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A new species of halfbeak, Hyporhamphus naos (Beloniformes: Hemiramphidae), from the tropical eastern Pacific

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Abstract

The tropical eastern Pacific halfbeak previously considered conspecific with the western Atlantic Hyporhamphus unifasciatus (Ranzani 1842) is described as a new species, H. naos. It resembles H. meeki from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States in number of gill rakers on the first arch (usually 32-36, mean 33.6), more than in H. unifasciatus (usually 29-32, mean 30.6), but fewer than in other sympatric species of eastern Pacific Hyporhamphus. Results of a three-treatment ANCOVA (H. naos, H. meeki, and H. unifasciatus) show significant differences in slopes and means for all 14 morphometric characters examined, 9 of 14 characters comparing H. naos with H. unifasciatus, and 7 of 14 comparing H. naos with H. meeki. Protein electrophoretic patterns clearly distinguish all three species with a number of fixed allelic differences.
... El pajarito blanco del Pacífico, H. naos tuvo los segundos valores más negativos de δ 13 C y menos positivos de δ 15 N entre las presas potenciales. Esta especie es de hábitos costeros y neríticos, asociada a playas arenosas y estuarios(Banford y Collette 2001). No existe información sobre sus hábitos alimentarios o su ecología; sin embargo, Aurioles-Gamboa et al. (2013) reportan valores de -16.5 ± 1.3 para δ 13 C y 17.1 ± 1.5 para δ15N para Hyporhamphus unifasciatus (Ranzani, 1841). ...
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Coexistence among sympatric species requires a certain degree of resource partitioning. In this regard, there is a lack of knowledge regarding S. attenuata (SA) and S. longirostris (SL) in Mexico; hence, the stable isotope analysis was used to assess the differences between their feeding habits, particularly in trophic poisition/amplitude and habitat use (δ 15 N and δ 13 C, respectively; Bayesian comparisons and estimations of isotopic niches and trophic levels), to identify trophic relationships with other species from the region (Bayesian mixing model). Additionally, the possible intra-specific feeding diversification was explored by linking the isotopic values of both species with their matrilineages (mtDNA, Random Forest Classifier). Surveys were performed in the Central Coast of Oaxaca, from 2016 to 2019 (dry seasons). A trend towards feeding segregation was found between both delphinids, especially in carbon sources (δ 13 C, p(SA>SL)=100 %); furthermore, SA (n=22) presented a higher isotopic niche than SL (n=25; SIBER, SEAc=0.9 h 2 vs 0.7 h 2 ) and more positive δ 13 C, with an 33 % overlap, which suggests more coastal habits of SA. An interannual variation for both isotopes of both species was found, mainly in 2018, possibly due to signals coming from different isoscapes, alhtough changes in the trophic spectrum are not discarded. In SL, these isotopic differences were related with the presence of different haplotypic groups with distinct isotopic values and isotopic niche amplitude each year. The most relevant prey species were Benthosema panamense and Hyporhamphus naos (∼50 %), although B. panamense was more dominant for SL (p( %SL> %SA)=89 %). Calculated trophic levels were 4.1 and 3.8 for SA and SL, respectively. This work provides evidence of a resource partitioning between and within both dolphin species that inhabit the Central Coast of Oaxaca.
... Sin embargo, ésta pertenece a la ictiofauna del Atlántico y no existe en el Pacífico oriental. Es probable que el autor pudiera haberse referido a Hyporhamphus naos Banford y Collette 2001; ambas se consideran pares y la segunda es válida en el Pacífico oriental (Banford y Collette, 2001). Los miembros de este grupo habitan cerca de la superficie tanto oceánica, como en lagunas costeras y estuarios, son de hábitos pelágicos; en consecuencia su inclusión como especie demersal es incorrecta y confunde al lector. ...
... En los últimos años se han realizado trabajos taxonómicos donde se implementan herramientas de análisis genéticos que complementan los datos morfológicos y de distribución geográfica. En este contexto, las especies de peces con distribución disyunta en las costas del continente Americano, es decir, las conocidas como anfiamericanas, han recibido notable atención (Banford y Collette, 2001;Burhanuddin y Parin, 2008;Craig et al., 2009;Pfeiler, Van der Heiden, Ruboyianes y Watts, 2011). Durante la realización del catálogo actualizado de los condrictios que habitan en las costas de México (Del Moral-Flores y Pérez-Ponce de León, 2013), se evaluó el estatus taxonómico del tiburón gata G. cirratum, en correspondencia a la observación de Compagno (2002), a partir de lo cual se reconocieron diferencias morfológicas entre los ejemplares procedentes de las costas del Atlántico occidental y aquellos del POT; estas diferencias permiten sustentar los resultados de Karl, Castro y Garla (2012), quienes previamente analizaron la región mitocondrial control y un total de 8 microsatélites en individuos de diferentes poblaciones del Atlántico y del Pacífico para evaluar la variación genética, encontrando que la población del Pacífico está muy diferenciada de aquellas del Atlántico y sugiriendo que podría representar una especie críptica. ...
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... Sin embargo, ésta pertenece a la ictiofauna del Atlántico y no existe en el Pacífico oriental. Es probable que el autor pudiera haberse referido a Hyporhamphus naos Banford y Collette 2001; ambas se consideran pares y la segunda es válida en el Pacífico oriental (Banford y Collette, 2001). Los miembros de este grupo habitan cerca de la superficie tanto oceánica, como en lagunas costeras y estuarios, son de hábitos pelágicos; en consecuencia su inclusión como especie demersal es incorrecta y confunde al lector. ...
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