Can young adult patients with proteinuric IgA nephropathy perform physical exercise?

University Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Italy.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.9). 09/2004; 44(2):257-63. DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2004.04.030
Source: PubMed


It is not known whether physical exercise increases daily proteinuria in patients with proteinuric nephropathies, thus accelerating progression of the renal lesion. This study evaluates the acute effects of physical exercise on proteinuria in young adults with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy.
Changes induced by intense physical exercise on quantitative and qualitative proteinuria were evaluated in basal conditions and after 10 days of ramipril therapy in 10 patients with IgA nephropathy, normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria between 0.8 and 1.49 g/24 h, and "glomerular" microhematuria before and after the end of a maximal treadmill Bruce test (B-test). The basal study also was performed in 10 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers.
At rest, GFR averaged 141 +/- 23 mL/min; it increased by 16.3% +/- 3.3% (P < 0.005) and 7.1% +/- 1.6% at 60 and 120 minutes after the B-test, respectively. At rest, GFR-corrected proteinuria averaged protein of 0.76 +/- 0.21 mg/min/100 mL GFR; it increased to 1.55 +/- 0.28 mg/min/100 mL GFR after 60 minutes (P < 0.001) and declined to 0.60 +/- 0.11 mg/min/100 mL GFR at 120 minutes after the end of the B-test. The pattern of urinary proteins remained unchanged, as did microhematuria. Daily proteinuria was not different from the basal value on the day of the B-test. After ramipril therapy, patients showed a reduction in GFR, but no change in daily GFR-corrected proteinuria, pattern of urinary proteins, or hematuria.
The increase in proteinuria after exercise in our patients is significant and is not prevented by ramipril therapy, but lasts less than 120 minutes. Therefore, it cannot modify daily proteinuria. Thus, these data do not support the need to reduce acute physical activity in patients with nonnephrotic renal diseases.

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    • "There is also evidence that ROS and high glucose exposure contribute to podocyte apoptosis in experimental DN [8]. It is considered that exercise-induced proteinuria is usually not permanent but evanescent [9] [10]. Moreover it is little known that moderate exercise has adverse effect on the renal function [11] [12] [13] [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise is recommended for the management of type 2 diabetes, but its effects on diabetic nephropathy (DN) are still unknown. We hypothesized that appropriate exercise improves early DN via attenuation of inflammation and oxidative damage. Type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice, a spontaneous DN model, underwent two different kinds of exercise (i.e., moderate and low intensity). Sedentary mice or those undergoing an exercise regimen causing no significant body weight loss were used. We examined the urinary excretion of albumin, number of podocytes and macrophages, renal expressions of HIF-1α and MCP-1, and biomarkers of oxidative stress such as urinary 8-OHdG and serum SOD. Exercise reduced urinary levels of albumin and also maintained the number of podocytes in the exercised KK-Ay mice independently of improvements of overweight and hyperglycemia, although moderate-intensity exercise increased expression of HIF-1α. Sedentary KK-Ay mice showed increased expression of MCP-1 and infiltration of macrophage, increased urinary 8-OhdG, and decreased serum SOD levels compared with exercised KK-Ay mice. On the whole, low-intensity exercise attenuates progression of early DN without affecting marked renal ischemia. Reduction rates of urinary albumin and maintained podocyte numbers, with parallel improvements in oxidative damage and inflammation, are related to beneficial effects of exercise in diabetic kidney disease.
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    ABSTRACT: The study involved 120 young males (aged 20.5 +/- 2.5 years) having undergone successful kidney biopsy because of asymptomatic haematuria with the aims to assess the prevalence of histological diagnosis and the natural history of the disease. The patients were selected from the population of conscripts who were referred to our clinic as a result of asymptomatic microhaematuria. All patients had a negative history of kidney disease, normal creatinine clearance (Ccr), while extrarenal causes of microhaematuria were excluded. The patients were divided into a group of 62 patients with isolated microhaematuria (IMH; proteinuria < 0.3 g/day) and a group of 58 patients with asymptomatic microhaematuria and proteinuria (AMHP; proteinuria > 0.3 g/day). After kidney biopsy patients were monitored for 3-9 years. Normal biopsies and minor abnormalities were more frequent in IMH than in AMHP patients, who had IgA nephritis more frequently and significantly higher total pathohistological score. Based on the clinical and histological features, recommendations on patients' ability for military service were made. During the follow-up period, normal Ccr maintained in all patients. Macrohaematuria appeared in 42 patients and proteinuria worsened in eight patients (seven with AMHP). Urinary abnormalities disappeared in 20 patients with IMH and in eight with AMHP (p = 0.04). Minimal histological changes and disappearance of urinary abnormalities were more frequent in IMH than in AMHP patients. Kidney biopsy is useful only in patients with AMHP but it is not necessary in IMH patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. In the National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines it is stressed that lifestyle issues such as physical activity should be seen as cornerstones of the therapy. The physical fitness in adults with CKD is so reduced that it impinges on ability and capacity to perform activities in everyday life and occupational tasks. An increasing number of studies have been published regarding health effects of various regular exercise programmes in adults with CKD and in renal transplant patients. We aimed to: 1) assess the effects of regular exercise in adults with CKD and kidney transplant patients; and 2) determine how the exercise programme should be designed (e.g. type, duration, intensity, frequency of exercise) to be able to affect physical fitness and functioning, level of physical activity, cardiovascular dimensions, nutrition, lipids, glucose metabolism, systemic inflammation, muscle morphology and morphometrics, dropout rates, compliance, adverse events and mortality. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's specialised register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Biosis, Pedro, Amed, AgeLine, PsycINFO and KoreaMed. We also handsearched reference lists of review articles and included studies, conference proceeding's abstracts. There were no language restrictions.Date of last search: May 2010. We included any randomised controlled trial (RCT) enrolling adults with CKD or kidney transplant recipients undergoing any type of physical exercise intervention undertaken for eight weeks or more. Studies using less than eight weeks exercise, those only recommending an increase in physical activity, and studies in which co-interventions are not applied or given to both groups were excluded. Data extraction and assessment of study and data quality were performed independently by the two authors. Continuous outcome data are presented as standardised mean difference (SMD) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Forty-five studies, randomising 1863 participants were included in this review. Thirty two studies presented data that could be meta-analysed. Types of exercise training included cardiovascular training, mixed cardiovascular and resistance training, resistance-only training and yoga. Some studies used supervised exercise interventions and others used unsupervised interventions. Exercise intensity was classed as 'high' or 'low', duration of individual exercise sessions ranged from 20 minutes/session to 110 minutes/session, and study duration was from two to 18 months. Seventeen per cent of studies were classed as having an overall low risk of bias, 33% as moderate, and 49% as having a high risk of bias.The results shows that regular exercise significantly improved: 1) physical fitness (aerobic capacity, 24 studies, 847 participants: SMD -0.56, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.42; walking capacity, 7 studies, 191 participants: SMD -0.36, 95% CI-0.65 to -0.06); 2) cardiovascular dimensions (resting diastolic blood pressure, 11 studies, 419 participants: MD 2.32 mm Hg, 95% CI 0.59 to 4.05; resting systolic blood pressure, 9 studies, 347 participants: MD 6.08 mm Hg, 95% CI 2.15 to 10.12; heart rate, 11 studies, 229 participants: MD 6 bpm, 95% CI 10 to 2); 3) some nutritional parameters (albumin, 3 studies, 111 participants: MD -2.28 g/L, 95% CI -4.25 to -0.32; pre-albumin, 3 studies, 111 participants: MD - 44.02 mg/L, 95% CI -71.52 to -16.53; energy intake, 4 studies, 97 participants: SMD -0.47, 95% CI -0.88 to -0.05); and 4) health-related quality of life. Results also showed how exercise should be designed in order to optimise the effect. Other outcomes had insufficient evidence. There is evidence for significant beneficial effects of regular exercise on physical fitness, walking capacity, cardiovascular dimensions (e.g. blood pressure and heart rate), health-related quality of life and some nutritional parameters in adults with CKD. Other outcomes had insufficient evidence due to the lack of data from RCTs. The design of the exercise intervention causes difference in effect size and should be considered when prescribing exercise with the aim of affecting a certain outcome. Future RCTs should focus more on the effects of resistance training interventions or mixed cardiovascular- and resistance training as these exercise types have not been studied as much as cardiovascular exercise.
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