Bactericidal activity of wasabi (Wasabia Japonica) against Helicobacter pylori.

ArticleinInternational Journal of Food Microbiology 94(3):255-61 · September 2004with 647 Reads
Abstract
In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean and Japanese wasabi roots, stems and leaves against Helicobacter pylori were examined. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) in roots, stems and leaves of Korean wasabi were 0.75, 0.18 and 0.32 mg/g, respectively. AIT in roots, stems and leaves of Japanese wasabi were 1.18, 0.41 and 0.38 mg/g, respectively. All parts of wasabi showed bactericidal activities against H. pylori strain NCTC 11637, YS 27 and YS 50. The leaves of both wasabi showed the highest bactericidal activities with the minimum bactericidal concentration of 1.05-1.31 mg of dry weight/ml against three strains of H. pylori. The roots showed a little lower bactericidal activity with 2.09-4.17 mg of dry weight/ml against them. The main component related to antimicrobial activity in wasabi is well known to be AIT. In this study, the bactericidal activity of leaves was higher than that of roots, although AIT amount of leaves was lower than that of roots. These results suggest that certain components besides AIT in wasabi are effective in killing H. pylori.

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  • ... More recently, wasabi has found widespread appeal in western cuisine owing to its unique hot taste, pungent smell, and bright green color (Sultana et al., 2002). It is also believed that wasabi has powerful herbal medicinal action, contributing to the safety of eating raw fish and other foods (Shin et al., 2004; Yano et al., 2006). A number of studies reported that wasabi has antibacterial property against foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, and Helicobacter pylori (Nishida, 1958; Inoue et al., 1983; Kanemaru and Miyamoto, 1990; Shin et al., 2004). ...
    ... It is also believed that wasabi has powerful herbal medicinal action, contributing to the safety of eating raw fish and other foods (Shin et al., 2004; Yano et al., 2006). A number of studies reported that wasabi has antibacterial property against foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, and Helicobacter pylori (Nishida, 1958; Inoue et al., 1983; Kanemaru and Miyamoto, 1990; Shin et al., 2004). However, the antimicrobial activity of wasabi has not been well studied. ...
    ... As more consumers use wasabi in their foods, especially ready-to-eat foods (at the point of consumption), antimicrobial activity data directly from wasabi would be far more valuable because they are closer to reality. Although many studies showed that isothiocyanates (ITCs), mainly allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), are responsible for the antibacterial activity as well as the pungency in wasabi (Foter and Golick, 1938; Forter, 1940; Isshiki et al., 1992; Masuda et al., 1996; Kyung and Fleming, 1997; Lin et al., 2000a,b; Shin et al., 2004; Luciano and Holley, 2009; Dufour et al., 2012), very few studies have compared the antibacterial activity of AITC with that of wasabi against foodborne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus. The aims of this study were to explore the antibacterial potential of wasabi against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus, specifically, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of wasabi against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus, and to compare the antibacterial effects of wasabi with AITC on the two pathogens. ...
    Article
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    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the major pathogens frequently involved in foodborne outbreaks. Control of these pathogens in foods is essential to food safety. It is of great interest in the use of natural antimicrobial compounds present in edible plants to control foodborne pathogens as consumers prefer more natural “green” foods. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is an antimicrobial compound naturally present in wasabi (Japanese horseradish) and several other edible plants. Although the antibacterial effects of pure AITC and wasabi extract (essential oil) against several bacteria have been reported, the antibacterial property of natural wasabi has not been well studied. This study investigated the antibacterial activities of wasabi as well as AITC against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus. Chemical analysis showed that AITC is the major isothiocyanate in wasabi. The AITC concentration in the wasabi powder used in this study was 5.91 ± 0.59 mg/g. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of wasabi against E. coli O157:H7 or S. aureus was 1% (or 10 mg/ml). Wasabi at 4% displayed higher bactericidal activity against S. aureus than against E. coli O157:H7. The MIC of AITC against either pathogen was between 10 and 100 μg/ml. AITC at 500 μg/ml was bactericidal against both pathogens while AITC at 1000 μg/ml eliminated E. coli O157:H7 much faster than S. aureus. The results from this study showed that wasabi has strong antibacterial property and has high potential to effectively control E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus in foods. The antibacterial property along with its natural green color, unique flavor, and advantage to safeguard foods at the point of ingestion makes wasabi a promising natural edible antibacterial plant. The results from this study may be of significant interest to the food industry as they develop new and safe foods. These results may also stimulate more research to evaluate the antibacterial effect of wasabi against other foodborne pathogens and to explore other edible plants for their antimicrobial properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antibacterial activity of wasabi in its natural form of consumption against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus.
  • ... In Japan, the crop is priced for its health benefits. Wasabi has antibacterial properties (Shin et al., 2004), and antiinflammatory effect (Uto et al., 2012). Moreover, a chemical compound extracted from wasabi called 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate was reported to supress a breast cancer and melanoma cells development (Nomura et al., 2005) as well as human pancreatic cancer cells (Chen et al., 2014).Yamasaki et al. (2013)noted that hot water extract from wasabi leaves had an anti-obesity effect on mice. ...
    ... Most of the research on wasabi has been focused on allyl isothiocyanate compound, which is presented in every morphological part of the plant (roots, stems, leaves). The results of different studies suggested that component could be effective in killing Helicobacter pylori (Shin et al., 2004) or used as a cancer chemopreventive phytochemical (Zhang, 2010) and antiplatelet activity. In the conducted study, there was no such chemical analysis performed but future researches are focused on this field.Oguni et al. (2005)carried out the experiment in Japan which focused on the impact of environmental controls on the wasabi growth. ...
    Article
    Japanese horseradish [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumara or Eutrema wasabi (Siebold) Maxim.], is a vegetable species originated from Japan. Currently, wasabi is grown in many other countries across the world such as: New Zealand, Taiwan, South Korea, Israel, Brazil, Thailand, Columbia, Canada, USA, Great Britain and China. The crop has never been cultivated commercially in Poland. The main aim of the present study was to find out if the crop can be grown commercially in Poland and to establish the chemical contents of roots produced in Poland and Japan. In previous studies, it was noted that wasabi might be grown under polycarbonate cover in Poland. The chemical evaluation included measuring the amount of dry matter, polyphenols, antioxidant potential, reducing substances, total proteins, starch and raw fiber. The roots produced in Poland had more dry matter (30.46%), less total proteins (12.14%) and reducing substances (43.64 mg g-1) than the Japanese ones. Starch and raw fiber contents were on the same level in the roots produced in both countries. The antioxidant potential and polyphenols in the Japanese roots (6.11 mg g-1 and 7.83 mg g-1 respectively)were higher than in the Polish ones (1.45 mg g-1 and 3.25 mg g-1 respectively). In the climatic conditions of Poland, it might be possible to produce wasabi roots under the polycarbonate cover with their chemical contents at least in part similar to the original roots produced in Japan.
  • ... Glucosinolate hydrolysis products (GHP) have long been recognized for their antimicrobial activity against important pathogenic microorganisms (e.g. Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) (Dufour et al. 2012; Fahey et al. 2001; Shin et al. 2004; Wang et al. 2010). In addition, these compounds have other pharmaceutical benefits for human health, such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties (D'Antuono et al. 2009; Hong and Kim 2008; Saavedra et al. 2010; Zhang 2012). ...
    ... In a study performed by Lin et al. (2000b) , AITC demonstrated bactericidal activity against strains of E. coli and L. monocytogenes at a concentration of 500 μg/mL and 2,500 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, strong activity was obtained by Shin et al. (2004) with AITC from roots of Korean and Japanese wasabi against six foodborne pathogenic bacteria, including E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43889 (MBC of 660 μg/mL) and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (MBC of 5,210 μg/mL). Others reports showed that AITC had high bactericidal activity against many foodborne pathogens, including L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (Lin et al. 2000a; Park et al. 2000; Rhee et al. 2003). ...
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    Plants contain numerous components that are important sources of new bioactive molecules with antimicrobial properties. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are plant secondary metabolites found in cruciferous vegetables that are arising as promising antimicrobial agents in food industry. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial activity of two isothiocyanates (ITCs), allylisothiocyanate (AITC) and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate (PEITC) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The antibacterial mode of action was also characterized by the assessment of different physiological indices: membrane integrity, intracellular potassium release, physicochemical surface properties and surface charge. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AITC and PEITC was 100 μg/mL for all bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the ITCs was at least 10 times higher than the MIC. Both AITC and PEITC changed the membrane properties of the bacteria decreasing their surface charge and compromising the integrity of the cytoplasmatic membrane with consequent potassium leakage and propidium iodide uptake. The surface hydrophobicity was also non-specifically altered (E. coli and L. monocytogenes become less hydrophilic; P. aeruginosa and S. aureus become more hydrophilic). This study shows that AITC and PEITC have strong antimicrobial potential against the bacteria tested, through the disruption of the bacterial cell membranes. Moreover, phytochemicals are highlighted as a valuable sustainable source of new bioactive products.
  • ... Several studies have shown the anticancer activity of GSL HPs, whereas only a few reports are available on their activity against human pathogenic bacterial species. Recently, the bactericidal activity of AITC against several pathogenic bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, S. aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus cereus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus was reported (Shin et al., 2004; Luciano and Holley, 2009; Zhang, 2010 ). It was found that PITC exhibited bactericidal activity against three strains of H. pylori, with an efficiency that was 7.8-to 20.5-fold higher than that of AITC (Shin et al., 2004; Zhang, 2010). ...
    ... Recently, the bactericidal activity of AITC against several pathogenic bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, S. aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus cereus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus was reported (Shin et al., 2004; Luciano and Holley, 2009; Zhang, 2010 ). It was found that PITC exhibited bactericidal activity against three strains of H. pylori, with an efficiency that was 7.8-to 20.5-fold higher than that of AITC (Shin et al., 2004; Zhang, 2010). Furthermore, Kim and Lee (2009) identified aromatic ITC (PEITC) as the active compound found in S. alba L. seeds, and examined its antibacterial effects against a range of intestinal bacteria, including Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, E. coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei. ...
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    Abstract Glucosinolates are the major bioactive secondary metabolites found in the Brassicaceae family and studied extensively in biosynthetic and application perspectives. Because of their potential applications in the welfare of plants (protection against plant pathogens) and human life (prevention of cancer and other diseases), these compounds attracted much interest in the scientific community. In this review, we presented updates on glucosinolate derivatives in protection against microbial pathogens and endocrine related diseases in human. Further, the mechanism of action of glucosinolate derivatives and the strategies to improve their efficiency through modern approaches were discussed. Finally, the genetic enrichment of their contents in plant systems has also been discussed.
  • ... MBC or MFC was defined as the lowest concentration of extracts that showed complete inhibition of colonies of microorganisms on agar plates. A loopful of each bacterial or fungal culture in each microplate well was inoculated to the culture medium agar plate and incubated under same conditions as described earlier (Shin et al., 2004). Each assay was carried out in triplicate. ...
    ... The antimicrobial activities of medicinal plants have been reported by many researchers (Cowan, 1999; Motamedi et al., 2010; Shariff, 2001; Shin et al., 2004). Most antibacterial medicinal plants are active against grampositive strains while few are active against gramnegative bacteria (Herrera et al., 1996; Meng et al., 2000; Scrinivasan et al., 2001). ...
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    Ixora coccinea L. (Rubiaceae) has been used traditionally for a variety of ailments and also cultivated for ornamental purposes. The present study investigated antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of various parts of I. coccinea and determined the chemical groups of the active constituents. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using agar disc diffusion, microdilution and thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography assays. Methanolic extracts of leaf, flower and stem of I. coccinea displayed good antimicrobial activity, with inhibition zone in the range of 6.7 to 11.3 mm. minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for all three extracts ranged from 0.78 to 3.125 mg/ml. Leaf and stem extracts of I. coccinea showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Of interest, stem extracts had MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus that were only 62.4 times less potent than the vancomycin. Likewise, leaf and stem extracts displayed good antimicrobial activity of 62.4 and 31.2 times, respectively lesser than gentamycin against Shigella flexneri. Minimum bactericidal/ bacteriostatic concentration (MBC) values for active extracts ranged from 0.78 to 6.25 mg/ml. TLC bioautography and phytochemical screening of the leaf and stem extracts showed that the antimicrobial activity of these extracts may be attributed to compounds belonging to terpenoid, flavonoid, coumarin, alkaloid and phenolic groups.
  • ... Bioactive molecules produced by vegetal species are known as secondary metabolites, which play important roles in protection and defense (Harborne and Williams, 2000). In addition, phenolic compounds have been studied due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties (Luciano et al., 2008; Shin et al., 2004). Listeria monocytogenes is a food pathogen that has became the focus of studies in recent years, after appearance of cases and outbreaks in human beings (Lundén et al., 2004; Barbuddhe et al., 2012). ...
    ... Bioactive molecules produced by vegetal species are known as secondary metabolites, which play important roles in protection and defense (Harborne and Williams, 2000). In addition, phenolic compounds have been studied due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties (Luciano et al., 2008;Shin et al., 2004). ...
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    Studies have demonstrated the presence of antimicrobial compounds in vegetal species. However, natural components can be found not only in raw materials, but also in agro-industrial wastes. Their reuse as source of natural preservatives in food and beverage industry can promote sustainable practices since environmental risks caused by its discard are reduced. The antimicrobial activity of broccoli stems (Brassica oleracea) aqueous extracts (1:20 w/v) against Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated by detection of Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and flow cytometry analysis. The chemical composition of major compounds was detected by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (CG-MS). Broccoli stems extract showed antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes, which MIC was 102.4 mg/mL. Analysis by CG-MS allowed the identification of organic acids, as ascorbic and malic acids, and phenolic compounds, as sinapinic, ferulic and caffeic acids. The use of flow cytometry to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the extracts was very suitable, enabling to infer their action mechanisms. In face of the difficulty to avoid the food contamination by this pathogen, the study of vegetal residues as source of natural preservatives in food and beverage industry is very promising.
  • ... Sinigrin and the derived allyl isothiocyanate are responsible for the pungent taste of black mustard seeds, horseradish and wasabi. Hence, synthetic allyl isothiocyanate is used in agriculture as an insecticide, a bactericide [15] and a nematocide, and also for certain cases of crop protection [16]. Sinalbin and glucotropaeolin and the derived benzyl isothiocyanates are found in high concentration in seeds of white mustard , nasturtium and garden cress. ...
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    The plant family Brassicaceae, formerly Cruciferae, contains mustard oil glycosides, from which mustard oils are enzymatically hydrolyzed. Mustard oils offer protection from pests, microorganisms and fungi. More than 120 different mustard oils with various biological functions are known. Since ancient times, these substances are used as natural antibiotics, antiviral drugs and antimycotics. The antioxidative effect of mustard oils contributes to protection from DNA damage. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown preventive and therapeutic effects of crucifers or isolated substances thereof. Particularly well studied is the mustard oil sulforaphane, which is contained in high concentrations in broccoli and its sprouts. As has been shown in mice recently, sulforaphane also targets the most malignant cancer stem cells, which are not affected by conventional cancer treatments. Based on these promising results, the first prospective clinical studies with cancer patients and sulforaphane-enriched broccoli sprouts have now been initiated in the United States.
  • ... ITCs have shown several biological activities including antioxidative, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-nematode and anti-insect activities (Fahey et al., 2001). Several studies have shown that ITCs inhibit pathogenic and deteriorative fungal and bacterial growth in different fruits and vegetables (Shin et al., 2004;Mari et al., 2002Mari et al., , 2008Troncoso-Rojas et al., 2009;Wang et al., 2010). Aromatic ITCs show higher activity than aliphatic ITCs, and among aliphatic ITCs, their activity decreases as the length of the aliphatic chain increases (Tierens et al., 2001). ...
  • ... demonstrated in a concentration range between 0.14 and 2.8 μmol with a 50% antibacterial activity at 0.56 μmol [32]. AITC was toxic for various bacterial strains at a concentration of 2.1 μM [33]. Another potential beneficial effect of ITC, growth inhibition against bladder cancer cells, was described with an IC 50 value, determined after 72 h of exposure, at concentrations of 5.1 μM (AITC) to 11.6 μM (PEITC) [34]. ...
    Article
    Isothiocyanates (ITC) derived from plants of the order Brassicales are known for their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory or anticarcinogenic potential. Although only the free ITC exert bioactivity, quantification in vivo is almost exclusively performed on total ITC/metabolite content. We therefore investigated in a pilot study the amount of free ITC at different steps critical for therapeutic efficacy. A sensitive and specific GC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of individual free ITC after solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed. Release of biologically active ITC from plants occurs at both alkaline but also acidic pH. Furthermore, in human urine conversion of the ultimate, inactive mercapturic acid conjugate back into its corresponding bioactive form is increased at alkaline as compared to neutral pH. This was also observed in the urine of human volunteers, where - in correlation with the pH value- a mean of 0.16 to 1.03 μmoles ITC was detected after oral application of a phytotherapeutic agent containing 30.4 μmoles of the initial pro-drugs. The amounts of free ITC being necessary for bioactivity in vitro were found to be indeed achieved in vivo. These data might be helpful to better understand the beneficial effects of ITC observed in vivo.
  • ... Others reports (Lin et al., 2000a; Rhee et al., 2003) shown that AITC had high bactericidal activity against many foodborne pathogens, including L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7. Moreover, strong activity was obtained by Shin et al. (2004), with AITC fromTable 1 Motility (swimming, swarming, twitching and colony spreading) (mm) of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes in the absence (control) and presence of AITC and PEITC. Note: Results are shown as mean AE standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. ...
    Article
    The activity of two selected isothiocyanates (ITCs), allylisothiocyanate (AITC) and 2-phenylethy-lisothiocyanate (PEITC) was evaluated on the prevention and control of biofilms formed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. In addition, the effect of ITCs was also tested on planktonic cell susceptibility, bacterial motility and adhesion. Biofilm prevention and control were tested using a microtiter plate assay and the effect of ITCs was assessed on biofilm mass and metabolic activity. The minimum bactericidal concentration for E. coli and P. aeruginosa was 1000 μg mL−1 (AITC) and >1000 μg mL−1 (PEITC), for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was >1000 μg mL−1 (for both ITCs). AITC caused total inhibition of swimming (P. aeruginosa) and swarming (E. coli) motilities. PEITC caused total inhibition of swimming (E. coli, P. aeruginosa and L. monocytogenes) and swarming (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) motilities. Colony spreading of S. aureus was completely inhibited with PEITC. Adhesion assessed in terms of free energy was less favorable when bacteria were exposed to AITC for E. coli and P. aeruginosa and PEITC for P. aeruginosa. Both ITCs had preventive action on biofilm formation and showed a higher potential to reduce the mass of biofilms formed by the Gram-negative bacteria. AITC and PEITC promoted reductions in biofilm activity higher than 60% for all the biofilms tested. The overall study emphasizes the potential of ITCs as emergent products to inhibit bacterial motility and prevent/control biofilms of important human pathogenic bacteria.
  • ... Hot spices like chili peppers, horseradish, ginger, mustard and wasabi are commonly used in many cuisines to stimulate our senses with exotic flavours and burning, heat sensations. Apart from enhancing the pleasure of eating, some of these spices also provide nutritional value and have anti-oxidant as well as antibacterial properties ( Habsah et al., 2000;Shin, Masuda, & Naohide, 2004). Capsaicin, the predominant pungent substance in chili peppers, has been shown to increase energy expenditure and decrease appetite in humans in the short term when added in relative high doses (3-30 mg capsaicin) ( Lejeune, Kovacs, & Westerterp-Plantenga, 2003;Lim, Suh, & Lee, 1999;Westerterp-Plantenga, Smeets, & Lejeune, 2005;Yoshioka, St-Pierre, Suzuki, & Tremblay, 1998;Yoshioka et al., 1995Yoshioka et al., , 1999). ...
    Article
    This study investigated the effect of hot spices on energy intake and appetite. Forty participants received five meals of fixed portion sizes, served with or without five hot spices followed by a buffet. Spices were used in doses perceived as moderately hot, ensuring that the meals were palatable. Food intake (kJ), appetite and liking (before, during, after the meal and after the buffet), mood (before, after the meal and after the buffet) and desire to eat sweet, sour, fatty, salty, bitter and hot foods (after the meal and after the buffet) were measured on 9-point scales. Hot spices did not affect energy intake (p>0.05). Desire for sweet foods was increased by chili (0.6 point, p
  • ... However, in addition to hevein, prohevein is known to be co- and post-translationally processed to produce a C-terminal pep- tide that appears to possess antifungal activity ( Lee et al., 1991;Lee and Raikhel, 1995) and recently, an AAMP corresponding to this latter peptide was reported ( Kiba et al., 2003). Named WjAMP-1, this AAMP possessed a net charge of −1 and was purified from leaves of Wasabia japonica (Kiba et al., 2003), which is of the Brassicaceae family and has previously been shown to contain a number of AMPs with antibacterial and an- tifungal activity (Ono et al., 1998;Pedras et al., 1999;Shin et al., 2004). Studies on WjAMP-1 found that the inoculation of W. japonica with fungal pathogens induced expression of the peptide throughout tissues of the plant whilst antimicro- bial assay showed that it possessed potent activity against both fungi and bacteria (IC 50 < 200 μM). ...
    Article
    Anionic antimicrobial peptides (AAMPs) have been identified in a wide variety of plant species with net charges that range between −1 and −7 and structures that include: extended conformations, α-helical architecture and cysteine stabilized scaffolds. These peptides commonly exist as multiple isoforms within a given plant and have a range of biological activities including the ability to kill cancer cells as well as phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi, pests, molluscs, and other predatory species. In general, the killing mechanisms underpinning these activities are poorly understood although they appear to involve attack on intracellular targets such as DNA along with compromise of cell envelope integrity through lysis of the cell wall via chitin-binding and/or permeabilisation of the plasma membrane via lipid interaction. It is now becoming clear that AAMPs participate in the innate immune response of plants and make a major contribution to the arsenal of defence toxins produced by these organisms to compensate for their lack of some defence mechanisms possessed by mammals, such as mobility and a somatic adaptive immune system. Based on their biological properties, a number of potential uses for plant AAMPs have been suggested, including therapeutically useful anticancer agents and novel antimicrobial compounds, which could be utilized in a variety of scenarios, ranging from the protection of crops to the disinfection of hospital environments.
  • ... In this context it is known that some dietary phytochemicals, such as essential oils (EO), phenolics, glucosinolates (GLS) and their hydrolysis products, have a wide range of effects for health, preventing the risk of some diseases [56, 61, 62]. These properties include antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and anticarcinogenic activities, hepatoprotective and antithrombotic effects, and vasodilatory action [55,636465666768697071. Currently, several researchers were able to identify improved strategies for biofilm control. ...
    Chapter
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    Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health concern, particularly in hospitals and other health care settings, and have increased worldwide. The evolution of resistance can be attributed to the selective pressure caused by the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and the transmission of resistance within and between individuals. Nowadays, some infectious diseases are almost untreatable by conventional antibiotic therapy. In most of the cases, the limited efficacy of antibiotics in the treatment of infections is related to biofilm formation. It is estimated that biofilms contribute to over 80% of all infections in humans. Bacteria in sessile state are more protected against host defences and more resistant to antimicrobial treatment than their planktonic counterparts. So, new antimicrobial products and strategies are required in order to more effectively control biofilms. Plants synthesize several secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) that are recognized as fundamental source of chemical diversity and are important pharmaceutical products. In the last few years, several classes of phytochemicals have shown to have antimicrobial properties against clinical important pathogenic microorganisms, and capacity to reduce the risk of various diseases. This chapter aims to review the importance and possible use of dietary phytochemicals for biofilm prevention and control, through the interference with some factors that are involved in biofilm development, particularly motility, adhesion and quorum-sensing (QS).
  • ... AITC, which is the main naturally occurring constituent in volatile mustard oil, is widely used as a food additive and flavoring substance (EFSA 2010). Moreover, AITC has been reported to have several biological activities including antimicrobial (Shin et al. 2004), fungicidal (Nielsen and Rios 2000), and anticancer activities due to its multimode mechanisms of action (Xiao et al. 2003; Zhang 2010 ), including the stimulation of cytoprotective proteins (Matsuda et al. 2007) and anti-inflammatory activity (Wagner et al. 2012). The cytochrome P450 family (CYP450) plays an important role in the biotransformation of various endogenous components and xenobiotics (Guengerich 2008). ...
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    Antagonizing the action of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) may have important clinical implications for preventing inducer-drug interactions and improving therapeutic efficacy. We identified a widely distributed isothiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which acts as an effective antagonist of the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3). HepG2 cells were used to assay reporter function, mRNA levels, and protein expression. Catalytic activities of the PXR and CAR target genes, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, respectively, were also assessed in differentiated HepaRG cells. Protective effects of AITC on rifampin-induced cytotoxicity were observed, and transient transfection assays showed that AITC was able to effectively attenuate the agonist effects of rifampin and CITCO on human PXR and CAR activity, respectively. AITC-mediated reduction in the transcriptional activity of PXR and CAR correlated well with the suppression of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 expression in HepG2 cells, which reflected the reduced catalytic activities of both of these genes following AITC treatment in differentiated HepaRG cells. Furthermore, AITC disrupts the co-regulations of PXR with several important co-regulators. Furthermore, the antagonist effect of AITC against PXR was found in HepaRG cells upon addition of acetaminophen (APAP) and amiodarone, indicating that AITC protects cells from drug-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, our results show that AITC inhibits the transactivation effects of PXR and CAR and reduces the expression and function of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. Additionally, AITC reversed the cytotoxic effects of APAP and amiodarone induced by PXR ligand. Results from this study suggest that AITC could be a powerful agent for reducing potentially dangerous interactions between transcriptional inducers of CYP enzymes and therapeutic drugs.
  • ... A number of natural products have been shown to have anti-H. pylori activity such as garlic extracts, cinnamon extracts, tea catechins, wasabi and honey (Mabe et al., 1999; Ohta et al., 1999; Osato et al., 1999; Tabak et al., 1999; Shin et al., 2004). Some spice and food plants used in Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases had been proven to exhibited growth-inhibitory effects against H. pylori including Myristica fragrans (aril), Barringtonia acutangula (leaf), Kaempferia galanga (rhizome), Cassia grandis (leaf), Cleome viscosa (leaf), Myristica fragrans (leaf), Syzygium aromaticum (leaf), Pouzolzia pentandra (leaf), Cycas siamensis (leaf), Litsea elliptica (leaf) and Melaleuca quinquenervia (leaf) (Bhamarapravati et al., 2003). ...
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    Invasion of gastric epithelium cells by Helicobacter pylori is associated with antibiotic resistance and persistence infection, which contribute to eradication failure in many circumstances. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-H. pylori and anti-internalization activities of thirteen Thai plant extracts used for gastric ailments in traditional medicine including Curcuma longa (L.), Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex Baker, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, Musa sapientum (L.), Aloe vera, Centella asiatica (L.), Allium sativum (L.), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Alpinia galanga (L.) Swartz, Andrographis paniculata, Ocimum basilicum (L.), Ocimum sanctum (L.) and Cymbopogon citratus. The minimum inhibitory concentrations against 11 clinical isolates and 2 reference strains of H. pylori were examined using an agar dilution method. The level of internalization against HEp-2 cells by H. pylori was compared among 3 extracts of C. longa, K. parviflora and M. sapientum by a conventional gentamicin internalization assay. From thirteen methanolic extracts, the extracts of C. longa and K. parviflora exhibited significant anti-H. pylori activities at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 and 64 µg/ml, respectively. The extracts from C. longa and M. sapientum showed inhibitory effects on the internalization of H. pylori to HEp-2 cells at 3 h of treatment. However, the adverse effect of C. longa was found at 6 and 12 h by enhancing the internalization activities. Thus, appropriate use of medicinal plants may be valuable for curing and preventing H. pylori infection.
  • ... Shin et al from Japan reported anti-H. pylori activity of wasabi (Wasabia japonica) and demonstrated higher bactericidal activity of leaves than root of wasabi (Shin et al., 2004). ...
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    Since Helicobacter pylori was discovered in 1980, it has been considered as a major cause in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas, and gastric cancer. Eventually antibiotics were designed to eradicate this bacterium, which not only prevent peptic ulcer recurrence but also decrease the chances of developing gastric cancer. Propitious consequences of these antibiotic regimens and better hygienic conditions, particularly in developed countries, resulted in significant decline in the prevalence of H. pylori infection. However, persistent high H. pylori infection in developing countries, decreased patience compliance and emerging antibiotic resistance forced researchers to quest for novel candidates. Herbal medicines have always served as a leading source in drug discovery. Since time immemorial, herbs have been used to treat various disorders covering from minor illnesses as pain to life threatening conditions like cancer. Ample amount of studies from different parts of the world have shown promising activities of medicinal herbs not only against H. pylori but also associated disorders while employing in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. In this review, these multiple pharmacological effects of medicinal plants and their chemical constituents will be discussed in relation to H. pylori not only to scientifically evaluate the beneficial effects of these medicinal plants but to also critically analyze their plausible role as chemo preventive agents against H. pylori-associated disorders.
  • ... Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) (Fig. 1) is a natural compound pre- sent in all plants of the Cruciferae family, such as brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, horseradish and wasabi [13,14], a hydrolysis product between the enzyme myrosinase and a glucosi- nolate known as sinigrin. It has been reported as anti-oxidative, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal [15,16], anti-inflammatory [17]. The anticancer activities of AITC involved in the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as well as inhibition of cell metastasis [18,19]. ...
    Article
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    The present study aimed to investigate the dose response chemopreventive potential of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Mammary tumor was induced by a single dose of DMBA (25 mg/rat) injected subcutaneously near mammary gland. We observed reduced body weight and increased in total number of tumors, tumor incidence and tumor volume in DMBA-induced rats. We also observed decreased antioxidant status (SOD, CAT, GPX and GSH) and increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS and LOOH) in plasma and mammary tissues. Increased levels of CYP450, Cyt-b5 and decreased levels of phase II (GST and GR) biotransformation enzymes noticed in liver and mammary tissues of DMBA-induced rats. Further, increased levels of lipid profile (TC, TG, PL and FFA) and lipoprotein (LDL and VLDL) were noticed. Whereas, decreased level of HDL in plasma and decreased levels of PL and FFA in mammary tissue. Oral administration ofAITCdifferent doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bw) inhibited the tumor incidence and restored levels of biochemical markers. Biochemical findings are supported byhistopathologicalstudies. These results suggested thatAITCat a dose of 20 mg/kg bw significantly exert chemopreventive potential againstDMBA-induced mammarycarcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • ... Allyl isothiocyanate, the main breakdown product of sinigrin, has been shown to have several biological activities. Antimicrobial [Shin et al., 2004] and anticancer activity related to multimode mechanism of ac- tion [Xiao et al., 2003; Zhang et al., 2010] , including the stimulation of cytoprotective protein and anti-infl ammatory activity, have been reported in the previous studies [Wagner et al., 2012]. The biological activity of horseradish has been discovered many centuries ago, and it was very often utilized for treatment purposes in the traditional medicine [Agneta et al., 2013]. ...
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    In comparison with other cruciferous vegetables, horseradish has rarely been the object of scientific research, and the knowledge about the composition, content and distribution of glucosinolates (GLS) in different organs of horseradish plants is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the GLS content in leaves and roots of four horseradish landraces during the growing season. The presence of 13 GLS was determined in the examined horseradish tissues, and glucoraphanin, glucoraphenin and napoleiferin were noted for the first time in the species. During the growing season, the content of individual GLS changed significantly. The rate and direction of these changes varied across the examined landraces and plant organs. In the leaves, between May and June, the content of sinigrin, the main GLS in all horseradish landraces, decreased in Bavarian (40%) and Hungarian (11%) horseradish, increased (22%) in Creamy horseradish, whereas in Danish horseradish, the difference was not significant. Despite the changes observed in the first two months, the highest content of sinigrin was noted in July in all horseradish landraces. During the growing season (August-October), the content of sinigrin fluctuated in the roots of Creamy and Danish landraces, reaching the highest level in October and September, respectively, whereas in the roots of Hungarian and Bavarian landraces, sinigrin concentrations continued to increase and peaked in October. Changes in the content of other, minor GLS during the growing season often differed from those noted in sinigrin levels.
  • ... ITCs are the compounds synthesized from glucosinolates through the hydrolytic action of the enzyme myrosinase present in the plants. ITCs such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) are known to exhibit potential anticancer and antimicrobial properties[19][20][21]. The activities of AITC against foodborne bacterial pathogens and phytopathogenic fungi have been reported[20,[22][23][24][25]. ...
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    Candidiasis involving the biofilms of Candida albicans is a threat to the immunocompromised patients. Candida biofilms are intrinsically resistant to the antifungal drugs hence novel treatment strategies are desired. The study intended to evaluate the anti-Candida activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) alone and with fluconazole (FLC), particularly against the biofilms. Results exhibit the concentration-dependent activity of AITC against the planktonic growth and virulence factors of C. albicans. Significant (p <0.05) inhibition of the biofilms was evident at < or =1 mg/ml concentrations of AITC. Notably, a combination of 0.004 mg/ml of FLC and 0.125 mg/ml of AITC prevented the biofilm formation. Similarly, the preformed biofilms were significantly (p <0.05) inhibited by AITC-FLC combination. FIC indices ranging from 0.132 to 0.312 indicated the synergistic activity of AITC and FLC against the biofilm formation and the preformed biofilms. No hemolytic activity at the biofilm inhibitory concentrations of AITC and AITC-FLC combination suggested the absence of cytotoxic effects. The recognizable synergy between AITC and FLC offers a potential therapeutic strategy against the biofilm-associated Candida infections.
  • Article
    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate lipid homeostasis by controlling the expression of genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. In this study, we used a stable cell line that expresses a luciferase reporter gene driven by an SRE-containing fatty acid synthase promoter to identify allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), one of the major isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables, as a novel SREBP inactivator. We found that AITC downregulated the proteolytic processing of SREBPs and the expression of their target genes in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells. Furthermore, AITC reduced the de novo synthesis of both fatty acids and cholesterol. Our results indicate a novel physiological function of AITC in lipid metabolism regulation.
  • Article
    The antimicrobial activity of isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from horseradish root was investigated against oral microorganisms: 6 strains of facultative anaerobic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; one strain of yeast, Candida albicans, and 3 strains of anaerobic bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella nigrescens, and Clostridium perfringens. The ITCs extracted from horseradish root showed antimicrobial activity against all oral microorganisms by the paper disk method. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the ITCs extracted from horseradish root ranged from 1.25 to 5.00 mg/ml against 6 strains of facultative anaerobic bacteria and one strain of yeast, and 4.17 to 16.67 mg/ml against 3 strains of anaerobic bacteria. The ITCs extracted from horseradish root showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, with a MBC of 1.25 mg/ml, against C. albicans among facultative microorganisms, and 4.17 mg/ml against F. nucleatum among anaerobic bacteria. These results suggest that the ITCs extracted from horseradish root may be a candidate for use as an antimicrobial agent against oral microorganisms.
  • Article
    AimsTo characterize the nematicidal endophytic bacteria (NEB) of Wasabia japonica (wasabi) and evaluated the control efficacies of promising NEB as well as fresh wasabi residue (FWR) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato.Methods and ResultsBy in vitro bioassay, 53 NEB strains showing nematicidal efficacies of >50% against J2 of M. incognita were isolated from wasabi. Basing on 16S rRNA gene sequences, these NEB were identified into 18 species of 11 genera. In greenhouse, incorporation of selected NEB culture or FWR into potted soil significantly reduced infection of M. incognita on tomato. Treating tomatoes with either FWR or NEB of Raoultella terrigena RN16 and Pseudomonas reinekei SN21 in the field yielded excellent control efficacies against M. incognita, especially the combinations of FWR with either R. terrigena RN16 or P. reinekei SN21 at doses of 50 g plus 100 ml per plant or more.Conclusion The results established that R. terrigena RN16 and P. reinekei SN21 applied separately or combined with FWR have the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita.Significance and Impact of the StudyThis study provides novel way for disease management by using combination of endophyte and host residue.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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    Abstract: Spices are generally consumed because of the taste and flavor they add to food. Some are also consumed because of their medicinal properties. We herein report on the nutrient and antinutrient compositions of five Ghanaian spices namely Xylopia aethiopica, Piper guineense, Monodora myristica, Aframomum melegueta and Parkia biglobosa. Nutritional composition was assessed by proximate analysis, minerals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry while titrimetric methods were utilized in vitamin C and antinutrients analysis. P. biglobosa was rich in proteins (38.60%) and had highest moisture content (32.79%). The highest levels of ash, fiber, fat and carbohydrates were observed P. guineense (11.90%), A. melegueta (31.12%), M. myristica (31.01%) and X. aethiopica (50.1%) respectively. Calorific values for all spices were between 243 and 402 kcal. Calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron were the most abundant minerals with levels ranging from 2.67 to 5,381.88 mg/kg. Zinc, copper and manganese were present in trace amounts. Vitamin C levels ranged from 3.3 to 18.4 mg/100 g. Phytates were present at generally higher levels than oxalates. P. biglobosa and X. aethiopica contained the highest concentration of oxalates and phytates respectively. The results indicate that these spices are good sources of valuable nutrients. However, the high levels of antinutrients implies consumption in moderation and good processing before eating is important. Keywords: oxalates; phytates; proximate composition; Parkia biglobosa; vitamin C; Xylopia aethiopica; Piper guineense; Monodora myristica; Aframomum melegueta
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    Quorum sensing (QS) is an important regulatory mechanism in biofilm formation and differentiation. Interference with QS can affect biofilm development and antimicrobial susceptibility. This study evaluates the potential of selected phytochemical products to inhibit QS. Three isothiocyanates (allylisothiocyanate - AITC, benzylisothiocyanate - BITC and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate - PEITC) and six phenolic products (gallic acid - GA, ferulic acid - FA, caffeic acid - CA, phloridzin - PHL, (-) epicatechin - EPI and oleuropein glucoside - OG) were tested. A disc diffusion assay based on pigment inhibition in Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 was performed. In addition, the mechanisms of QS inhibition (QSI) based on the modulation of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs) activity and synthesis by the phytochemicals were investigated. The cytotoxicity of each product was tested on a cell line of mouse lung fibroblasts. AITC, BITC and PEITC demonstrated a capacity for QSI by modulation of AHL activity and synthesis, interfering the with QS systems of C. violaceum CviI/CviR homologs of LuxI/LuxR systems. The cytotoxic assays demonstrated low effects on the metabolic viability of the fibroblast cell line only for FA, PHL and EPI.
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    In this overview the multidirectional opportunities of innovative exploitation of chemical and biological properties of vegetables from Brassicaceace family are discussed. The specific chemical composition of brassicas, as regards both nutrients and non-nutrients, renders them particularly suitable for the health food production chain, literally from field to fork. The ability of these plants to accumulate heavy metals may be utilised for phytoremediation of arable soils, but also as a vehicle to fortify foods in micronutrients such as selenium. The agricultural waste of brassica crops containing glucosinolates and their degradation products represents a valuable raw material for crop protection in the process of biofumigation, at the same time constituting green manure. Moreover, glucosinolate derivatives owing to their chemical properties can target a number of biological processes implicated in human organism homeostasis. Consequently, rationally exploited Brassica vegetables may be a promising ingredient for research based production of foods addressing general public, as well as specific groups of consumers.
  • Article
    The plants of the genus Armoracia P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. (Brassicaceae) contain glucosinolates, which volatile hydrolysis products are known for their antimicrobial activity. In this work, the composition and antimicrobial activity of the root volatiles of wild-growing Armoracia macrocarpa (Waldst. & Kit.) Kit. ex Baumg., obtained by hydrodistillation, were analysed for the first time. These results were compared with those of widely used horseradish, A. rusticana P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. Additionally, the possibility of the propagation of A. macrocarpa from the roots, and impact of its cultivation on the composition and antimicrobial activity of the root volatiles were investigated. The GC-FID and GC–MS analysis revealed that all A. macrocarpa root volatile fractions were dominated by berteroin (55.0–59.0%) and lesquerellin (34.1–36.4%), and were significantly different from horseradish root volatile fraction. In microdilution method, A. macrocarpa volatile fractions exhibited weak/no antibacterial activity, while their effect against standard strain (MICs = 4.8–9.3 μg/mL) and clinical isolates (MICs = 25–119 μg/mL) of Candida albicans was significant. Horseradish volatiles exhibited better antibacterial and slightly weaker anticandidal activity. Armoracia macrocarpa represents a new source of raw materials with potential use in pharmaceutical and food industries, as well as in cookery. Preliminary results indicated the possibility of its cultivation, which is required for its preservation and sustainable usage.
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    Recently interesting in development of antimicrobial agent from natural origin has been increased in these days. Many studies have been reported antimicrobial effect of Horseradish(Armoracia rusticana) root extracts against various microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticu, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus parasiticus, Helicobacter pylori. The main component related to antimicrobial activity in horseradish is well known as allyl isothiocyanate(AIT). In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial effects of Horseradish(Armoracia rusticana) root extracts against Streptococcus mutans isolated from human dental plaque, Streptococcus mutans reference strain and compared with that of chlorhexidine. Horseradish root extracts and chlorhexidine were tested to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration( MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC). The result of this study can be summerized as follows; 1. Horseradish root extracts showed antimicrobial effect against both S. mutans isolated strain and reference strain, their MIC were respectively (), 0.25% (2500 ppm). Horseradish root extracts showed antimicrobial effect against S. mutans isolated strain at same or slightly lower concentration compared with MIC of reference strain. 2. horseradish root extracts showed similar antimicrobial effect with chlorhexidine ().
  • Article
    6‐(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6‐MSITC), a major bioactive compound in Wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsum.], has revealed the inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis in rat cancer model although the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used two types of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 p53+/+ and HCT116 p53–/–) to investigate the anticancer activity and molecular mechanisms of 6‐MSITC. Interestingly, 6‐MSITC inhibited the cell proliferation in both types of cells with similar IC50 value although a light increase in the phosphorylation and accumulation of P53 protein was observed in HCT116 p53+/+ cells at 24 h after treatment. In addition, 6‐MSITC increased the ratio of proapoptotic cells in both types of cells with the same fashion in a p53‐independent manner. The data from mitochondrial analysis revealed that 6‐MSITC enhanced the ratio of proapoptotic B‐cell lymphoma‐2‐associated X protein/antiapoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1, and sequentially caused mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, cytochrome c release, and caspase‐3 activation in both types of cells. Taken together, Wasabi 6‐MSITC induced apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells in p53‐independent mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. These findings suggest that 6‐MSITC might be a potential agent for colon cancer chemoprevention although with p53 mutation.
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    Infections by Helicobacter pylori are very common, causing gastroduodenal inflammation including peptic ulcers, and increasing the risk of gastric neoplasia. The isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from edible crucifers such as broccoli is potently bactericidal against Helicobacter, including antibiotic-resistant strains, suggesting a possible dietary therapy. Gastric H. pylori infections express high urease activity which generates ammonia, neutralizes gastric acidity, and promotes inflammation. The finding that SF inhibits (inactivates) urease (jack bean and Helicobacter) raised the issue of whether these properties might be functionally related. The rates of inactivation of urease activity depend on enzyme and SF concentrations and show first order kinetics. Treatment with SF results in time-dependent increases in the ultraviolet absorption of partially purified Helicobacter urease in the 280-340 nm region. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of dithiocarbamates between the ITC group of SF and cysteine thiols of urease. The potencies of inactivation of Helicobacter urease by isothiocyanates structurally related to SF were surprisingly variable. Natural isothiocyanates closely related to SF, previously shown to be bactericidal (berteroin, hirsutin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, alyssin, and erucin), did not inactivate urease activity. Furthermore, SF is bactericidal against both urease positive and negative H. pylori strains. In contrast, some isothiocyanates such as benzoyl-ITC, are very potent urease inactivators, but are not bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of SF and other ITC against Helicobacter are therefore not obligatorily linked to urease inactivation, but may reduce the inflammatory component of Helicobacter infections.
  • Article
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    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a popular vegetable, spice and medicinal plant. We aimed to collect data about its cultivation, ethnomedicinal and culinary applications in a horseradish-producing region in Hungary and 32 villages in Romania. Horseradish roots are used in ethnomedicine for sore throat, asthma, cough and flu in both areas, alone or in combination with e.g. honey. In Transylvania, additional applications included digestive problems, pleuritis, and rheuma in various forms. The leaf and the grated root is for toothache and fever. Some applications were novel, others matched earlier records from these areas and those of other European countries. In ethnoveterinary practice, the root is used against roaring of horses in all regions. It is traditionally consumed in a soup in Hungary, as pickles, and the leaf in Transylvania. The root samples of the region of interest showed typical chemical pattern of horseradish roots, as shown by GC–MS: allyl isothiocyanate and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate were present in high amounts. The presented ethnomedicinal data are supported by a growing body of scientific evidence—pharmacological data available on the isothiocyanates. Data on antimicrobial activity support use in gastritis (Helicobacter pylori) and dental caries, while data on efficacy in inflammatory conditions justify the applications in diseases asthma and respiratory system infections. Our study presented scientific evidence-supported ethnomedicinal data on horseradish rich in bioactive isothiocyanates.
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    Mesua ferrea is traditionally used for treating bleeding piles, fever, and renal diseases. It has been reported to have antimircobial activity. In the present study, antibacterial efficacy of leaf and fruit extracts on the growth and morphology of Staphylococcus aureus is evaluated. Both extracts display good antibacterial activity against S. aureus with a minimum inhibition concentration of 0.048 mg/mL. Both extracts are bacteriostatic at a minimum bacteriostatic concentration of 0.39 mg/mL. The bacteriostatic activity lasts for 24 h, and then cells start to grow as normal as shown in time-kill analysis. Scanning electron microscopy study indicated potential detrimental effect of the extracts of leaf and fruits of M. ferrea on the morphology of S. aureus. The treatment with the extracts caused extensive lysis of the cells, leakage of intracellular constituents, and aggregation of cytoplasmic contents forming an open meshwork of the matrix.
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    Sashimi, a delicacy made of thinly cut fresh raw ingredients, is one of Japan's most popular foods. As a raw ready-to-eat dish, sashimi has the potential to cause foodborne illnesses due to pathogenic bacteria present in it. Wasabi (Wasabia japonica), a type of condiment served alongside sashimi, is believed to be an antimicrobial agent against bacteria in sashimi. This study was conducted to find out whether the wasabi served at all Japanese restaurants in Medan has antimicrobial effects and to identify the bacteria found in sashimi as well. The study was conducted through an experiment with a pretest-posttest one-group design using total plate count tests to determine the effects of wasabi's antimicrobial activity. Bacterial identification in sashimi was carried out by using gram staining and biochemical reaction test consisting of IMViC test, motility test, urease test, triple sugar iron test, and sugar fermentation test. Based on data analysis using Wilcoxon signed ranks test, this study showed that wasabi had antimicrobial effects (Z =-2,803; p = 0,005). Enterobacteriaceae group and Bacillus sp. were commonly found in our study. Therefore, it was concluded that wasabi had antimicrobial effects by its reduction effect on the number of pathogenic bacteria.
  • Article
    Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), the principle ingredient of antimicrobial ingredients from horseradish root, can be prepared from extracts of horseradish root or synthetic method. It is reported that the horseradish root extract has the antimicrobial effect against various oral microorganisms, while there is no further study about the antimicrobial effect against the oral microorganisms of synthetic AIT derived from synthetic method. The aim of the study is to compare the difference of the antimicrobial effect between horseradish root extracts and synthetic AIT. To evaluate the antimicrobial effect, we measured the minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and the results are like following. 1. The MIC of horseradish root extract against 7 kinds of oral pathogenic microorganisms is about 1171,750 ppm(0.01170.175%), and the MIC of the synthetic AIT is about 3443,000 ppm(0.03440.3%), which have the antimicrobial effects against all kinds of microorganisms. 2. The MBC of the horseradish root extracts against the 7 kinds of oral microorganisms is about 625.26,000 ppm(0.062520.6%), and the MBC of the synthetic AIT is about 1,7507,000 ppm(0.1750.7%), which have the antimicrobial effects against all kinds of microorganisms.
  • Article
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    The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of dentifrice containing Horseradish (Armoracia rustica) root extracts on improvement of oral hygiene. The clinical evaluation was done participated by 80 adults volunteers who provided a informed consent for their participation. The participants were divided into two groups ; control group (using toothpaste without Horseradish extracts) and experimental group (using toothpaste containing Horseradish extracts). The checklist of the experiment includes the plaque index, gingival index and anti-caries activity. The anti-caries activity was measured by cultivating Streptococcus mutans for 48 hours then estimating the number of increased bacteria using Dentocult SM. The double-blind method was used in this study. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; 1. The plaque formation decreased 28% in control group, 58% in experimental group using dentifrice with Horseradish extracts compared to baseline data. 2. For gingival index, control group and experimental group showed 26% and 40% decrease compared to baseline data, respectively. 3. The score of caries activity test decreased by 4% for control group and 69% for experimental group compared to baseline data. According to the results, a dentifrice containing Horseradish extracts can improve oral hygiene.
  • Article
    The current review focuses on a plant with a wide spectrum of potential uses, Armoracia rusticana (syn. Armoracia lapathifolia), commonly known as horseradish. The plant has been cultivated for a long time and is used in food industry, mainly as a condiment, but recent research has provided data on other possible uses. This paper focuses on the botany, distribution, agriculture, and chemical characterization of this root, and its possible therapeutical uses. Relations to other species, distribution, and ethnopharmacology are briefly discussed. An introduction is provided about the stability and technical properties of the main constituents. Detailed pharmacological description is given on the chief chemical compounds, allyl and phenethyl isothiocyanates, including in vitro and animal studies and pharmacokinetics. The main isothiocyanates are mainly researched as possible anticancer and antimicrobial agents.
  • Chapter
    Eutrema japonicum (Miquel) Koidzumi
  • Article
    Total sinigrin contents in rhizome, leaf petiole and leaf blade of wasabi (Wasabia japonica) were determined by simultaneous measurement of sinigrin and allyl isothiocyanate using HPLC. The antimicrobial activity of water extracts of the different tissues were also examined against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalatiae, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. The contents of total sinigrin including allyl isothiocyanate were 15.22, 1.85, 1.95 mgg-1 in rhizome, leaf petiole and leaf blade of wasabi, respectively. The contents were much higher than those found by other researchers, who determined sinigrin and isothiocyanates by measuring content of allyl isothiocyanate after the conversion of sinigrin to allyl isothiocyanate. During the conversion, the loss of the volatile compound iosthiocyanates and the incomplete conversion of sinigrin to allyl isothiocynate might be possible, and these factors may be related to the differences in the total sinigrin measurements. Water extracts of wasabi rhizome, leaf petiole and leaf blade showed anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalatiae, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and the highest activity was found in the rhizome extract, where the total sinigrin content was much higher than those found in leaf petiole and leaf blade. Although the contents of sinigrin and isothiocyanates in leaf petiole and leaf blade of wasabi are relatively lower than that in rhizome, the biomass of leaf petiole and leaf blade are greater than that of rhizome and also can be continuously harvested from the same root and rhizome system. Therefore, the aboveground parts of wasabi can be used in the extraction of sinigrin and isothiocyanates as commercial antimicrobial compounds.
  • Article
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    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is the most prevalent infectious cause of lameness in cattle. Because Treponema infection is a major etiology of BDD, the most common treatment of BDD is an antibiotic. Nonetheless, dairy cows require a withdrawal period after antibiotic treatment before their milk can be marketed. To address the problem, in this study, we tested whether 3 nonantibiotic agents (used separately)—allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), sodium alginate, and calcium hydroxide—alleviate BDD lesions in dairy cows. The AITC treatment improved the BDD lesions, whereas the sodium alginate and calcium hydroxide treatments did not. Therapeutic efficacy of AITC was similar to that of lincomycin, a topical antibiotic prescribed for BDD. These results suggest that AITC is a promising nonantibiotic agent for BDD treatment in dairy cows.
  • Article
    The growing interest in the use of natural herbal products and dietary supplements to treat and prevent diseases raises the question of medicinal drug safety. Allyl isothiocyanate, a hydrolysis product of a glucosinolate, sinigrin, has multiple beneficial properties, and based on this fact, allyl isothiocyanate-containing dietary supplements have been developed. To date, no studies of the effects of this compound on the cytochrome P450 2C9 have been reported. In this study, we found that allyl isothiocyanate reduced catalytic activity, messenger ribonucleic acid, and protein expression of cytochrome P450 2C9 in HepaRG cells. An investigation of the transcriptional activity of the pregnane X receptor and the constitutive androstane receptor revealed that allyl isothiocyanate disrupted the transcriptional coregulation effects of the pregnane X receptor/constitutive androstane receptor with several important coregulators and interfered with the assembly of transcriptional complexes of the cytochrome P450 2C9 pregnane X receptor/constitutive androstane receptor-response element. The decrease of cytochrome P450 2C9 expression and activity mediated by allyl isothiocyanate suggested that this agent could alter the metabolism of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C9. This may cause food/dietary supplement-drug interactions or alter the therapeutic effects, and even the toxicity of drugs coadministered with allyl isothiocyanate. Since the consumption of allyl isothiocyanate-containing food/dietary supplements continues to increase, it is important to predict and ultimately avoid interactions with concomitant drugs. It is required that these possible pharmacokinetic interactions be characterized and the recommendations available to patients and healthcare professionals be improved.
  • Book
    Postharvest research plays an important role in increasing the wealth of farmers, growers, shippers and those involved in the fresh produce industry. An important goal of postharvest research is to reduce losses of fruits and vegetables after harvest. Postharvest losses have been a serious problem in every country of the world. The magnitude of postharvest losses varies in different regions depending on location, climate, commodity, and handling systems. The reduction of postharvest losses results in an increase of quantity available to consumers, thus increasing production without using more land. Therefore, reducing losses is crucial for food security in countries especially where land is scarce. The increased quantity available to consumers due to reduced losses is also made without any additional use of labor, fertilizers, water and other resources. This translates to more profit and wealth to farmers, as well as more preservation of natural resources and the environment. Another goal of postharvest research is to maintain quality of fresh produce after harvest. An increasingly important aspect of produce quality is its nutritional value. Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been linked to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and age-related disorders. In addition to vitamins, minerals and other nutrients, fruits and vegetables are a source of many phytochemicals, which are responsible for health protection and disease prevention. Significant increases in the concentration of phytochemicals and nutritional quality of fruits and vegetables are certainly achievable through proper postharvest handling. Several postharvest techniques have been demonstrated to not only maintain but also enhance levels of flavonoids, carotenoids and other antioxidants. Postharvest research, thus, is important for improving our wealth and health.
  • Article
    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), the major component in mustard oil, is an organosulfur volatile pungent compound classified as “generally regarded as safe”. Methods to slow its evaporation rate can increase its applicability as a natural and safe preservative in food industry and as a pesticide in agriculture. This study tested evaporation of AITC mixed with mineral oil and combined with clay minerals or smectite based organoclays. Raw smectites and halloysites did not influence the evaporation rate, whereas fibrous clays increased half-life time by 3–4 folds. Organoclays differed on their efficiency. An organoclays based on thiamine (B1 vitamin) adsorbed on montmorillonite exhibited the best behavior, increasing half-life time 10 times. Thus, the combination of mustard oil with such organoclay may offer an efficient and natural character preservative and pesticide.
  • Article
    Crocus sativus L. is known in herbal medicine for the various pharmacological effects of its components, but no data are found in literature about its biological properties toward Helicobacter pylori, Plasmodium spp. and Leishmania spp. In this work, the potential anti-bacterial and anti-parasitic effects of crocin and safranal, two important bioactive components in C. sativus, were explored, and also some semi-synthetic derivatives of safranal were tested in order to establish which modifications in the chemical structure could improve the biological activity. According to our promising results, we virtually screened our compounds by means of molecular modeling studies against the main H. pylori enzymes in order to unravel their putative mechanism of action.
  • Article
    Background: The formation of acrylamide (AA) in cooked foods has raised human health concerns. AA is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to glycidamide (GA), which forms DNA adducts. This study examined the inhibitory effects of wasabi (Japanese horseradish, Wasabia japonica) roots and leaves as well as their active component, allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), on the formation and genotoxicity of AA. Results: AA formation (51.8 ± 4.2 µg kg-1 ) was inhibited with ≥2 mg mL-1 of AIT. Wasabi roots also inhibited AA formation (∼90% reduction), but wasabi leaves were not effective at 2 mg mL-1 . Wasabi roots and leaves decreased the number of cells with micronuclei by approximately 33 and 24% respectively compared with the AA treatment group. Moreover, wasabi roots and leaves (100 mg kg-1 body weight (BW) day-1 for each) decreased AA (100 mg kg-1 BW day-1 )-induced DNA damage. The AA-induced CYP2E1 activity was decreased by 39 and 26% with wasabi roots and leaves respectively. Further, the activity of glutathione S-transferase, which catalyzes the detoxification of AA via glutathione conjugation, increased by 54 and 33% with wasabi roots and leaves respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that wasabi roots and leaves are effective ingredients for inhibiting the formation and genotoxicity of AA. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
  • Article
    Pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP; 500–700 MPa, 90–121 °C) offers new opportunities to sterilize low-acid foods while preserving quality attributes to an extent greater than is possible with traditional thermal processing (TP). This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of enhancing PATP lethality against the spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, by sensitizing the spores with selected antimicrobial compounds (including emphasis on the use of natural antimicrobials) prior to treatment. A spore crop of B. amyloliquefaciens TMW 2.479 Fad 82, that had previously shown high resistance to combined pressure-heat treatment, was prepared on Nutrient Agar medium supplemented with 10 mg L−1 MnSO4·H2O and incubated at 32 °C for 3 d. Spores were inoculated (at ∼10^7–10^8 CFU mL−1 inoculum level) in HEPES buffer (pH ≤ 7.0) or selected low-acid foods (pH 5.2–5.6) with or without added antimicrobial compounds. The samples were then treated at 600 MPa and 105 °C (PATP) or 0.1 MPa and 105 °C (TP) for various holding times. Among different compounds tested, low-molecular-weight chitosan, and combination of chitosan with some surfactants were most effective (P < 0.05) in enhancing the PATP and TP lethality. This study suggests that certain antimicrobials can be added to the low-acid media prior to PATP or TP treatment to enhance the efficacy of the process. The treatment allows sterilization of low-acid foods at lower process temperatures thus ensuring better preservation of quality attributes.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health problems. This is of particular concern when bacteria become resistant to various antimicrobial agents simultaneously and when they form biofilms. Consequently, therapeutic options for the treatment of infections have become limited, leading frequently to recurrent infections, treatment failure and increase of morbidity and mortality. Both, persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance, in combination with decreased effectiveness and increased toxicity of current antibiotics have emphasized the urgent need to search alternative sources of antimicrobial substances. Plants are recognized as a source of unexplored chemical structures with high therapeutic potential, including antimicrobial activity against clinically important microorganisms. Additionally, phytochemicals (plant secondary metabolites) present several advantages over synthetic molecules, including green status and different mechanisms of action from antibiotics which could help to overcome the resistance problem. In this study, an overview of the main classes of phytochemicals with antimicrobial properties and their mode of action is presented. A revision about the application of phytochemicals for biofilm prevention and control is also done. Moreover, the use of phytochemicals as scaffolds of new functional molecules to expand the antibiotics pipeline is reviewed.
  • Article
    Horseradish essential oil (HREO; a natural mixture of different isothiocyanates) had strong fungicide effect against Candida albicans both in volatile and liquid phase. In liquid phase this antifungal effect was more significant than those of its main components allyl, and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate. HREO, at sublethal concentration, induced oxidative stress which was characterized with elevated superoxide content and up-regulated specific glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Induction of specific glutathione S-transferase activities as marker of glutathione (GSH) dependent detoxification was also observed. At higher concentration, HREO depleted the GSH pool, increased heavily the superoxide production and killed the cells rapidly. HREO and the GSH pool depleting agent, 1-chlore-2,4-dinitrobenzene showed strong synergism when they were applied together to kill C. albicans cells. Based on all these, we assume that GSH metabolism protects fungi against isothiocyanates.
  • Article
    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a major bioactive compound in Wasabi. Although 6-MSITC is reported to have cancer chemopreventive activities in rat model, the molecular mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the anticancer mechanisms using two types of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 p53+/+ and p53−/−). 6-MSITC caused cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and induced apoptosis in both types of cells in the same fashion. Signaling data revealed that the activation of ERK1/2, rather than p53, is recruited for 6-MSITC-induced apoptosis. 6-MSITC stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and then activated ERK1/2 signaling including ELK1 phosphorylation, and upregulation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and death receptor 5 (DR5). The MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 blocked all of these molecular events induced by 6-MSITC, and enhanced the cell viability in both types of cells in the same manner. These results indicated that ERK1/2-mediated ELK1/CHOP/DR5 pathway is involved in 6-MSITC-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Abbreviations: CHOP: C/EBP homologous protein; DR5: death receptor 5; ELK1: ETS transcription factor; ERK1/2: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2; JNK: Jun-N-terminal kinase; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MEK1/2: MAP/ERK kinase 1/2; 6-MSITC: 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; PARP: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.
  • Article
    Helicobacter pylori (previously Campylobacter pylori) is now accepted as the major cause of type B gastritis and thus what is known about the epidemiology of type B gastritis can reasonably be transferred to H. pylori. We used a specific ELISA for anti-H. pylori IgG to study the prevalence of H. pylori infection in a population of lower socioeconomic class from Hyderabad, India. The results from India were compared to studies from other parts of the world. Two hundred thirty-eight individuals ages 3 to 70 participated. The frequency of H. pylori infection increased with age (P less than 0.01) and was greater than 80% by age 20. H. pylori infection was present in 79% of the population studied; there was no gender-related difference in prevalence of H. pylori infection. IgG antibody against hepatitis A (HAV) was rapidly acquired in Hyderabad; in a subset of 58 children between the ages of 3 and 21 tested, the frequency of anti-HAV was 98.2%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection increases with age in both developed and developing countries. The high age-specific prevalence of H. pylori infection in developing countries is probably a reflection of the lower socioeconomic level of those areas.
  • Article
    Essential oil of Eutrema Wasabi MAXIM. was found to have antimicrobial effects against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans, Zygosaccharomyces salsus.
  • Article
    For the purpose of preventing food spoilage, bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects by hydrostatic pressure treatment with addition of allylisothiocyanate (AIT) were examined. When the vegetative cells of bacteria suspended in a phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) without AIT were treated under hydrostatic pressure at room temperature for 10 min., the sterilization required 300 to 500 MPa condition. In the case of spores of Bacillus subtilis, it was not found any effects on the sterilization until 600 MPa condition. In comparison of two strains of Escherichia coli, type CR-3 was more resistant against hydrostatic pressure than another one. Most microorganisms including E. coli CR -3 were sterilized at 200 or 300 MPa with addition of small amount of AIT, however, Staphylococcus aureus and spores of B. subtilis were not killed in these conditions. In the examination of the growth curve of each strain, the lag phase of the strains treated under 200 MPa with addition of AIT was prolonged more than that of non-treated ones. Application of hydrostatic pressure treatment with AIT for preservation of "Asazuke" (low salted vegetables) was effective for extending the shelf life of the product.
  • Article
    The inhibitory effects of mustard and its major pungent compound, allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) on the growth of five species of bacteria and the relation between their inhibitory activities were studied. Brown mustard extract was prepared as 20% mustard in 70% ethanol after myrosinase treatment. AIT was dissolved in 70% ethanol to form a concentration equivalent to that in the mustard extract. Bacteria were cultured in nutrient broth containing the mustard extract or AIT at 30°C on a reciprocal shaker, and bacterial growth was determined by turbidimetry. The duration of the lag phase of growth was proportional to the concentration of mustard or AIT in the medium, and the turbidity of the stationary phase was sometimes decreased by these inhibitors. The concentrations of mustard in the medium that inhibited bacterial growth for 24h were 0.138%, 0.104%, 0.064%, 0.043% and 0.089%, and those of AIT were 14.5, 12.3, 6.5, 3.6 and 7.2ppm for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas fragi and Ps. aeruginosa, respectively. These results suggested that the inhibitory effect of mustard was mainly due to AIT. Furthermore, it was recognized that the effect of mustard on S. aureus and E. coli was bacteriostatic at 0.8% whereas that on Ps. aeruginosa was bactericidal at 0.2%.
  • Article
    Helicobacter pylori (previouslyCampylobacter pylori) is now accepted as the major cause of type B gastritis and thus what is known about the epidemiology of type B gastritis can reasonably be transferred toH. pylori. We used a specific ELISA for anti-H. pylori IgG to study the prevalence ofH. pylori infection in a population of lower socioeconomic class from Hyderabad, India. The results from India were compared to studies from other parts of the world. Two hundred thirty-eight individuals ages 3 to 70 participated. The frequency ofH. pylori infection increased with age (P80% by age 20.H. pylori infection was present in 79% of the population studied; there was no gender-related difference in prevalence ofH. pylori infection. IgG antibody against hepatitis A (HAV) was rapidly acquired in Hyderabad; in a subset of 58 children between the ages of 3 and 21 tested, the frequency of anti-HAV was 98.2%. The prevalenc ofH. pylori infection increases with age in both developed and developing countries. The high age-specific prevalence ofH. pylori infection in developing countries is probably a reflection of the lower socioeconomic level of those areas.
  • Article
    Despite numerous Helicobacter pylori treatment studies, the optimum regimen(s) for its eradication remain unclear. Our objective was to determine systematically which regimen(s) gave the best pooled eradication rates, by using meta-analysis methodology. A total of 27 studies were identified. Pooled eradication rates for single (18.6%), double (48.2%), and triple therapy (82.3%) were statistically highly different (p < 0.0005). Eradication rates with amoxicillin (23.0%) and bismuth compounds (19.6%) were equivalent. Combined treatment with bismuth+metronidazole was better than bismuth+amoxicillin (55.1% vs. 43.7%, p = 0.049). Triple therapy with bismuth+metronidazole+tetracycline gave a statistically higher eradication rate (94.1%) than bismuth+metronidazole+amoxicillin (73.1%, p < 0.0005). Despite increased side effects with multiple antibiotic regimens, patients tolerated these well, without significant drop-out. The combination of bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline gives the best eradication rate, but the optimal doses and duration of treatment have yet to be determined. Further studies are necessary to explore factors such as antibiotic resistance and drug compliance as important factors affecting antibiotic efficacy.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Infection with Helicobacter pylori has been linked with chronic atrophic gastritis, an inflammatory precursor of gastric adenocarcinoma. In a nested case-control study, we explored whether H. pylori infection increases the risk of gastric carcinoma. From a cohort of 128,992 persons followed since the mid-1960s at a health maintenance organization, 186 patients with gastric carcinoma were selected as case patients and were matched according to age, sex, and race with 186 control subjects without gastric carcinoma. Stored serum samples collected during the 1960s were tested for IgG antibodies to H. pylori by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data on cigarette use, blood group, ulcer disease, and gastric surgery were obtained from questionnaires administered at enrollment. Tissue sections and pathology reports were reviewed to confirm the histologic results. The mean time between serum collection and the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma was 14.2 years. Of the 109 patients with confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma (excluding tumors of the gastroesophageal junction), 84 percent had been infected previously with H. pylori, as compared with 61 percent of the matched control subjects (odds ratio, 3.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 7.3). Tumors of the gastroesophageal junction were not linked to H. pylori infection, nor were tumors in the gastric cardia. H. pylori was a particularly strong risk factor for stomach cancer in women (odds ratio, 18) and blacks (odds ratio, 9). A history of gastric surgery was independently associated with the development of cancer (odds ratio, 17; P = 0.03), but a history of peptic ulcer disease was negatively associated with subsequent gastric carcinoma (odds ratio, 0.2; P = 0.02). Neither blood group nor smoking history affected risk. Infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and may be a cofactor in the pathogenesis of this malignant condition.
  • Article
    50 patients with intractable duodenal ulcer were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) alone (26 patients) or with amoxicillin and metronidazole (24 patients). 5 patients (all on triple therapy) withdrew because of side-effects. In 17 of the 45 patients who completed the treatment, Helicobacter pylori was eradicated, and there was no ulcer relapse during the first 12 months of follow-up. The ulcer relapse rate was significantly higher (17 of 21 [89%]) among patients who remained positive for H pylori. 9 patients who remained positive for H pylori and had ulcer relapses within 6 months of treatment with CBS alone, were subsequently given triple therapy. 7 of the 9 showed H pylori eradication and no relapses within the next 12 months. The 2 patients still H pylori-positive after triple therapy had further ulcer relapses. H pylori eradication, without altering acid output, will become the mainstay of duodenal ulcer treatment because it cures the disease.
  • Article
    Several reports have been published to show the in vitro susceptibility of Campylobacter pylori to different classes of antibiotics, including fluoroquinolones. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical effect of norfloxacin on eradication of C. pylori in patients with gastritis. Endoscopy was performed in 38 patients with symptoms of nonulcerative dyspepsia. Of these, 20 patients had a C. pylori-positive culture. From this group, 17 patients were treated with norfloxacin for 1 month. After therapy, 15 patients still had positive cultures, and in 9 cases the strain was resistant to norfloxacin. These data, which confirm previous studies, support the concept that the in vitro activity of norfloxacin against C. pylori cannot be transposed to an in vivo effect.
  • Article
    Biopsy specimens were taken from intact areas of antral mucosa in 100 consecutive consenting patients presenting for gastroscopy. Spiral or curved bacilli were demonstrated in specimens from 58 patients. Bacilli cultured from 11 of these biopsies were gram-negative, flagellate, and microaerophilic and appeared to be a new species related to the genus Campylobacter. The bacteria were present in almost all patients with active chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer, or gastric ulcer and thus may be an important factor in the aetiology of these diseases.
  • Article
    Triple therapy (bismuth and two antibiotics) will eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection in 70-90% of subjects. Treatment failure has been attributed to patient compliance and antimicrobial drug resistance. The aim of this study was to examine factors influencing the eradication of H. pylori following triple therapy. Thirty seven subjects with H. pylori cultured from antral biopsies were treated with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (120 mg qid for 2 weeks), metronidazole (400 mg tid for 1 week) and amoxycillin (500 mg tid for 1 week). Pretreatment isolates of H. pylori were tested for metronidazole susceptibility by agar dilution according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. Factors including age, sex, clinical diagnosis and metronidazole resistance were evaluated in relation to H. pylori. The overall metronidazole resistance was 32%. Metronidazole resistant strains were more frequent in females, with a resistance rate of 54%. Helicobacter pylori eradication occurred in 68% of patients with a metronidazole susceptible stain and only 17% of patients with a metronidazole resistant strain (P < 0.03). Helicobacter pylori eradication is dependent upon susceptibility to metronidazole. This data would support the role for routine metronidazole susceptibility testing using appropriate standardized methods when triple therapy is to be considered.
  • Article
    Gastric cancer is the major cancer in the developing world and one of the top two worldwide. Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium implicated in the etiology of stomach cancer. The incidence of stomach cancer is lower in individuals and populations with high Allium vegetable intakes. Allium vegetables, particularly garlic, have antibiotic activity. Standard antibiotic regimens against H. pylori are frequently ineffective in high-risk populations. As part of our study of the role of Allium vegetable intake on cancer prevention, we wished to investigate its antimicrobial activity against H. pylori. An aqueous extract of garlic cloves was standardized for its thiosulfinate concentration and tested for its antimicrobial activity on H. pylori grown on chocolate agar plates. Minimum inhibitory concentration was 40 micrograms thiosulfinate per milliliter. Staphylococcus aureus tested under the same conditions was not susceptible to garlic extract up to the maximum thiosulfinate concentration tested (160 micrograms/ml). To our knowledge, this is the first report of H. pylori's susceptibility to garlic extract of known thiosulfinate concentration. It is plausible that the sensitivity of H. pylori to garlic extract at such low concentration may be related to the reported lower risk of stomach cancer in those with a high Allium vegetable intake. Furthermore, it may identify a strategy for a low-cost intervention, with few side effects, in populations at high risk for stomach cancer, particularly where antibiotic resistance and the risk of reinfection are high.
  • Article
    Fast and simple in vitro methods of accurately assaying anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity are needed to facilitate the selection of optimal drugs for the eradication of H. pylori. With that purpose in mind, we developed a broth microdilution technique that uses a 96-well flat-bottom microplate. Clinical isolates of H. pylori were placed in 25-cm2 tissue culture flasks and were grown in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 37 degrees C and 100% humidity. Then they were inoculated in 96-well flat-bottom microplates. After 24 h, the bacterial growth was assessed by automatic measurement at A450 with a microplate reader. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 11 drugs against H. pylori and the effect of two-drug combinations were respectively evaluated by the broth microdilution technique and by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration index according to the checkerboard titration method. The MICs of all drugs tested with this system roughly agreed with those of previous reports in which the agar dilution method was used. The MIC of lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, was low (0.88 microg/ml) and surpassed that of metronidazole (3.15 microg/ml). The effect of the combination of macrolide antibiotics with tetracycline was favorable. The proton pump inhibitor demonstrated a strong additive effect with macrolide antibiotics and fostered the activity of ecabet sodium (mucosal protective agent). This system could estimate the MIC of individual drugs quickly and simply, and could accurately measure the efficacy of two-drug combinations in vitro.
  • Article
    Metronidazole is one of the most commonly used antimicrobial agents for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Resistance to metronidazole has been reported worldwide but with a wide range of prevalence. We started using the classical triple therapy (bismuth, tetracycline, and metronidazole) for H. pylori infection in 1991 but recently have experienced a decline in its efficacy in curing the infection. Thus our aim was to investigate in a single center the prevalence of metronidazole-resistant H. pylori over a period of 5 years. A total of 1,015 different H. pylori strains collected over a period of 5 years were tested for sensitivity against metronidazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, and imipenem. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested by the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. To elucidate further the possible relationship between these metronidazole-resistant strains, genomic DNA digestion by the Hae III endonuclease and ribotyping were undertaken in a selected group of isolates. In 1991, 29 of 132 (22.0%) tested strains of H. pylori were found to be resistant to metronidazole. Since our initiation at that time of a triple therapy of bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline, the prevalence of metronidazole-resistant strains rose rapidly to 73.2% in 1995. All H. pylori isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, and imipenem. A high degree of genomic heterogeneity was found among these isolates. Thus it is unlikely that the resistant strains of H. pylori were originated from a single clone. This study shows a rapid increase in metronidazole-resistant H. pylori with the use of an anti-Helicobacter regimen that contains metronidazole. We anticipate that the efficacy of metronidazole-containing anti-Helicobacter regimens will decline with the rapid rise in resistant strains of H. pylori.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    We tested whether antibiotic-resistant strains appeared in vivo after the failure of treatment using the Helicobacter pylori-infected euthymic mouse model. The numbers of colonies isolated from 56 ICR mice 2 weeks after 4 days of treatment with metronidazole (3.2, 10, or 32 mg/kg of body weight) or amoxicillin (1, 3.2 or 10 mg/kg), with treatment started 4 days after H. pylori CPY2052 inoculation, were counted, and the isolated strains were tested for their sensitivities to two antibiotics to rule out the presence of antibiotic-resistant strains. One metronidazole-resistant strain was detected in a mouse treated with 10 mg of metronidazole per kg, and the MIC of metronidazole for this strain was 25 microg/ml, compared to a MIC of 1.56 microg/ml for the original strain. However, no resistant strain was detected in the amoxicillin treatment group. After the examination described above, mice challenged with a metronidazole-resistant or -sensitive strain isolated from the stomach of a mouse were treated with metronidazole or amoxicillin. The metronidazole-resistant strain was more difficult to eradicate in vivo than the sensitive strain after treatment with metronidazole but not after treatment with amoxicillin. Thus, a metronidazole-resistant H. pylori strain was selected by insufficient treatment, but no resistant strain was selected with amoxicillin. Eradication of a metronidazole-resistant H. pylori strain in vivo required a higher dosage than eradication of a metronidazole-sensitive H. pylori strain. These results may explain one of the reasons for H. pylori treatment failure.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The catechin epigallocatechin gallate showed the strongest activity of the six tea catechins tested against Helicobacter pylori (MIC for 50% of the strains tested, 8 microg/ml). It had bactericidal activity at pH 7 but not at pH </=5.0. In infected Mongolian gerbils, H. pylori was eradicated in 10 to 36% of the catechin-treated animals, with significant decreases in mucosal hemorrhage and erosion. Tea catechins, therefore, may have therapeutic effects on H. pylori infection.
  • Article
    Lean tuna meat suspensions (LEAN), with a fat content of 0.006%, and fatty tuna meat suspension (FATTY), with a fat content of 3.0% were inoculated with four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) or allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was added before incubation at 37 degrees C. During the incubation, viable Vibrio counts were determined on TCBS agar plates. Both LEAN and FATTY suspensions were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus AOTO-81, (1.28+/-0.20) x 10(2) CFU/ml, followed by addition of 20 mg wasabi/ml, and incubation for 8 h. The viable Vibrio counts were (7.76+/-5.93) x 10(5) CFU/ml in LEAN and (3.50+/-2.65) x 10(1) CFU/ml in FATTY. When the same strain, at (1.18+/-0.22) x 10(2) CFU/ml, was incubated for 8 h with 50.9 microg AIT/ml, viable Vibrio counts were (4.79+/-1.78) x 10(4) CFU/ml in LEAN and (1.80+/-1.30) x 10(1) CFU/ml in FATTY. Growth of the other three strains with wasabi or AIT was shown to be less in FATTY than in LEAN. These results indicate that growth of V. parahaemolyticus is inhibited more in FATTY than in LEAN by wasabi and allyl isothiocyanate.
  • Inhibition properties of horserad-ish vapors
    • M J Foter
    • A M Golick
    Foter, M.J., Golick, A.M., 1938. Inhibition properties of horserad-ish vapors. Food Res. 3, 609 – 613.