Can young adult patients with proteinuric IgA nephropathy perform physical exercise?

Article · September 2004with60 Reads
DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2004.04.030 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
It is not known whether physical exercise increases daily proteinuria in patients with proteinuric nephropathies, thus accelerating progression of the renal lesion. This study evaluates the acute effects of physical exercise on proteinuria in young adults with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. Changes induced by intense physical exercise on quantitative and qualitative proteinuria were evaluated in basal conditions and after 10 days of ramipril therapy in 10 patients with IgA nephropathy, normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria between 0.8 and 1.49 g/24 h, and "glomerular" microhematuria before and after the end of a maximal treadmill Bruce test (B-test). The basal study also was performed in 10 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. At rest, GFR averaged 141 +/- 23 mL/min; it increased by 16.3% +/- 3.3% (P < 0.005) and 7.1% +/- 1.6% at 60 and 120 minutes after the B-test, respectively. At rest, GFR-corrected proteinuria averaged protein of 0.76 +/- 0.21 mg/min/100 mL GFR; it increased to 1.55 +/- 0.28 mg/min/100 mL GFR after 60 minutes (P < 0.001) and declined to 0.60 +/- 0.11 mg/min/100 mL GFR at 120 minutes after the end of the B-test. The pattern of urinary proteins remained unchanged, as did microhematuria. Daily proteinuria was not different from the basal value on the day of the B-test. After ramipril therapy, patients showed a reduction in GFR, but no change in daily GFR-corrected proteinuria, pattern of urinary proteins, or hematuria. The increase in proteinuria after exercise in our patients is significant and is not prevented by ramipril therapy, but lasts less than 120 minutes. Therefore, it cannot modify daily proteinuria. Thus, these data do not support the need to reduce acute physical activity in patients with nonnephrotic renal diseases.
    • There is also evidence that ROS and high glucose exposure contribute to podocyte apoptosis in experimental DN [8]. It is considered that exercise-induced proteinuria is usually not permanent but evanescent [9] [10]. Moreover it is little known that moderate exercise has adverse effect on the renal function [11] [12] [13] [14].
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise is recommended for the management of type 2 diabetes, but its effects on diabetic nephropathy (DN) are still unknown. We hypothesized that appropriate exercise improves early DN via attenuation of inflammation and oxidative damage. Type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice, a spontaneous DN model, underwent two different kinds of exercise (i.e., moderate and low intensity). Sedentary mice or those undergoing an exercise regimen causing no significant body weight loss were used. We examined the urinary excretion of albumin, number of podocytes and macrophages, renal expressions of HIF-1α and MCP-1, and biomarkers of oxidative stress such as urinary 8-OHdG and serum SOD. Exercise reduced urinary levels of albumin and also maintained the number of podocytes in the exercised KK-Ay mice independently of improvements of overweight and hyperglycemia, although moderate-intensity exercise increased expression of HIF-1α. Sedentary KK-Ay mice showed increased expression of MCP-1 and infiltration of macrophage, increased urinary 8-OhdG, and decreased serum SOD levels compared with exercised KK-Ay mice. On the whole, low-intensity exercise attenuates progression of early DN without affecting marked renal ischemia. Reduction rates of urinary albumin and maintained podocyte numbers, with parallel improvements in oxidative damage and inflammation, are related to beneficial effects of exercise in diabetic kidney disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study involved 120 young males (aged 20.5 +/- 2.5 years) having undergone successful kidney biopsy because of asymptomatic haematuria with the aims to assess the prevalence of histological diagnosis and the natural history of the disease. The patients were selected from the population of conscripts who were referred to our clinic as a result of asymptomatic microhaematuria. All patients had a negative history of kidney disease, normal creatinine clearance (Ccr), while extrarenal causes of microhaematuria were excluded. The patients were divided into a group of 62 patients with isolated microhaematuria (IMH; proteinuria < 0.3 g/day) and a group of 58 patients with asymptomatic microhaematuria and proteinuria (AMHP; proteinuria > 0.3 g/day). After kidney biopsy patients were monitored for 3-9 years. Normal biopsies and minor abnormalities were more frequent in IMH than in AMHP patients, who had IgA nephritis more frequently and significantly higher total pathohistological score. Based on the clinical and histological features, recommendations on patients' ability for military service were made. During the follow-up period, normal Ccr maintained in all patients. Macrohaematuria appeared in 42 patients and proteinuria worsened in eight patients (seven with AMHP). Urinary abnormalities disappeared in 20 patients with IMH and in eight with AMHP (p = 0.04). Minimal histological changes and disappearance of urinary abnormalities were more frequent in IMH than in AMHP patients. Kidney biopsy is useful only in patients with AMHP but it is not necessary in IMH patients.
    Article · Mar 2008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This study investigated clustering patterns of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and several lifestyle-related factors in urban Japanese subjects. Design: Cross-sectional study Methods: Data of ten factors including age, frequency of physical exercise, body mass index (BMI), mean blood pressure (MBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum total cholesterol (TC), serum triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDLc), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ GTP), serum uric acid (UA), and eGFR, were analyzed in 33,565 (8,080 men; 25,485 women) individuals aged 20-69 years in an urban Japanese population. The data were subjected to factor analysis, which reduced the variables to three factors in both genders. Results: The first factor was obesity and related factors, the second factor was uric acid and related factors, and the third factor was aging and related factors. Changes in eGFR were influenced mainly by aging in young adults, while in individuals older than 40 years, these changes were determined primarily by UA levels. Conclusion: These findings indicated that uric acid may have a major influence factor on the levels of eGFR. No correlation was noted between eGFR and metabolic factors represented by obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.
    Article · Sep 2010
  • Article · Sep 2010
    +1 more author...Kevan Roy Polkinghorne
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited research has been done on integrating cooking and exercise classes into the routine care of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The main purpose of the research was to determine whether the addition of these services would slow the progression of certain CKD parameters. The study evaluated 5 endpoints, at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months: urinary protein, blood pressure, urinary sodium, glomerular filtration rate, and total cholesterol between 2 groups (control group receiving CKD standard care and experimental group receiving standard care plus cooking and exercise classes). Eighty percent of the experimental group was hypothesized to improve in 4 out of the 5 endpoints versus ≤50% in the control group with a P-value of 0.05. An overall difference of 30% was anticipated between the 2 groups. The research also compared self-efficacy and health status outcomes using a self-management questionnaire. Forty randomly assigned patients participated in the study (17 controls and 23 experimental). In the control group, 2 of 17 people improved in at least 4 of the 5 endpoints. In the experimental group, 14 of 23 people improved in at least 4 of the 5 endpoints. Sixty-one percent of experimental subjects showed improvements in 4 of 5 endpoints, showing a significant difference overall when compared with the control group (12% improved in 4 out of 5 endpoints). In looking at the trend in qualitative measures from the comparison of the self-management questionnaire, the overall trend showed more improved answers with the experimental group versus the control group.
    Article · Mar 2011
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerular disease with approximately 30% to 40% of patients progressing to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) within 20 years. The most common regimens include immunosuppressive agents, however the risks of long-term treatment often outweigh the potential benefits. Non-immunosuppressive options, including fish oils, anticoagulants, antihypertensive agents and tonsillectomy have also been examined but not reviewed systematically. To assess the benefits and harms of non-immunosuppressive treatments for treating IgAN in adults and children. In July 2010 we searched the Cochrane Renal Group's specialised register, CENTRAL (in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (from 1966) and EMBASE (from 1980). We also searched reference lists of included studies, review articles and contacted local and international experts. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of non-immunosuppressive agents in adults and children with biopsy-proven IgAN were included. Two authors independently reviewed search results, extracted data and assessed study quality. Results were expressed as mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes and risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. We included 56 studies (2838 participants). Antihypertensive agents were the most beneficial non-immunosuppressive intervention for IgAN. The antihypertensives examined were predominantly angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) or combinations of both, versus other antihypertensives and other agents. The benefits of antihypertensive agents, particularly inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system, appear to potentially outweigh the harms in patients with IgAN. The benefits are largely manifest as a reduction in proteinuria, a surrogate outcome. There is no evidence that treatment with any of the antihypertensive agents evaluated affect major renal and/or cardiovascular endpoints or long-term mortality risk beyond the benefit that arises from controlling hypertension in patients with IgAN. The RCT evidence is insufficiently robust to demonstrate efficacy for any of the other non-immunosuppressive therapies evaluated here. IgAN remains a disease in search of adequately powered RCTs to reliably inform clinical practice. More and better evidence is needed to understand the magnitude of benefit and the possible risks of anti-hypertensive or more specifically of ACEi/ARB therapy alone or in combination and which specific types of patients with the IgAN might have the greatest potential for benefit. For other non-immunosuppressive therapies, where neither benefit nor significant harm has yet to be demonstrated, there remains some justification for further exploration of the potential benefits.
    Article · Mar 2011
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