Apo D in soft tissue tumors - A novel marker for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States
American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 09/2004; 28(8):1063-9. DOI: 10.1097/01.pas.0000126857.86186.4c
Source: PubMed


Using gene microarray expression profiling, we previously found that apolipoprotein D (Apo D) was highly expressed in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). In this study, we confirm that Apo D is highly and relatively specifically expressed in DFSP using immunohistochemistry. A tissue microarray containing 421 soft tissue tumors was constructed and stained with antibodies against Apo D and CD34. Cytoplasmic immunostaining for Apo D was found in 9 of 10 typical DFSPs. In addition, 3 of 3 Bednar tumors and 2 of 3 giant cell fibroblastomas stained in conventional sections. In contrast, Apo D was immunoreactive in only a very small subset of a diverse collection of other soft tissue tumors, including Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma (MFH), glomus tumor, neurofibroma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Immunostains for Apo D were negative in conventional sections of 16 fibrous histiocytomas, and an additional 12 variants of fibrous histiocytoma. Digital images of all immunohistochemical and hematoxylin and eosin tissue microarray stains are available at the accompanying website ( We conclude that Apo D is strongly expressed in DFSPs and neural lesions and may be useful in differentiating DFSP from fibrous histiocytoma.

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Available from: Rajiv Michael Patel, Feb 12, 2015
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    • "Expression profiling of 5520 genes at the mRNA level using microarrays has revealed distinct molecular signatures for 41 sarcomas, thereby providing new markers with potential diagnostic value [6]. Furthermore, expression microarrays have identified robust, novel sarcoma-specific immunohistochemical markers [7–10]. These results are expected to lead to novel therapeutic modalities in the near future. "
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    ABSTRACT: Soft tissue sarcomas are rare and account for less than 1% of all malignant cancers. Other than development of intensive therapies, the clinical outcome of patients with soft tissue sarcoma remains very poor, particularly when diagnosed at a late stage. Unique mutations have been associated with certain soft tissue sarcomas, but their etiologies remain unknown. The proteome is a functional translation of a genome, which directly regulates the malignant features of tumors. Thus, proteomics is a promising approach for investigating soft tissue sarcomas. Various proteomic approaches and clinical materials have been used to address clinical and biological issues, including biomarker development, molecular target identification, and study of disease mechanisms. Several cancer-associated proteins have been identified using conventional technologies such as 2D-PAGE, mass spectrometry, and array technology. The functional backgrounds of proteins identified were assessed extensively using in vitro experiments, thus supporting expression analysis. These observations demonstrate the applicability of proteomics to soft tissue sarcoma studies. However, the sample size in each study was insufficient to allow conclusive results. Given the low frequency of soft tissue sarcomas, multi-institutional collaborations are required to validate the results of proteomic approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012
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    • "Immunohistochemically, most DFSP stain positively for CD34, whereas, FS-DFSP are CD34 positive in about half of cases [6]. Apolipoprotein-D (Apo-D), a glycoprotein component of human plasma lipid transport system, has been found to be highly expressed in DFSP by gene arrays [7] and it has been proposed as a novel marker for this neoplasm [8]. The role of Apo-D in DFSP is unknown. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a relatively common soft-tissue tumor. A more aggressive appearing fibrosarcoma may arise in DFSP, changing its biological behavior. CD34 and apolipoprotein-D are highly expressed in DFSP, but their prognostic significance is uncertain. DFSP and fibrosarcomatous-DFSP (FS-DFSP) patients referred to our institute between 1982 and 2009 were identified. Fibrosarcomatous changes, expression of CD34 and apolipoprotein-D were evaluated. 40 patients, (median age 43 years, 55% males) were identified. Tumor was located in the limbs in 60%, in the trunk in 40%. Thirty-seven patients had localized and 3 had metastatic disease. Thirteen (32%) patients were FS-DFSP. All but one underwent surgery with adequate surgical margins in 72%. 7 FS-DFSP received also radiotherapy (RT). Chemotherapy was administered to 3 patients with FS-DFSP. With a median follow-up of 49 months, the 5-OS was 90%. Local recurrence rate was 23%: 42% FS-DFSP, 15% DFSP. Metastases developed in three FS-DFSP patients. The 5-year EFS was 70% in localized patients. Histology (DFSP 75% vs. FS-DFSP 52%, p = 0.002), surgical margins (adequate 74% vs. inadequate 55%, p = 0.02), site (limb 47% vs. trunk 100%), CD34 expression (CD34 positive: 70% vs. CD34 negative: 33%, p = 0.05), and apolipoprotein-D expression (Apo-D positive: 73% vs. Apo-D negative: 33%, p = 0.02) influenced the 5-year EFS, whereas sex, use of RT or number of previous surgical treatments did not. Patients with DFSP have a high survival probability. Site, adequate surgical margins, presence of the fibrosarcomatous component, lack of CD34 expression and apolipoprotein-D influence outcome.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
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    • "Immunostains for S-100 protein, desmin, muscle specific actin, α-smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin, and EMA are typically negative. Apolipoprotein D (APOD) has been found to be highly expressed in DFSP and its histological variants [126]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Myxoid soft-tissue sarcomas represent a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors characterized by a predominantly myxoid matrix, including myxoid liposarcoma (MLS), low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS), extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC), myxofibrosarcoma, myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS), and myxoid dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses have shown that many of these sarcomas are characterized by recurrent chromosomal translocations resulting in highly specific fusion genes (e.g., FUS-DDIT3 in MLS, FUS-CREB3L2 in LGFMS, EWSR1-NR4A3 in EMC, and COL1A1-PDGFB in myxoid DFSP). Moreover, recent molecular analysis has demonstrated a translocation t(1; 10)(p22; q24) resulting in transcriptional upregulation of FGF8 and NPM3 in MIFS. Most recently, the presence of TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements has been identified in a subset of MIFS. These genetic alterations can be utilized as an adjunct in diagnostically challenging cases. In contrast, most myxofibrosarcomas have complex karyotypes lacking specific genetic alterations. This paper focuses on the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings of myxoid soft-tissue sarcomas as well as their clinicopathological characteristics.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011
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