Some of the world's highest rates of stomach cancer are found in Poland. Reasons for the increased incidence are not known, but high intake of sausages and other preserved foods and low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables may be involved. A case-control study comprising residents newly diagnosed with stomach cancer during 1994-96 and controls randomly selected from the general population was conducted in Warsaw, Poland. Standardized interviews were conducted to ascertain usual consumption of 118 common foods and beverages and other exposures. Using data from direct interviews with 274 cases and 463 controls, odds ratios of stomach cancer were calculated as estimates of risks associated with dietary factors, adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, and caloric intake. Risk of stomach cancer was inversely related to intake of total fruits and dark green-yellow vegetables and to indices of vitamins C and E and alpha- and beta-carotenes. However, risk was not significantly increased among those with high intake of pickled/salted vegetables and sausages. Risks were positively associated with increased intake of breads/cereals/rice/pasta and other refined grains, as well as a high carbohydrate index. Our findings add to the evidence of a protective effect of fruits and certain vegetables on stomach cancer risk, but do not indicate that high intake of sausage and other preserved foods typical in the Polish diet has contributed to the country's elevated stomach cancer incidence. Our data also suggest that high carbohydrate consumption may influence risk, but further confirmation is needed.
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"The outcome was in incidence most of the studies, while mortality from gastric cancer was presented in three , ,  studies. Eleven , , , , , –, , ,  studies were conducted in Asia, sixteen , , , , , , , , [ 31], , , , , , ,  in Europe, eleven –, , , , , [ 39], , – in North America, and four , , ,  in Latin America. Two ,  studies were population of only men and two ,  were only women. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Red and processed meat was concluded as a limited-suggestive risk factor of gastric cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund. However, recent epidemiological studies have yielded inconclusive results.
We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2013 for both cohort and case-control studies which assessed the association between red and/or processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled by random-effect or fixed-effect models.
Twelve cohort and thirty case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between both red (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.22-1.73) and processed (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.26-1.65) meat intake and gastric cancer risk generally. Positive findings were also existed in the items of beef (RR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.57), bacon (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17-1.61), ham (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.00-2.06), and sausage (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16-1.52). When conducted by study design, the association was significant in case-control studies (RR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.33-1.99) but not in cohort studies (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.90-1.17) for red meat. Increased relative risks were seen in high-quality, adenocarcinoma, cardia and European-population studies for red meat. And most subgroup analysis confirmed the significant association between processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk.
Our findings indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat contributes to increased gastric cancer risk. However, further investigation is needed to confirm the association, especially for red meat.
"Despite decreasing incidence rates in Western industrialized countries, gastric carcinoma remains in the top ten causes of tumor-related death in Germany . The incidence rate of stomach cancer in Poland, also decreasing, is similar to that of Germany, with 16.9 cases per 100,000 population (1993–1997) . Although surgery remains the only curative treatment, the type of operative treatment used for gastric cancer varies geographically . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although studies comparing the surgical treatment of gastric carcinoma in Japan and Western industrialized countries have revealed differing survival rates, no studies to date have been performed comparing Western and Eastern Europe. This study aimed to compare demographics and surgical practice as well as the related prognostic impact on gastric cancer patients treated in Poland and Germany.
This retrospective study included gastric cancer patients treated between 1999 and 2004 by surgical departments in Gdansk (Poland) and Cologne (Germany). Univariate and multivariate analyses of demographic, histopathological, surgical, and prognostic data were performed.
Included were 117 patients from Gdansk and 130 patients from Cologne. The Cologne patients showed higher incidence rates of serious comorbidity, pT1 cancer, and distant metastasis than those from Gdansk. Indications for and frequency of selected surgical procedures differed significantly. D2-lymphadenectomy was performed in 89% of the Cologne patients, while D1-lymphadenectomy was done for 85% of the Gdansk patients. Univariate analysis yielded a 5-year survival rate of 28.3% for the Gdansk patients, and 40.3% for the Cologne patients (p = 0.056). Independent prognostic factors were pT category (p = 0.002), pN category (p < 0.001), pM category (p = 0.027), residual tumor (R) category (p = 0.004), age (p = 0.012), and number of resected lymph nodes (p = 0.005).
Significant differences of clinical and surgical parameters exist between gastric cancer patients treated in Poland and Germany. In addition to established independent prognostic factors, we found that survival improved with each additionally resected lymph node.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the individual windings' load unbalance, loss behavior and the asymmetry in the primary load currents of Δ-Δ three-phase power transformer banks frequently used in distribution networks. Four main affecting parameters are considered: (i) the magnitude unbalance of the load side currents; (ii) the phase angle unbalance of these currents; (iii) the unbalance in the magnitude of the windings' short circuit impedances; and (iv) the unbalance in the phase angle of these impedances. The investigation allows for the simultaneous presence of the above four types of unbalance. The results demonstrates the limitations imposed by these kinds of unbalance, individually or collectively, on the proper utilization of the total kVA capacity of the three single-phase transformers used to form a three-phase power transformer bank. Diagrams are also given for the dependence of the losses in the transformer bank on the different kinds of unbalance. Moreover, the resulting line current unbalance on the high voltage side is discussed