioxidants include vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, GSH and ubiquinones. Vitamin E, beta-carotene and ubiquinone are located in lipid regions of the cell, whereas GSH and vitamin C are in aqueous compartments of the cell. Regular endurance training promotes an increase in both total SOD and GPX activity in actively-recruited skeletal muscles. High-intensity exercise training has been shown to be generally superior to low-intensity exercise in the upregulation of muscle SOD and GPX activities. Also, training-induced upregulation of antioxidant enzymes is limited to highly-oxidative skeletal muscles. The effects of endurance training on non-enzymic antioxidants remain a relatively uninvestigated area.
Article
The effects of fructose and glucose on the metabolic changes induced by ethanol and on the intensity of alcohol intoxication and hangover were studied in 109 healthy male volunteers. After 10 hours of fasting, the subjects were given 1.75 g of ethanol per kg body wt during 3 hours under controlled laboratory conditions. Fructose or glucose were administered either simultaneously with ethanol or 12 hours later during the hangover period. The intensity of alcohol intoxication and hangover were estimated 10 times during the experimental period of 20 hours using subjective and objective rating scales. Sequential determinations of blood ethanol, acetaldehyde, glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, triglycerides, ketone bodies and capillary blood acid-base balance were also made during the experiment. Under these experimental conditions neither fructose nor glucose had any significant effect on the intensity of alcohol intoxication and hangover. The sugars also had no significant effect on the rate of ethanol elimination or on the blood acetaldehyde concentration during the course of the experiment. Blood glucose concentration was decreased and blood lactate, free fatty acid and ketone body concentrations were increased during the hangover period in the subjects who had been given only ethanol. These subjects also had a marked metabolic acidosis during hangover. Glucose and fructose significantly inhibited the metabolic alterations induced by ethanol. In this respect fructose was more effective than glucose. The results indicate that both fructose and glucose effectively inhibit the metabolic disturbances induced by ethanol but they do not affect the symptoms or signs of alcohol intoxication and hangover. The results support the view that hangover is not directly related to the metabolic effects of ethanol or to its metabolic products.
Article
Abstract Thirty healthy male volunteers drank ethyl alcohol (1.75 g/kg) from 6 p. m. to 9 p. m., which resulted in hangover the next morning, and 10 subjects served as controls. The twenty subjects, who drank alcohol, received glucose or fructose during the same evening (1.0 g/kg) or on the following morning (0.5 g/kg). In the hangover phase psychomotor performance was recorded by a choice reaction test, two coordination tests and an attention test. The intensity of the hangover was graded subjectively and objectively. Blood ethanol, acetaldehyde and glucose concentrations were analysed. The testing procedure was repeated at 8, 10 and 12 a. m. Ethanol, administered alone, increased significantly the number of mistakes on the choice reaction test in hangover phase, but this effect was abolished by the simultaneous administration of sugar. On the other hand, after the combined administration of ethanol and sugars the number of mistakes and mistake percentage on one coordination test were increased. The etiology on the impaired psychomotor skill during the hangover period is probably not directly related to the pathophysiology of the hangover, as there was no correlation between the impairment of the psychomotor performance and the intensity of the hangover of the subjects.
Article
The effects of alcohol on the formation of prostaglandins (PGs) and the blockade of some actions of alcohol by PG-inhibitors suggest that PGs may be involved in the action of ethyl alcohol. Regulation of lipid peroxidation and synthesis and release of precursor fatty acids may affect the overall formation of PGs. The effect of alcohol may be qualitative for several reasons: (i) the possible preferred formation of 1-series of PGs would mean an important qualitative change in PG-impact in some tissues; (ii) inhibition of PG-metabolism in the lung might affect mostly the plasma levels of PGE; (iii) a selective blockade of certain PG-effects and a potentiation of some others gives rise to qualitative changes in the actions of PGs.PGs may be involved in several acute or short-term reactions caused by alcohol. Chlorpropamide-alcohol flush, alcohol intolerance and hangover are effectively alleviated by a prophylactic use of PG-inhibitors. Speculatively PGs might also be involved in migraine attacks provoked by alcohol and in antabuse in reaction. The roles of PGs in the regulation of vascular tone, water and electrolyte balance as well as in certain secretory and metabolic processes may be important in the generation of alcohol related reactions.
The EEG was recorded in 27 subjects during hangover. Male healthy volunteers drank 1.75 g/kg body weight of ethanol in 3 h and the EEG was recorded 14-16 h later when the degree of hangover was highest. For control purposes a second EEG was recorded after a similar session when subjects drank water instead of ethanol. A third record was taken in normal laboratory conditions. T5-A1 and O1-A1 derivations were subjected to computer analysis from which spectral and frequency parameters were calculated. Visual analysis of the EEG during hangover showed a decrease and slowing of alpha activity and an increase in theta activity. Spectral analysis of the EEG gave a statistically significant increase in 7-8 c/sec activity during hangover. The EEG change could not be explained in terms of blood alcohol level, hypoglycaemia or acidosis. Also fatigue could be excluded as a cause of EEG change by means of "water controls". The conclusion is that the slowing of the EEG during hangover is caused by the depressant action of ethanol, or its metabolites, on cortical function.
Article
The plasma or serum concentrations of GH, TSH, LH, PRL, testosterone, cortisol, T4, and T3, and the values of the T3 uptake test were monitored in 12 healthy male volunteers for a period of 20 h after administration of one large dose of ethanol (1.5 g/kg BW). The effects of TRH and LRH on the secretion of TSH, PRL, and LH were studied in these subjects once during the period of acute alcohol intoxication (4 h after the start of drinking) and once during the hangover period (14 h after the start of drinking). Each subject served as his own control by drinking water only during another experimental session. Alcohol had no significant effect on basal concentrations of GH, TSH, LH, T4, T3, or testosterone. The concentration of cortisol in plasma was elevated during the whole 20-h period after ingestion of alcohol, as compared with the control values. Alcohol also did not significantly alter the effects of TRH and LRH on plasma TSH and LH levels at 4 and 14 h. During the hangover period, the PRL response to TRH was totally blocked, but during alcohol intoxication, there was a slight increase in the PRL response to TRH. The lack of response of PRL to TRH during the hangover suggests that withdrawal symptoms are associated with increased dopaminergic activity in the hypothalamus.
Article
The effect of ethanol intoxication and hangover on plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA) and plasma cortisol (PC) concentrations was studied in 7 healthy supine men in controlled clinical conditions during 18 h beginning at 6 p.m. Large individual variation was observed in the response of PRA, PA and PC to ethanol. Following ethanol, stimulation of PRA was observed at the 14th and the 16th hour (P less than 0.05), of PA at the 4th and the 6th hour (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05, respectively) and of PC at the 4th and the 14th hour (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Ethanol ingestion suppressed PC during the first hour (P less than 0.02). Water ingestion at 8 a.m. suppressed PA between the 14th and the 16th hour (8-10 a.m.) in control and ethanol experiment (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.005, respectively). There was a dissociation between PRA and PA, but intra-individually PRA and PA correlated fairly or well. Plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) and PC were also significantly correlated. The results suggest that changes in PA and PC as well as the dissociation of PRA and PA after ethanol ingestion might be partly related to dehydration and to the increased secretion of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones as well as to sodium and potassium balance. There was a biphasic effect of ethanol, including an inital suppression of PC and a subsequent increase of PC, PRA and PA. Upright posture appears to exaggerate the stimulating effect of ethanol on PRA, PA and PC.
Article
The renin-aldosterone system was studied in human volunteers during ethanol intoxication and hangover. Plasma renin activity increased more than 100%, when 1.5 - 2.3 g ethanol per kg body weight was ingested over a three hour period. During hangover the increase even exceeded 200%. Plasma aldosterone concentration decreased during ethanol intoxication, but increased greatly during hangover. It is suggested that the stimulation of the renin-aldosterone axis during ethanol intoxication and hangover is due to dehydration and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system.
Article
The aim was to study hang-over effects from alcohol in simulated driving. The driving task was to negotiate 20 km in as short time as possible. The road had many curves, horizontal and vertical, with ice friction at irregular intervals. 24 healthy volunteers, aged 22-46, with valid driving licenses, all screened as moderate drinkers, participated as subjects in a repeated measurements design. In the acute intoxicated state (average BAC 150 mg%), driving performance was severely impaired. Performance was also impaired, but to a much lesser degree, in the morning after the alcohol consumption when average BAC was just below 40 mg%. Later during the day no significant differences were demonstrated. After another night's sleep, all effects were gone. An issue raised in a previous study on hang-over effects, whether the subjects were treated exactly alike in the hang-over and the control conditions the night before testing (with the exception for the alcohol consumption in the first case), that is attended a party and stayed overnight at the research institute in both conditions, or whether they did so only in the hang-over condition, did not seem to matter for the estimated hang-over effect.
Article
Ethanol and acetaldehyde levels in blood and urine have been evaluated in 9 volunteers following administration of Liv.52 and placebo on the evening of the study and on the following morning. On the following morning the volunteers scored their symptoms and completed visual analogue scales. Single dose and multiple dose studies were done. Liv.52 produced a considerable reduction in blood and urine levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde after 12 h. It is possible that Liv.52 prevents the binding of acetaldehyde, bringing about higher initial blood levels followed by rapid elimination. It reduced the hangover symptoms.
Article
In a carefully executed study with a high response rate, a random sample of 10% of the undergraduate student body at a rural New England university was surveyed as to the subjects' use of alcohol in 1987. Over 87% of the surveyed students returned questionnaires. The results were compared to similar studies conducted on the campus in 1977 and 1983. "Daily or almost daily" use of alcohol was registered by 4.7% of the respondents, which represents a continuing decrease in daily consumption from earlier studies. One-fourth of the sample indicated drinking only one drink or fewer per week, contrary to the common perception on the campus. Nevertheless, 25.5% recorded a hangover, 7.5% recorded vomiting from drinking too much and 4.4% recorded a blackout, all "in the last week." Compared to the U.S. population, alcohol consumption appears to be more evenly distributed in the college sample but, still, most of the drinking is done by one-fifth of both groups.
Article
In Britain about 9% of males experience alcohol problems at work. Although heavy drinkers have a higher rate, the majority of work problems occur in light or moderate drinkers as these are more numerous. Some data are given on impairment of skills, hangover rates, alcohol-related accidents and lunchtime drinking. Due to extrapolation from the present limited data, there are great difficulties in calculating economic costs; estimates have varied from pounds 60 million to pounds 2 billion a year. In view of the human and economic costs a number of bodies are now making efforts to encourage alcohol policies in the workplace. Further research is required on many aspects of the problem.
Article
Hangover following consumption of alcohol includes many disagreeable signs and symptoms that are suggestive of sympathetic overactivity. We performed a randomized, double-blind, crossover controlled study to assess the effect of beta blockade in preventing the symptoms of hangover. Ten subjects were randomized to receive 160 mg of a long-acting preparation of propranolol or a placebo and then participated in a controlled drinking situation. Patients were then evaluated for symptoms and signs of hangover. The results showed that although beta blockade was achieved, there was no clinically important reduction in symptoms of hangover. We conclude that propranolol does not prevent the symptoms of hangover.
Article
Using a repeated measures counterbalanced design, the authors had 10 Navy P3-C Orion pilots fly two carefully designed simulated flights under control (no hangover) and hangover conditions. For the control condition, pilots drank no alcohol within 48 hours before the simulated flight. For the hangover condition, they flew 14 hours after drinking enough ethanol mixed with diet soft drinks to attain a blood alcohol concentration of 100 mg/dl. Pilot performance was worse in the hangover condition on virtually all measures but significantly worse on three of six variance measures and one of six performance measures. The results indicate that caution should be exercised when piloting an aircraft 14 hours or less after ingesting similar quantities of alcohol.
Article
Before, during and after a party where alcoholic beverages were freely available, the participants were given either pyritinol or placebo. The next morning significantly fewer of the pyritinol treated subjects had hangover symptoms.
Article
Tolfenamic acid (TA), a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and action, was tested prophylactically against hangover symptoms in 30 healthy volunteers in a double-blind cross-over study. One capsule of TA (200 mg) or placebo was taken before starting to drink alcohol and another before going to bed. The hangover symptoms were evaluated in the morning. TA was found significantly better than placebo in the subjective evaluation of drug efficacy (p less than 0.001) and in reducing the reported hangover symptoms in general (p less than 0.01). In the TA group, significantly lower symptom scores were obtained for headache (p less than 0.01), and for nausea, vomiting, irritation, tremor, thirst and dryness of mouth (all p less than 0.05). In a separate study with eight participants, plasma levels of PGs were followed during ingestion of alcohol with or without TA. The plasma concentrations of PGE2 and TXB2 (a metabolite of thromboxane A2) were lower in the TA group during alcohol ingestion, while PGF2 alpha and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (a metabolite of prostacyclin) were unaffected. TXB2 correlated with blood alcohol levels in a U-shaped manner.
Article
Alcohol intoxication and hangover were studied in 12 healthy male subjects who participated in three 18-h experimental sessions; two sessions in which they consumed 1.43 g alcohol/kg body weight as mixed beverages together with food, and one control session when mineral water was substituted for the alcoholic beverages. In one of the alcohol sessions they received chlormethiazole, 1 g at bedtime and 0.5 g early the following morning, in the other, they were given placebo tablets. The following variables were studied: blood-alcohol concentration; blood pressure; heart rate; blood lactate; blood pyruvate; urinary catecholamines (only during hangover); psychomotor and cognitive capacities; as well as subjective reactions. During intoxication, heart rate and lactate-pyruvate ratio were significantly increased and performance efficiency was significantly deteriorated in comparison with the control condition. During hangover, heart rate, blood pressure, and lactate-pyruvate ratio were significantly elevated, and cognitive performance was still affected, in some tests to a significant degree. During this stage there was a great variation between subjects as regards subjective hangover. Chlormethiazole was found to lower blood pressure and adrenaline output and, furthermore, to relieve unpleasant physical symptoms, but did not affect fatigue and drowsiness. The cognitive test results were only slightly influenced by this agent, while psychomotor performance was significantly impaired. Subjects with severe subjective hangover seemed to benefit more from the chlormethiazole treatment than subjects with a mild hangover.
Article
The endocrine effects of alcohol are briefly reviewed. Alcohol enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion and may thus cause reactive hypoglycemia. However, inappropriate insulin secretion is not the reason for alcohol-induced hypoglycemia in fasted subjects. The direct effects of alcohol in thyroid function in humans are small, although alcoholics often have low concentrations of thyroid hormones in their plasma because of liver damage. Alcohol increases cortisol secretion from adrenal cortex either by increasing ACTH secretion or, more probably, by directly stimulating the adrenals. Alcohol also increases aldosterone secretion. The production of epinephrine and norepinephrine by the adrenal medulla is increased during alcohol intoxication and withdrawal. Plasma testosterone concentration is decreased during hangover and during alcohol withdrawal. The decrease is due to direct effects of alcohol on the testes, because plasma LH concentration is increased simultaneously. Alcohol has no significant effect on the LRH-induced secretion of LH. Plasma growth hormone concentration is decreased during alcohol intoxication and increased during hangover. TRH-induced secretion of prolactin is increased during alcohol intoxication and inhibited during hangover and withdrawal. The last finding suggests that there is dopaminergic overactivity in hypothalamus during alcohol withdrawal.
Article
We detected a significant decrease in plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) levels together with a significant increase in plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha/TXB2 ratio in young healthy non-alcoholic male volunteers after acute ingestion of ethanol (1.5 g/kg). Paradoxically, during ethanol intoxication and the following hangover a significant increase in ADP-induced formation of TXB2 by the platelet rich plasma could be observed, which suggests that ethanol intoxication via some unknown mechanism sensitized platelets to produce TXB2. Whether these observations contribute to the increased risks of subarachnoid haemorrhage or ischaemic brain infarction among occasional heavy drinkers recently described by us remains to be proved.
Article
To determine if older pilots forgot more about a learned flight task after a 10-month delay than did younger pilots and if the anticipated greater skill loss led older pilots' performance to be more disrupted by alcohol. Repeated measures comparative group design examining the effects of alcohol versus placebo in two age groups (younger and older) and at two timepoints: acute intoxication, at a Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of 0.10%, and 8 hours post-drink. University medical center research laboratory. Fourteen younger (mean age = 27; SD = 4.21; range 21-34) and 13 older (mean age = 60; SD = 6.27; range 51-69) pilots, recruited from local flying clubs, with current FAA medical certificates. We examined the effects of alcohol versus placebo in the two age groups and at two times, ie, acute intoxication (target BAC 0.10%) and 8-hour post-drink. Subjects flew a Frasca 141 simulator in a flight task that they had previously learned but not practiced for several months. After completing a baseline flight, pilots were tested during either an alcohol or a placebo condition at the two timepoints. The main outcome measure was a composite measure of flight performance based upon the mean of eight component standardized scores from different aspects of the flight task. We found detrimental effects of alcohol on the main outcome measure both at the acute and 8-hour post-drink testing. There was also no significant difference between the older and younger pilots' performance of the flight task or in susceptibility to alcohol either while intoxicated or during hangover. This study replicates the findings of earlier studies that an 8-hour waiting period from "Bottle-to-Throttle" is insufficient but finds little difference according to age in recollection of a previously learned task or in susceptibility to either acute or hangover effects of alcohol.
Article
Performance on some complex and difficult tasks has been shown to be negatively affected for some time after an acute dose of alcohol has been cleared from the system. However, Dauncey reported impairment of a relatively simple reaction time task 3 hr after a dose of alcohol, when the blood alcohol concentration was at or near 0. This impairment was positively related to the subject's drinking history. A replication using the same task found a linear dose/impairment relationship during intoxication. A second simple reaction time task and a vigilance task showed a trend toward impairment, but only a divided attention task was significantly affected during intoxication. There was no significant effect of dose on any of these tests during a "morning after" session. The results are discussed in relation to the differences in method between Dauncey and this study.
Article
This study investigated hangover as a potential mediator or moderator of the relation between personality and drinking problems. Hangover did not appear to mediate the relation, suggesting that the link between personality and drinking problems does not stem from an indirect effect via hangover. Hangover did appear to moderate the relation. Personality and drinking problems correlated significantly for subjects who reported experiencing severe hangovers, but not for those who reported mild hangovers. Those who experience greater hangover may choose to drink more alcohol in order to relieve these adverse effects, and this choice may vary with personality. The theoretical and conceptual implications of mediators and moderators are also discussed.
Article
To reappraise a prior study of hangover signs and psychosocial factors among a sample of current drinkers, we excluded a subgroup termed Sobers, who report "never" being "tipsy, high or drunk." The non-sober current drinkers then formed the sample for this report (N = 1104). About 23% of this group reported no hangover signs regardless of their intake level or gender, and the rest showed no sex differences for any of 8 hangover signs reported. Using multiple regression, including ethanol, age and weight, it was found that psychosocial variables contributed independently in predicting to hangover for both men and women in this order: (1) guilt about drinking; (2) neuroticism; (3) angry or (4) depressed when high/drunk and (5) negative life events. For men only, ethanol intake was also significant; for women only, being younger and reporting first being high/drunk at a relatively earlier age were also predictors of the Hangover Sign Index (HSI). These multiple predictors accounted for 5-10 times more of the hangover variance than alcohol use alone: for men, R = 0.43, R2 = 19%; and for women, R = 0.46, R2 = 21%. The findings suggest that hangover signs are a function of age, sex, ethanol level and psychosocial factors.
Article
The combined effect of alcohol and physical exercise on the serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and cortisol was studied in healthy male volunteers by performing an exhaustive ergometer exercise (1) followed by alcohol intoxication (induced by 1.5 g of alcohol/kg body weight), (2) during alcohol intoxication (induced by 0.8 g of alcohol/kg body weight), and (3) during hangover (13 hr after a dose of 1.5 g of alcohol/kg body weight). Physical stress immediately before alcohol administration prolonged the depressant effect of alcohol on testosterone secretion. This seemed to be mainly a consequence of direct inhibition at the testicular level, even though the role of luteinizing hormone as a contributory regulatory factor cannot be totally ruled out. Cortisol response to exercise was not modified by alcohol under any of the experimental conditions.
Article
We studied the relation between frequent hangovers and cardiovascular mortality in a representative population sample of middle-aged Finnish men who participated in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Complete data on alcohol consumption, hangover frequency, prior cardiovascular diseases, and risk factors were obtained for 2,160 non-abstinent men. Frequent hangovers were rare in the three lowest alcohol consumption quartiles, but in the highest quartile, a total of 239 men (43.6%) reported having a hangover at least monthly. During an average follow-up time of 6.7 years, these men had a 2.36-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.02-5.48) risk of cardiovascular death compared with men with fewer hangovers, with adjustment for age and total alcohol consumption. The association was somewhat attenuated after adjustments for smoking, income, and prior cardiovascular diseases. Systolic blood pressure, body mass index, resting heart rate, or serum lipids had no appreciable role in the relation, but plasma fibrinogen concentration appeared as one possible pathway to increased risk of cardiovascular death in men who frequently experience hangovers. The findings underline the importance of preventive actions regarding not only the amount but also the way people consume alcohol.
Article
Alcohol consumption is known to be associated with both risk of accidental injury and with sensation seeking, and sensation seeking has been found to be common among those engaging in such high-risk activities as skiing. However, few studies have examined the joint association of alcohol consumption and sensation seeking on injury. Alcohol consumption prior to injury and sensation-seeking disposition are analyzed on 389 injured skiers (clinic sample) and 899 randomly selected uninjured skiers (trailside sample) at a Northeastern ski resort. Cases and controls were asked questions pertaining to drinking within 24 hours, amount consumed, time lapsed between the last drink and the event, skiing ability, and sensation seeking. The clinic sample was more likely to be female, to have less skiing experience, to score lower on sensation seeking and to have been drinking within 24 hours compared to the trailside sample. However, they were less likely to have had six or more drinks within 24 hours and were more likely to report a greater time lapse between the last drink and injury or interview. A larger proportion of those who reported drinking in both samples scored high on sensation seeking compared to those who reported not drinking. Logistic regression analysis found the following variables predictive of ski injury: female, low on sensation seeking, amount of alcohol consumed prior to the event, a longer time lapsed between drinking and the event, time of day (later) and day of the week (weekend). The data suggest that, while drinking within 24 hours is positively associated with sensation seeking, drinking and not sensation seeking is positively predictive of injury. Drinking at least 12 hours prior to skiing, not drinking in close proximity to skiing, may increase risk for accidental injury, possibly due to a hangover or residual alcohol effect in which fatigue may play a part.
Article
The effect of alcohol on exercise-induced changes in serum glucose, serum free fatty acids, and serum insulin was studied in healthy male volunteers by performing an exhaustive ergometer exercise: (1) followed by alcohol intoxication (induced by 1.5 g of alcohol/kg of body weight); (2) during alcohol intoxication (induced by 0.8 g of alcohol/kg of body weight); and (3) during hangover (13 hr after a dose of 1.5 g of alcohol/kg of body weight). Acute alcohol intake immediately before exercise inhibited the exercise-induced increase in mean serum glucose concentration and caused a mild decrease in serum glucose levels during recovery from exercise. Exercise during hangover also resulted in decreased glucose levels during recovery from exercise. Alcohol administration immediately before or after exercise inhibited the postexercise increase in mean serum free fatty acids concentration. This was not seen during hangover, when blood alcohol concentration had already reached 0. In conclusion, alcohol interferes with the metabolism of carbohydrates during and after anaerobic exercise by decreasing the availability of circulating glucose. Furthermore, during recovery from exercise, alcohol decreases the supply of free fatty acids for the body.
Article
This paper is based on the session entitled “Moderate Drinking Guidelines” that was held on May 13,1997 at the International Workshop on Consumption Measures and Models for Use in Policy Development and Evaluation, Bethesda, MD. The session chair was Tim Stockwell; presenters were Loran Archer, Tim Stockwell, Tom Greenfield, Susan Bondy, Eric Single, and Maria Elena Medina-Mora; and discussants were Paul Gruenewald and Harold Holder.
Article
How a cell responds to stress is a central problem in cardiovascular biology. Diverse physiological stresses (eg, heat, hemodynamics, mutant proteins, and oxidative injury) produce multiple changes in a cell that ultimately affect protein structures and function. Cells from different phyla initiate a cascade of events that engage essential proteins, the molecular chaperones, in decisions to repair or degrade damaged proteins as a defense strategy to ensure survival. Accumulative evidence indicates that molecular chaperones such as the heat shock family of stress proteins (HSPs) actively participate in an array of cellular processes, including cytoprotection. The versatility of the ubiquitous HSP family is further enhanced by stress-inducible regulatory networks, both at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. In the present review, we discuss the regulation and function of HSP chaperones and their clinical significance in conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy, vascular wall injury, cardiac surgery, ischemic preconditioning, aging, and, conceivably, mutations in genes encoding contractile proteins and ion channels.
Article
AIMS, DESIGN AND SETTING: The economic costs of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs in Canadian society in 1992 are estimated utilizing a cost-of-illness framework and recently developed international guidelines. For causes of disease or death (using ICD-9 categories), pooled relative risk estimates from meta-analyses are combined with prevalence data by age, gender and province to derive the proportion attributable to alcohol, tobacco and/or illicit drugs. The resulting estimates of attributable deaths and hospitalizations are used to calculate associated health care, law enforcement, productivity and other costs. The results are compared wit other studies, and sensitivity analyses are conducted on alternative measures of alcohol consumption, alternative discount rates for productivity costs and the use of diagnostic-specific hospitalization costs. The misuse of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs cost more than $18.4 billion in Canada in 1992, representing $649 per capita or 2.7% of GDP. Alcohol accounts for approximately $7.52 billion in costs, including $4.14 billion for lost productivity, $1.36 billion for law enforcement and $1.30 billion in direct health care costs. Tobacco accounts for approximately $9.56 billion in costs, including $6.82 billion for lost productivity and $2.68 billion for direct health costs. The economic of illicit drugs are estimated at $1.4 billion. Substance abuse exacts a considerable toll to Canadian society in terms of illness, injury, death and economic costs.
Article
Muscular exercise results in an increased production of radicals and other forms of reactive oxygen species. Further more, growing evidence implicates cytotoxic ROS as an underlying cause in exercise-induced disturbances in muscle redox status that could result in muscle fatigue or injury. Muscle cells contain complex cellular defense mechanisms to minimize the risk for oxidative injury. Two major classes of endogenous protective mechanisms work together to reduce the harmful effects of oxidants in the cell: (1) enzymatic and (2) nonenzymatic antioxidants. Key antioxidant enzymes include superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. These enzymes are responsible for removing superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide or organic hydroperoxides, and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Important nonenzymatic antioxidants include vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, GSH, uric acid, ubiquinone, and bilirubin. Vitamin E, beta-carotene, and ubiquinone are located in lipid regions of the cell, whereas uric acid, GSH, and bilirubin are in aqueous compartments of the cell. Although numerous animal experiments have demonstrated that the addition of antioxidants can improve muscular performance, to date, limited evidence shows that dietary supplementation with antioxidants improves human performance. This is an important area for future research.
Article
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a characteristic set of highly conserved proteins that are synthesized shortly after the organism is exposed to external stress, including physical activity. HSP help to maintain cellular homeostasis and protein conformation, reactivate denatured or malformed proteins, and provide "housekeeping," translocase, and chaperone functions. Some of the conditions known to elicit the cellular stress reaction are similar to those experienced by cells in response to physical exercise. Hyperthermia, ischemia, oxidative, cytokine and muscular stress, glucose deprivation, and alterations in calcium and pH are potent inducers of HSP expression in different types of cells and tissues. This review provides an overview of the cellular heat shock response to exercise. The presently known exercise related HSP are introduced. Their possible roles in response to acute exercise, thermotolerance, adaptation to training, aging, and immunological reactions are discussed.
Article
Previous reports demonstrate that heat shock protein (HSP) can alter the pulmonary inflammatory cascade. We wished to determine if this mechanism is active in the senescent mouse. A dose-response and time-response curve for sodium arsenite (SA) induction of HSP was constructed. Eight 25-month-old B6C3F1 mice were given either 1, 2, 4, or 6 mg/kg SA. At 4 hours, the lungs were harvested and assayed for HSP by Western blot. Next, 8 mice were given 4 mg/kg SA and the lungs harvested at either 1, 2, 4, or 6 hours after injection and assayed for HSP. Next, 12 mice were prepared: Half received 4 mg/kg SA and 4 hours later, all received 0.5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After 4 hours, lungs were harvested and Interleukin-1beta mRNA was assayed by Northern blot and semi-quantified by densitometry. The optimum SA dose was determined to be 4 mg/kg. The maximum HSP production was at 4 hours. Mice receiving LPS only showed a marked increase (3-fold) in IL-1 message compared with the mice pretreated with SA. These data suggest that in the senescent as in the mature mouse lung, HSP downregulates the inflammatory cascade in response to LPS.