Clinical and epidemiologic characterization of photosensitivity in HIV-positive individuals
Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins University, 550 N Caroline Street, Suite 1002, Baltimore, MD 21287-0900, USA. Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine
(Impact Factor: 1.26).
09/2004; 20(4):175-83. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0781.2004.00101.x
An increased prevalence and severity of cutaneous photosensitivity has been recognized in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, this disorder remains poorly characterized in terms of its epidemiology, predisposing factors, clinical, and environmental associations.
To define the risk factors associated with the presence of photosensitivity among HIV-positive individuals, a cross-sectional study of 631 primary patient visits to an urban HIV Dermatology clinic between January 1997 and August 2001, inclusive, was conducted. A multivariate model was fit to estimate adjusted odds ratios for risk factors associated with photosensitivity diagnosis. Subsequently, a case-series of the patients with photosensitivity was reported.
The overall prevalence of photosensitivity was 5.4%, while African-Americans (AA) exhibited a prevalence of 7.3%. In the multivariate model, using highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.13, 7.03) and being AA (OR=6.68, 95% CI: 1.56, 28.65) significantly increased the odds of photosensitivity. Patients with photosensitivity were more likely to present during periods of higher ultraviolet (UV) index (P=0.08). Two distinct clinical morphologies were noted: lichenoid and non-lichenoid, eczematous. Sub-morphologies in the non-lichenoid group were suggestive of differences in immunologic profile and estimated UV exposure.
Photosensitivity associated with HIV infection is an increasingly recognized dermatologic condition with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. AA ethnicity and HAART were independent indicators for the diagnosis of photosensitivity, whereas CD4+ and UV exposure had non-significant associations. The subtleties in these and other clinical variables may directly aid in the recognition and diagnosis of this poorly characterized disorder.
Available from: Ruby H.N. Nguyen
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ABSTRACT: Widespread introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid 1990s has altered the presentation of the cutaneous manifestations associated with HIV infection.
Our purpose was to evaluate the use of HAART on the prevalence and spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in HIV-infected patients.
A study of the initial visits of 897 HIV-infected patients at an urban dermatology clinic between 1996 and 2002 was performed.
Folliculitis was the most common cutaneous disorder identified. Patients with CD4-positive cell counts less than 200 cells/mm3 had an increased prevalence of folliculitis and prurigo nodularis, whereas those with HIV viral loads higher than 55,000 copies/mL had a higher prevalence of idiopathic pruritus and candidiasis. Patients not receiving HAART had increased rates of folliculitis and prurigo nodularis. Patients receiving HAART had increased rates of photosensitivity and molluscum contagiosum.
This was a cross-sectional study in which temporality was unable to be determined.
With ongoing therapeutic advancements, the cutaneous manifestations associated with HIV infection will continue to evolve.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with HIV infection who were very immunodeficient before achieving a virologic response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) may experience various disorders of immune reconstitution. Immune restoration disease occurs in approximately 10% to 50% of patients and results from the restoration of a pathogen-specific immune response that causes immunopathology and presents as tissue inflammation or cellular proliferative disease. Opportunistic infections occur in no more than 5% of patients, but approximately one half of these patients have higher than expected CD4 T-cell counts and appear to have residual immune dysfunction. Autoimmune disease may arise because the reconstituted immune system confers an increased susceptibility to immune dysregulation but there may be different mechanisms because Graves' disease presents after a median time of about 2 years of ART whereas systemic lupus erythematosus presents earlier. Persistent CD4 T-cell deficiency (< 500/microL) affects up to 60% of patients and appears to reflect depletion of the naïve T-cell pool that results from low production and/or increased turnover of cells.
Available from: Robert Colebunders
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