Association of HPC2/ELAC2 polymorphism with prostate cancer risk in a Japanese population
Department of Urology, Gunma University School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan 371-8511. Anticancer research
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To investigate the relationship between two common variants (Ser217 and Ala541) of the HPC2/ELAC2 gene and prostate cancer risk in a Japanese population, we performed a case-control study.
Cases and controls consisted of 81 prostate cancer patients with a family history and 106 controls. Ser217 and Ala541 polymorphisms were analyzed by the restriction fragment length polymorphism method.
In controls, 94.5% and 100.0% had wild-type Ser217Ser and Ala541Ala genotypes, respectively. 5.7% of the controls had the Leu217 genotype. No Thr541 genotype was observed in the controls. 92.6% and 97.5% of the cases had the Ser217Ser and Ala541Ala genotypes. No significant differences were observed in the genotypic frequencies between controls and cases. We stratified prostate cancer cases according to the pathological grade (low- or high-grade) or the clinical stage (localized or metastatic). There was no statistical difference between the genotypic frequencies between the groups.
The present study suggested that the common variants in the HPC2/ELAC2 gene play a limited role in the risk of prostate cancer in the Japanese population.
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of prostate cancer is related to aging. Its increase in the last 10 years, varies from country to country and according to ethnic group, with its greatest incidence among African-American males and the least among Asian males. Only two risk factors have thus far been clearly established for prostate cancer: familial aggregation and ethnic origin. No dietary or environmental cause has yet been identified for prostate cancer. However, some variations in endogenous factors, such as sex steroids or IGF1 circulating levels, may partly explain differences in risk observed between different populations. Genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding for 5alpha-reductase, androgen receptor, or vitamin D receptor have been associated with different degrees of risk for prostate cancer and may explain variations in risk among ethnic groups or within geographic areas. Different studies support the theory that familial prostate cancer may be hereditary and not due to a similar lifestyle. Thus, familial inheritance is a parameter that must be considered when advising screening in high-risk families. Indeed, the relative risk for first-degree relatives of prostate cancer patients can reach 2, 5 and 11 when, respectively, 1, 2 and 3 first-degree relatives are affected. Some familial forms appear to be associated with transmission of a rare, putative, autosomal dominant gene (0.003-0.06 allele frequency) with a high penetrance (88% at age 85). Using this transmission model and linkage analysis, three predisposing loci on chromosome 1: HPC-1 (hereditary prostate cancer 1: 1q24-25), PCaP (predisposing for prostate cancer: 1q42-43) and CAPB (predisposing for prostate and brain tumor: 1p36) and one locus on chromosome 20 (HPC20: 20q13) have been described. Moreover, X-linked transmission has been suggested and related to another predisposing gene locus: HPCX (Xq27-28). It is possible that a large proportion of familial prostate cancer is due not to segregation of a few major gene mutations transmitted according to a monogenic inheritance, but rather to familial sharing of alleles at many loci, each contributing to a small increase in cancer risk.
Available from: Kazuto Ito
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ABSTRACT: Estrogen is one of the crucial hormones participating in the proliferation and carcinogenesis of the prostate glands. Genetic polymorphisms in the estrogen metabolism pathway might be involved in the risk of prostate carcinoma development. The authors evaluated the association between genetic polymorphisms in estrogen-related enzymes and receptors and the risk of developing familial prostate carcinoma.
In the current study, 101 cases with prostate carcinoma whose first-degree relatives had prostate carcinoma and 114 healthy age and residence-matched male controls were enrolled. The genotypes of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, aromatase (CYP19), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes were analyzed.
For single polymorphisms, a significant association of the T/T genotype of the PvuII site in the ER alpha gene (odds ratio [OR], 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.97-5.99; P = 0.0028), and the C/T and T/T genotypes of the CYP19 gene (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.02-3.09; P = 0.037) with prostate carcinoma risk, was observed. The G/A genotype of the COMT gene showed a weak tendency toward increased risk (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.85-2.57; P = 0.18). Stratification of cases according to clinical stage and pathologic grade showed that the C/T and T/T genotypes of the CYP19 gene were associated significantly with high-grade carcinoma (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.47-4.46; P = 0.048). The number of high-risk genotypes (the T/T in ER alpha, the C/T and T/T in CYP19, and the G/A in COMT) significantly increased the risk of developing prostate carcinoma (2 genotypes: OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.72-5.23; P = 0.008; 3 genotypes: OR, 6.30; 95% CI, 3.61-10.99; P = 0.002).
Genetic polymorphisms of genes in the estrogen metabolism pathway were associated significantly with familial prostate carcinoma risk. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of low-penetrance genes are targets for understanding the genetic susceptibility of familial prostate carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: Estrogen is crucial for development of benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Aromatase (CYP19) is a key enzyme for estrogen synthesis in males. The genetic polymorphism of the CYP19 intron 4 [TTTA]n tetranucleotide has been studied in relation to breast cancer susceptibility.
We examined the association of the tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism of the CYP19 gene with familial prostate cancer risk in a Japanese population by performing a case-control study consisting of 99 familial prostate cancer cases and 116 normal controls.
[TTTA] repeats ranged from 7 to 13 and were designated as A1 to A7 according to the repeat number. We did not observe any A3 allele among cases and controls, nor A7 among cases. Short repeat alleles, A1 and A2, had a tendency to be frequently observed in cases (odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.96-2.14, p = 0.080). Analysis of polymorphic genotypes showed that short genotypes, i.e., A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2, significantly increased prostate cancer risk in comparison with other longer genotypes (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.04-3.11, p = 0.035). Stratification of cases according to the pathological grade or the clinical stage showed no significant differences among categories.
In the present study, we found that short polymorphic genotypes of [TTTA]n repeats of the CYP19 gene were associated with familial prostate cancer risk.
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