ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.), Thymol



An evidence-based systematic review including scientific evidence, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.
Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD, Column Editor
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), Thymol
Ethan Basch, MD, MPhil
Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD
Paul Hammerness, MD
Anja Bevins, PharmD
David Sollars, MAc, HMC
Ethan Basch is affiliated with the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.
Catherine Ulbricht is affiliated with the Massachusetts General Hospital. Paul
Hammerness is affiliated with the Harvard Medical School. Anja Bevins is affiliated
with Northeastern University. David Sollars is affiliated with the New England School
of Acupuncture. All are members of the Natural Standard Research Collaboration
Address correspondence to: Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD, c/o Natural Standard, P.O.
Box 390709, Cambridge, MA 02139-0008 (E-mail:
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and
is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on re
view of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience.
This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should
consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies,
diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
Copyright 2003 Natural Standard Inc. Reprinted with permission.
Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 4(1) 2004
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1300/J157v04n01_07 49
ABSTRACT. An evidence-based systematic review including scien
tific evidence, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacol
ogy, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and
[Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Deliv
ery Service: 1-800-HAWORTH. E-mail address: <docdelivery@haworthpress.
com> Website: <>]
KEYWORDS. Thymus vulgaris L., thymol, Labiatae, Lamiaceae
mon thyme, common garden thyme, English thyme, farigola, folia thymi,
French thyme, garden thyme, Gartenthymian, herba thymi, herba timi,
Labiatae (family), Lamiaceae (family), mother of thyme, red thyme,
rubbed thyme, serpyllium, shepherd’s thyme, Spanish thyme, ten, thick
leaf thyme, time, timo, thym, thyme aetheroleum, thyme oil, thymi
herba, Thymian, Thymus serpyllum, Thymus zygis L., wild thyme, white
thyme oil.
Brief Background
Thyme has been used medicinally for thousands of years. Beyond its
common culinary application, it has been recommended for a myriad of
indications, based upon proposed antimicrobial, antitussive, spasmolytic
and antioxidant activity. To date there are no well-defined controlled
clinical trials to support thyme monotherapy for therapeutic use in hu-
Thymol, one of the constituents of thyme, is contained in antiseptic
mouthwashes, with limited clinical studies in the available literature to
corroborate its efficacy as a monotherapy in dental outcomes, such as
reductions in plaque formation, gingivitis and caries.
Although no well-defined clinical data exist, traditional health prac
tice patterns, expert opinion, and anecdote suggest that the herb is gen
erally well tolerated in common doses; the majority of adverse events
appear to be related to dermatologic or allergic reactions. The essential
oil of thyme should not be used orally since it has been associated with
toxic reactions ranging from nausea to respiratory arrest.
Scientific Evidence for Common/Studied Uses
Indication Evidence Grade
Alopecia areata C
Dental plaque C
Paronychia, onycholysis, antifungal C
Bronchitis, cough C
Inflammatory skin disorders C
Historical or Theoretical Indications
Which Lack Sufficient Evidence
Abscess, acne, appetite stimulant, anxiety, arthritis, asthma, burns,
cellulitis, depression, gastritis, colic, cystitis, dermatitis, der-
matomyositis, diarrhea, diuresis, dysmenorrhea, dyspepsia, dyspnea,
eczema, edema, enuresis, epilepsy, fever, flatulence, flu, gas, gingivitis,
gout, H. pylori,
halitosis, headache, heartburn, hookworms, indiges-
tion, inflammation of the colon, insect bites, insomnia, intestinal para-
sites, laryngitis, lice, neuralgia, nightmares, obesity, pertussis, pruritis,
rheumatism, roundworms, scabies, scleroderma, sinusitis, sore throat,
spasms, sprains, stomach cramps, stomatitis, tonsillitis, urethritis, upper
respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, vaginal irritation,
warts, wound healing.
Expert Opinion and Folkloric Precedent
Thyme leaf is renowned for being a culinary spice and has also been
used cosmetically and medicinally.
Traditional uses of thyme include for coughs and upper respiratory
congestion; it continues to be one of the most commonly recommended
herbs in Europe for these indications. The German expert panel, the
Commission E, has approved thyme for symptoms of bronchitis, whoop
ing cough, and catarrh (inflammation of upper respiratory tract mucous
Topically, thymol (a major constituent of thyme), has been used for
various bacterial infections. Recent studies of combination products in
cluding thymol, such as Listerine
, have shown antibacterial activity
when used as a mouthwash to reduce oral bacteria.
Monograph from Natural Standard 51
Experts have recommended the use of thymol in treatment of acti
nomycosis, onycholysis (separation or loosening of a fingernail or toe
nail from its nail bed), and paronychia (inflammation of the tissue
surrounding a fingernail or toenail) due to its antifungal properties. An
ecdotal reports of successful healing date to the 1960s,
although there
are no well-designed clinical studies to advise for human therapeutic
Brief Safety Summary
Likely Safe: When thyme is used in amounts found in foods; thyme
was granted “generally recognized as safe status” (GRAS) status in the
United States.
Possibly Safe: When thyme is used orally or topically in recom-
mended amounts. It is often recommended not to exceed oral doses of
10 g dried leaf containing 0.03% phenol (calculated as thymol) per day.
Likely Unsafe: When thyme oil is used either orally or topically in a
non-diluted form.
There is limited scientific evidence supporting any specific dose of
thyme. Listed doses are based primarily on historical practice. How-
ever, with natural products it is often not clear what the optimal doses
are to balance efficacy and safety. Preparation of products may vary
from manufacturer to manufacturer, and from batch to batch within one
manufacturer. Because it is often not clear what are the active compo
nents of a product, standardization may not be possible, and the clinical
effects of different brands may not be comparable.
Standardized amounts of thyme oil may be found in commercial
products, such as topical cosmetic formulations or mouthwash.
Standardized extracts may contain 0.6-1.2% volatile oil and 0.5%
phenol content.
Common thyme contains a greater quantity of volatile oil (0.4-3.4%)
than Spanish thyme (0.7-1.38%).
Adult Dosing (18 Years and Older)
General: One to two grams of thyme extract taken daily in divided
doses has been used.
Tea: For upper respiratory tract infection/bronchitis symptoms, it has
been recommended to steep 1-2 grams of dried herb in 150 mL boiling
water for 10 minutes, strain, and drink several times daily as needed for
symptom alleviation. Safety and efficacy have not been proven.
Liquid Extract: Traditional doses for various ailments including up
per respiratory tract infection symptoms include 1-2 grams of extract in
fluid/one cup water up to three times daily; 20-40 drops liquid extract
(1:1 weight/volume fresh leaf or 1:4 dried leaf) three times daily in
juice; or 40 drops tincture (1:10 in 70% ethanol) up to three times daily.
Safety and efficacy have not been proven.
Oil: Two to three drops thyme oil on a sugar cube 2-3 times daily has
been used. Safety and efficacy have not been proven, and thyme oil is
considered to be highly toxic.
Combination with Primulae radis: In one study, 1 tablet of Bronchipret
containing 60 mg dried extract of Primulae radis and 160 mg dried ex-
tract of thyme was used, although the specific number of tablets and fre-
quency of administration were not clear.
For periodontal prophylaxis, it has been recommended to steep 5
grams dried leaf per 100 mL boiling water for 10 minutes and strain (5%
infusion). Thymol is a constituent in some combination mouthwash
products such as Listerine (demonstrated to be efficacious in the reduc
tion of oral bacteria).
Oil/Ointment: For alopecia areata, 2-3 drops of an essential oil com
bination (thyme, lavender, rosemary, and cedarwood added to grape
seed and jojoba oil) massaged into the scalp every night for seven
months has been studied.
For paronychia, 1 drop of 1-2% thymol in
chloroform to the affected area three times daily, or 1 drop of 4%
thymol in chloroform to a chronically affected area three times daily has
been used.
Diluted thyme oil has been applied as needed in 1-2% oint
Monograph from Natural Standard 53
ments for a variety of skin disorders. Safety and efficacy have not been
proven, and thyme oil is considered to be highly toxic.
Compress: As a compress for rheumatic diseases, bruises, and mis
cellaneous skin disorders, it has been recommended to steep 5 grams of
dried leaf per 100 mL boiling water for 10 minutes and strain. Safety
and efficacy have not been proven.
Pediatric Dosing (Younger Than 18 Years)
There is insufficient available evidence to recommend medicinal use of
thyme in children for any indication. For periodontal prophylaxis, a combi
nation product containing 1% chlorhexidine/thymol varnish (Cervitec
was tolerated in 110 healthy children, ages 8-10 years old, when taken 3
times within 2 weeks.
Anecdotally, it has been suggested not to exceed oral doses of 10
grams of dried leaf with 0.03% phenol (calculated as thymol) per day to
prevent toxicity.
Thyme oil is considered to be highly toxic. Signs of toxicity include
nausea, and based on animal studies may include tachypnea and hypo-
The LD
of the essential oil of thyme is 2.84 g/kg body weight in
Oral doses (0.5-3 g/kg body weight) of concentrated thyme ex-
tract (equivalent to 4.3-26 g/kg of thyme) decreased locomotor activity
and respiratory activity in mice.
Following 3 months oral administra-
tion of 0.9 g dried herb daily as an extract in 95% ethanol, mice experi
enced an increase in liver and testes weight; 30% of male animals and
10% of female and control animals died.
Avoid if known allergy/hypersensitivity to members of the Lamiaceae
(mint) family or to any component of thyme.
Contact allergies to thyme or thyme oil have been reported by numer
ous sources, dating to the 1940s and 1950s. In a study of 100 patients
with contact allergies, 5% were attributed to thyme oil as an allergen
contained in wound dressings.
Several case reports have described al
lergic contact dermatitis and allergic alveolitis provoked by thyme and
thymol (a main component of thyme oil).
In one case report, pruritic
contact dermatitis was observed following topical application of the
combination antiseptic solution Listerine to a chronic parenchyma of
the toe; patch testing with single ingredients revealed selective allergic
hypersensitivity to thymol.
Cross-reactions to birch pollen, celery, oregano, and to other species
in the Lamiaceae/Labiatae (mint) family may occur, and have been re
ported in a 45-year-old man allergic to thyme with a history of IgE-me
diated rhinitis and asthma.
His reaction included nausea, emesis,
pruritis, angioedema, dysphagia, dysphonia, hypotension, and progres-
sive respiratory difficulty. The subject recovered with supportive therapy
including epinephrine, antihistamines and corticosteroids, and cross-re-
activity was confirmed using in vitro assays.
Adverse Effects
General: Based on historical use and clinical anecdote, thyme flower
and leaves appear to be safe in culinary and in limited medicinal use.
However, caution is warranted with the use of thyme oil, which should
not be taken orally and should be diluted for topical administration due
to potential toxic effects.
Neurologic/CNS: Headache and dizziness have been associated with
oral ingestion of thyme and thyme oil. Oral ingestion of thyme oil may
cause seizure and coma.
Ocular/Otic: Conjunctivitis has been reported in a farmer exposed to
thyme dust.
Dermatologic: Contact dermatologic reactions have been reported in
numerous sources, dating to the 1940s and 1950s. Spiewak et al. de
scribe occupational airborne contact dermatitis caused by thyme dust in
farmers exposed to dried thyme.
Allergic contact dermatitis was re
ported in a 70-year-old woman six weeks after initiation of 4% thymol
once daily to a chronic paronychia.
Topical application of Listerine
antiseptic solution to a chronic parenchyma of the toe by a 43-year-old
man resulted in contact dermatitis.
As an ingredient in toothpaste,
cases of inflamed lips and tongue have anecdotally been attributed to
thyme oil.
Pulmonary/Respiratory: Occupational asthma provoked by thyme
and confirmed by inhalation challenge has been described in a butcher.
Allergic alveolitis and rhinitis due to thyme dust exposure have been re
Monograph from Natural Standard 55
ported in farmers.
High doses of thyme or thyme oil have elicited
tachypnea in animals.
Oral ingestion of thyme oil may lead to respira
tory arrest (anecdotal).
Cardiovascular: Hypotension after ingestion of thyme seasoning
was seen in a 45-year-old man, possibly related to an allergic re
Animal studies have reported both hypotension and increased
cardiac contractility.
Anecdotal reports suggest that bradycardia may
be associated with ingestion of thyme, and cardiac arrest may occur
with oral intake of thyme oil.
Gastrointestinal: Oral thyme and thyme oil may elicit heartburn,
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal irritation (anecdotal).
Endocrine: An extract of Thymus serpyllum, a related species to Thy
mus vulgaris, has been shown to exert anti-thyrotropic effects in rats,
causing decline in thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin.
and progesterone receptor-binding activity has been demonstrated in
Endocrine effects of Thymus vulgaris in humans are unclear.
Genitourinary: Oral thyme has anecdotally been reported to exacer-
bate inflammation associated with urinary tract infections.
Musculoskeletal: Oral use of thyme or thyme oil has been associated
with muscle weakness in anecdotal reports, although details are limited.
Avoid if known allergy/hypersensitivity to members of the Lamiaceae
(mint) family or to any component of thyme.
Avoid oral ingestion or non-diluted topical application of thyme oil
due to potential toxicity.
Avoid topical preparations in areas of skin breakdown or injury, or in
atopic patients, due to multiple reports of contact dermatitis.
Use cautiously in patients with gastrointestinal irritation or peptic ul
cer disease due to anecdotal reports of gastrointestinal irritation.
Use cautiously in patients with thyroid disorders due to observed
anti-thyrotropic effects in animal research of the related species Thymus
Pregnancy and Lactation
Thyme is not recommended in pregnancy or lactation, due to lack of
sufficient data. A 1975 review of plants as possible new anti-fertility
agents classified thyme as an emmenagogue and abortifacient.
Thyme/Drug Interactions
Thyroid Replacement Therapy, Anti-Thyroid Agents: An extract of
Thymus serpyllum, a related species to Thymus vulgaris, has been
shown to exert anti-thyrotropic effects in rats, causing decline in thyroid
stimulating hormone and prolactin.
Therefore, in theory, thyme may
decrease levels of thyroid hormone, although this has not been system
atically studied or demonstrated in humans.
Estrogen, Progesterone: Thyme has demonstrated estradiol and pro-
gesterone receptor-binding activity in vivo,
although this has not been
systematically studied or demonstrated in humans.
5-fluorouracil (Topical): Topical thymol significantly enhanced
percutaneous absorption of 5-fluorouracil through porcine epidermis
compared to control.
Thyme/Herb/Supplement Interactions
Herbs with Estrogen or Progesterone Receptor Activity: Thyme has
demonstrated estradiol and progesterone receptor-binding activity in
although this has not been systematically studied or demon-
strated in humans.
Thyme/Food Interactions
Insufficient available evidence.
Thyme/Lab Interactions
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH): TSH levels have been sup
pressed by administration of thyme extract in rats.
Effects in humans
are unknown.
Thyroid Hormones (T3, T4): Thyroid hormone levels have been re
ported to decrease after single intravenous injections of thyme extract in
Prolactin: Based on pre-clinical data, prolactin levels theoretically
may be decreased at high thyme doses.
Monograph from Natural Standard 57
Constituents: The key constituents of thyme include essential oils,
such as the phenols thymol and carvacrol, glycosides, flavonoids, p-cy
mene, borneol, linalool, alcohols, rosmarinic acid, saponins, tannins,
and terpenoids.
Four acetophenone glycosides have been isolated
from the butanol-soluble fraction of thyme extracts, with weak cytotoxic
and antioxidant effects in vitro.
Anti-Microbial Effects: Anti-microbial activities of thyme and thymol
have been reported in vitro.
Antibacterial efficacy has been noted
against several bacterial species, including Salmonella typhimurium,
Staphylococcus aureus, and Helicobacter pylori.
Activity against
cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria such as Porphyromonas
gingivalis, Selenomonas artemidis, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Strep-
tococcus mutans has been reported, possibly related to membrane per-
foration and rapid efflux of intracellular components.
Thymol has
exhibited activity against some fungi and yeast including Aspergillus
parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus, and Candida albicans, and suppresses
fungal growth and aflatoxin synthesis at doses of 250 ppm in vitro.
Spasmolytic/Antitussive Effects: Spasmolytic and antitussive activity
has historically been attributed to thymol and carvacrol.
In animal
models, flavonoids in thyme appear to relax tracheal and ileal smooth
muscles via inhibition of acetylcholine and histamine receptors, or via
calcium channel antagonism.
In vitro, thyme extract and volatile
oil exert relaxing effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscle by inhibit-
ing phasic contractions,
and may depend on the concentration of
flavone aglycones.
Antioxidant Effects: A biphenyl compound and a flavonoid isolated
from thyme have been reported to inhibit superoxide anion production
and to protect red blood cells against oxidative damage.
Rat and in vitro
studies have noted antioxidant properties of thyme oil and thymol.
Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by
thymol and carvacrol,
and in vivo inhibition of mouse macrophages
and complement activation have been reported.
There is limited available pharmacodynamic information for thyme,
its constituents or derivatives. In one study of thymol and carvacrol in
rats, urinary excretion of metabolites occurred rapidly; only small
amounts were excreted after 24 hours.
Thyme has been used historically for cosmetic, culinary and medici
nal purposes. Ancient Sumerian and Egyptian cultures employed thyme
for medicinal purposes and to embalm the dead. Romans burnt thyme to
deter dangerous animals, and used thyme to flavor cheese and alcoholic
beverages. Roman soldiers bathed in thyme, as this was believed to pro
vide vigor.
Thyme’s common name may be derived from a Greek word meaning
to fumigate, based on its use as incense, or may come from the Greek
word thymon, meaning courage. In Medieval times, women sometimes
embroidered a sprig of thyme on gifts for knights.
In modern times, thyme oil is commonly used in manufacturing as a
constituent of soaps, cosmetics, mouthwash and toothpaste. Red thyme
oil is used in perfumes.
Condition Study
N Statistically
Quality of
0-2 = poor
3-4 = good
5 = excellent
of Benefit
ARR NNT Comments
86 Yes 2 Small NA NA Thyme used in
a combination oil.
Bronchitis Matched pair
7783 NA NA NA NA NA Thyme used in
combination with
primula root
vs. synthetic
Cough Randomized,
60 No 2 NA NA NA Thyme compared
to bromhexine.
Alopecia Areata
Summary: There is no available clinical evidence regarding the use
of thyme as a monotherapy for hair loss. Combination preparations of
Monograph from Natural Standard 59
essential oils including thyme have been evaluated, without definitive
results. Therefore, there is currently insufficient information to recom
mend for or against the use of topical thyme oil for alopecia areata.
Evidence: In a randomized double-blind trial, 86 subjects with alope
cia were assigned to massage a combination of essential oils (thyme,
rosemary, lavender, and cedarwood) or a placebo oil into the scalp
After seven months, it was reported that 44% of the essential
oil group experienced new hair growth, compared to 15% of controls,
with statistical significance. However, measurement of affected areas
was only performed in 32 patients. Although this study was designed to
be double-blind, the oils were not identical in smell, and therefore dif
ferences could be discerned both by enrollees and evaluators. There was
a 32% attrition rate in the control group, without follow-up of dropouts.
Conceivably if patients experiencing hair growth dropped out of the
control group, this would skew results favorably towards the treatment
Dental Plaque
Summary: One of thyme’s main constituents, thymol, has been found
in vitro to have activity against cariogenic and periodontopathogenic
bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Selenomonas artemidis,
Streptococcus sobrinus, and Streptococcus mutans (possibly related to
membrane perforation and rapid efflux of intracellular components).
Thymol is included as one of several ingredient in antiseptic mouth-
washes such as Listerine. Clinical studies have reported efficacy of
Listerine in decreasing plaque formation and gingivitis, although hu
man evidence for thymol as a monotherapy mouthrinse is lacking.
Cervitec: A combination product of 1% chlorhexidine and 1% thymol
varnish (Cervitec) has been evaluated in the treatment of Streptococcus
mutans in plaque and saliva in 110 schoolchildren. Subjects were as
signed to receive this preparation over 2 years, and were compared to an
untreated reference group. Statistically significant reductions in bacte
rial colonization levels (at 1 month only) and in interdental plaque (at 1
and 3 months) were reported in treated children.
These results are of
limited clinical utility due to the open and uncontrolled nature of the
trial and the use of a combination product.
Listerine: Listerine antiseptic mouthrinse contains a combination of
essential oils, including eucalyptol, menthol, thymol, and methyl sal
icylate. Broad-spectrum antibiotic properties have been demonstrated
for Listerine
including against Streptococcus mutans
herpes sim
plex virus, and influenza A virus.
Listerine has been demonstrated in
several randomized, double-blind trials to be efficacious in the treat
ment of supragingival plaque and gingivitis when used twice daily for
up to six months.
Listerine mouthrinse has been reported to significantly reduce gin
givitis and plaque in several additional human studies,
and to
be less efficacious than Peridex
(chlorhexidine) against plaque,
but less likely than Peridex to cause stains or supragingival calcu
A 2001 human trial conducted by Pfizer (the manufacturer
of Listerine) reported Listerine mouthrinse plus a fluoride tooth
paste to be superior to Colgate Total dentrifice (toothpaste) for the
reduction of plaque and gingivitis in 316 individuals with plaque
after six months.
There is early evidence that Listerine is able to penetrate dental
plaque biofilm and kill gram-positive organisms interproximally
(in the area most associated with periodontitis and dental caries,
heretofore thought to be cleansed primarily only via flossing).
Adverse effects of Listerine have included case reports of allergic
contact dermatitis,
attributed to thymol, and cardiac asystole in
an alcoholic patient who ingested a large volume of Listerine.
Other uses of Listerine have included the removal of orally inhaled
corticosteroids following inhalation,
and wound-dressing fol-
lowing periodontal surgery.
Paronychia, Onycholysis, Antifungal
Summary: In vitro studies suggest that thyme essential oil and thymol
exert activity against a number of fungi including Aspergillus parasiticus
and Aspergillus flavus, and may completely suppress growth and afla
toxin synthesis. Topical thymol has been used traditionally in the treat
ment of paronychia and onycholysis. However, due to a lack of controlled
clinical trials, there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against
thyme/thymol as a treatment for fungal infections.
Evidence: In the 1930s, Myers reported five cases of actinomycosis
successfully treated to resolution with thymol in oral doses, ranging
from 1 gram twice weekly up to 2 grams once daily.
Three of the five
patients received additional thymol as a 10-25% injection into the sinus
tract. A sixth patient received local thymol injection only and subse
quently died of fungemia. Adverse effects were not clearly reported,
and in light of the known toxicity of thymol, and the current availability
Monograph from Natural Standard 61
of other antifungal agents with demonstrated efficacy and more favor
able therapeutic indices, thymol may not be advisable for such cases.
Topical thymol has been used traditionally in the treatment of paro
nychia and onycholysis. In a 1965 review article in the Archives of Der
matology, Wilson suggested that one drop of 1% or 2% thymol in
chloroform can be used for acute paronychia, while chronic cases may
be treated with 4% thymol, applied three times daily.
The author noted
personal experience treating patients over 20 years with these formula
tions with good results and excellent tolerance.
Bronchitis, Cough
Summary: Thyme has traditionally been used for the treatment of re
spiratory conditions including cough and bronchitis. Animal studies
have identified spasmolytic properties of thyme constituents. The Ger-
man expert panel, the Commission E, has approved thyme for use in
bronchitis. However, due to a lack of data regarding thyme as a mono-
therapy for any specific respiratory indication, there is currently insuffi-
cient scientific evidence to recommend for or against thyme as a
treatment for bronchitis or coughs.
Evidence: Ernst et al. conducted a multi-center post-market surveil-
lance study comparing Bronchipret
(combination of thyme and primula
root) with other pharmaceutical options for acute bronchitis.
The study
was designed as a matched-pair comparison of 7,783 patients. Patients
received Bronchipret, “other herbals” pooled into one treatment group
(Bronchoforton-eucalyptus, peppermint, Hedelix-ivy extract, Prospan-
ivy extract, Sinupret-Rad. Gentianae, Flos Primulae cum calycibus,
Herba Rumicis, Flos Sambuci, Herba Verbenae, Soledum-extract of
thyme) or the synthetic agents N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) or Ambroxal.
Clinical outcomes of bronchitis and adverse reactions were documented.
Data were evaluated by comparing the treatment success of the test
medication and 3 control groups using ordinal regression. The authors
reported that the clinical effectiveness of Bronchipret was not less than
the synthetic drugs. There was a trend towards better results with
Bronchipret, particularly in adults. Bronchipret was associated with a
favorable adverse effects profile compared to controls. The authors
concluded a possible risk/benefit advantage of Bronchipret over these
controls for the management of acute bronchitis. This preliminary find
ing may merit follow-up with a prospective controlled trial with both a
placebo arm, and a control medication with established evidence of effi
In a double blind, randomized trial, 60 patients with productive
cough as a result of an uncomplicated respiratory infection received ei
ther syrup of thyme or bromhexine for a period of 5 days.
Both groups
made similar gains from day zero to day five. The authors reported no
significant difference between the two groups based on self-reported
symptom relief. The study concluded that bromhexine may be no better
in alleviating coughing complaints than syrup of thyme. However, no
power calculation was conducted prior to the study, and it is conceiv
able that the sample size was too small to detect significant differences
between groups. Without a placebo arm, these results cannot be dis
criminated from the natural course of disease.
Inflammatory Skin Disorders
Summary: Historically, thyme has been used topically for a number
of dermatologic conditions. Although several case reports note possible
beneficial effects, controlled trial evidence of effectiveness for treating
dermatological disorders is conflicting. Due to lack of controlled trials,
there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against thyme as
treatment for inflammatory disorders of the skin.
Evidence: Oral administration of large doses of thymol was reported
to resolve a case of dermatomyositis and a case of progressive sclero-
derma in a 1965 publication.
A case study of two sisters with vulval lichen sclerosis reported
successful treatment of both patients with a topical cream contain-
ing thyme extract. There were no reported side effects.
A randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the effects of
aromatherapy with essential oils including thyme on a group of
children with atopic eczema. The essential oil mixture (containing
thyme, benzoin, boswellia, German chamomile, Litsea cubeba,
myrrh, spike lavender, and sweet marjoram oil) was massaged into
the scalp daily in conjunction with counseling by a therapist. No
significant difference in improvement was detected between the
treatment group (aromatherapy with massage) and control (mas
sage only).
Brands Used in Statistically Significant Clinical Trials
Not applicable.
Monograph from Natural Standard 63
Combination Products
Listerine contains thymol, a phenolic constituent of thyme, as well as
other essential oils such as eucalyptol.
There are up to 400 subspecies of thyme; common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and
Spanish thyme (Thymus zygis) are often used interchangeably for medicinal purposes.
Not to be confused with calamint (Calamintha ascendens, basil thyme) or with Spanish
origanum oil (Thymus capitatus, Sicilian thyme, Spanish thyme).
1. Aschhoff B. Retrospective study of Ukrain treatment in 203 patients with ad-
vanced-stage tumors. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2000;26(5-6):249-252.
2. Tabak M, Armon R, Potasman I, et al. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori
by extracts of thyme. J Appl Bacteriol 1996;80(6):667-672.
3. Wilson JW. Paronychia and onycholysis, etiology and therapy. Arch Dermatol
4. Manou I, Bouillard L, Devleeschouwer MJ, et al. Evaluation of the preservative
properties of Thymus vulgaris essential oil in topically applied formulations under a
challenge test. J Appl Microbiol 1998;84(3):368-376.
5. Ernst E, Marz R, Sieder C. A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus syn-
thetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis. Phytomedicine 1997;4:287-293.
6. Hay IC, Jamieson M, Ormerod AD. Randomized trial of aromatherapy. Suc
cessful treatment for alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 1998;134(11):1349-1352.
7. Twetman S, Petersson LG. Interdental caries incidence and progression in rela
tion to mutans streptococci suppression after chlorhexidine-thymol varnish treatments
in schoolchildren. Acta Odontol Scand 1999;57(3):144-148.
8. Kagramanov KM, et al. Effect of the essential oils of some thyme growing in
Azerbaidzhan on cardiovascular activity and respiration. Azerbaidzhanskii Meditsinskii
Zhurnal 1977;54(5):49-51.
9. Skramlik EV. Toxicity and toleration of volatile oils. Pharmazie 1959;14:
10. Qureshi S, Shah AH, Al-Yahya MA, et al. Toxicity of Achillea fragrantissima
and Thymus vulgaris in mice. Fitoterapia 1991;62(4):319-323.
11. Le Roy R, Grosshans E, Foussereau J. [Investigation of contact allergies in 100
cases of ulcus cruris (author’s transl)]. Derm Beruf Umwelt 1981;29(6):168-170.
12. Lorenzi S, Placucci F, Vincenzi C, et al. Allergic contact dermatitis due to
thymol. Contact Dermatitis 1995;33(6):439-440.
13. Mackiewicz B, Skorska C, Dutkiewicz J, et al. Allergic alveolitis due to herb
dust exposure. Ann Agric Environ Med 1999;6(2):167-170.
14. Spiewak R, Skorska C, Dutkiewicz J. Occupational airborne contact dermatitis
caused by thyme dust. Contact Dermatitis 2001;44(4):235-239.
15. Fisher AA. Allergic contact dermatitis due to thymol in Listerine for treatment
of paronychia. Cutis 1989;43(6):531-532.
16. Benito M, Jorro G, Morales C, et al. Labiatae allergy: systemic reactions due to
ingestion of oregano and thyme. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996;76(5):416-418.
17. Lemiere C, Cartier A, Lehrer SB, et al. Occupational asthma caused by aromatic
herbs. Allergy 1996;51(9):647-649.
18. Sourgens H, Winterhoff H, Gumbinger HG, et al. Antihormonal effects of plant
extracts. TSH-and prolactin-suppressing properties of Lithospermum officinale and
other plants. Planta Med 1982;45(2):78-86.
19. Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods,
herbs, and spices. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1998;217(3):369-378.
20. Farnsworth NR, Bingel AS, Cordell GA, et al. Potential value of plants as
sources of new antifertility agents I. J Pharm Sci 1975;64(4):535-598.
21. Gao S, Singh J. Mechanism of transdermal transport of 5-fluorouracil by
terpenes: carvone, 1,8-cineole, and thymol. Int J Pharmaceutics 1997;154:67-77.
22. Van den Broucke CO, Lemli JA. Action spasmolytique des flavones de
differentes especes de Thymus. Plantes Med Phytother 1983;16(4):310-317.
23. Van den Broucke CO, Lemli JA. Spasmolytic activity of the flavonoids from
Thymus vulgaris. Pharm Weekbl Sci 1983;5(1):9-14.
24. Wang M, Kikuzaki H, Lin CC, et al. Acetophenone glycosides from thyme
(Thymus vulgaris L.). J Agric Food Chem 1999;47(5):1911-1914.
25. Ramanoelina AR, Terrom GP, Bianchini JP, et al. [Antibacterial action of es-
sential oils extracted from Madagascar plants]. Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar 1987;
26. Juven BJ, Kanner J, Schved F, et al. Factors that interact with the antibacterial
action of thyme essential oil and its active constituents. J Appl Bacteriol 1994;76(6):
27. Agnihotri S, Vaidya AD. A novel approach to study antibacterial properties of
volatile components of selected Indian medicinal herbs. Indian J Exp Biol 1996;
28. Ceyhan N, Ugur A. Investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of honey. Riv
Biol 2001;94(2):363-371.
29. Shapiro S, Guggenheim B. The action of thymol on oral bacteria. Oral Microbiol
Immunol 1995;10(4):241-246.
30. Mahmoud AL. Antifungal action and antiaflatoxigenic properties of some es
sential oil constituents. Lett Appl Microbiol 1994;19(2):110-113.
31. Tantaoui-Elaraki A, Beraoud L. Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production
in Aspergillus parasiticus by essential oils of selected plant materials. J Environ Pathol
Toxicol Oncol 1994;13(1):67-72.
32. Arras G, Usai M. Fungitoxic activity of 12 essential oils against four post
harvest citrus pathogens: chemical analysis of thymus capitatus oil and its effect in
subatmospheric pressure conditions. J Food Prot 2001;64(7):1025-1029.
33. Inouye S, Uchida K, Yamaguchi H. In-vitro and in-vivo anti-Trichophyton ac
tivity of essential oils by vapour contact. Mycoses 2001;44(3-4):99-107.
Monograph from Natural Standard 65
34. Van den Broucke CO. Chemical and pharmacological investigation on Thymi
herba and its liquid extracts. Planta Med 1980;39:253-254.
35. Van den Broucke CO, Lemli JA. Pharmacological and chemical investigation
of thyme liquid extracts. Planta Med 1981;41(2):129-135.
36. Reiter M, Brandt W. Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of
the guinea pig. Arzneimittelforschung 1985;35(1A):408-414.
37. Meister A, Bernhardt G, Christoffel V, et al. Antispasmodic activity of Thymus
vulgaris extract on the isolated guinea-pig trachea: discrimination between drug and
ethanol effects. Planta Med 1999;65(6):512-516.
38. Haraguchi H, Saito T, Ishikawa H, et al. Antiperoxidative components in Thy
mus vulgaris. Planta Med 1996;62(3):217-221.
39. Youdim KA, Deans SG. Dietary supplementation of thyme (Thymus vulgaris
L.) essential oil during the lifetime of the rat: its effects on the antioxidant status in
liver, kidney and heart tissues. Mech. Ageing Dev. 1999;109(3):163-175.
40. Youdim KA, Deans SG. Effect of thyme oil and thymol dietary supple
mentation on the antioxidant status and fatty acid composition of the ageing rat brain.
Br J Nutr 2000;83(1):87-93.
41. Aeschbach R, Loliger J, Scott BC, et al. Antioxidant actions of thymol,
carvacrol, 6-gingerol, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem Toxicol 1994;32(1):
42. Takacsova M, Pribela A, Faktorova M. Study of the antioxidative effects of
thyme, sage, juniper and oregano. Nahrung 1995;39(3):241-243.
43. Wagner H, Wierer M, Bauer R. [In vitro inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis
by essential oils and phenolic compounds]. Planta Med 1986;(3):184-187.
44. Englberger W, Hadding U, Etschenberg E, et al. Rosmarinic acid: a new inhibi-
tor of complement C3-convertase with anti-inflammatory activity. Int J Immuno-
pharmacol 1988;10(6):729-737.
45. Austgulen LT, Solheim E, Scheline RR. Metabolism in rats of p-cymene deriva-
tives: carvacrol and thymol. Pharmacol Toxicol 1987;61(2):98-102.
46. Ross NM, Charles CH, Dills SS. Long-term effects of Listerine antiseptic on
dental plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Dentistry 1988;1(4):92-95.
47. Fine DH, Furgang D, Barnett ML, et al. Effect of an essential oil-containing an
tiseptic mouthrinse on plaque and salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. J Clin Periodontol
48. Dennison DK, Meredith GM, Shillitoe EJ, et al. The antiviral spectrum of
Listerine antiseptic. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1995;79(4):
49. Lamster IB. The effect of Listerine antiseptic on reduction of existing plaque
and gingivitis. Clin Prev Dent 1983;5:12-16.
50. Gordon JM, Lamster IB, Seiger MC. Efficacy of Listerine antiseptic in inhibit
ing the development of plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 1985;12(8):697-704.
51. DePaola LG, Overholser CD, Meiller TF, et al. Chemotherapeutic inhibition of
supragingival dental plaque and gingivitis development. J Clin Periodontol 1989;
52. Minah GE, DePaola LG, Overholser CD, et al. Effects of 6 months use of an an
tiseptic mouthrinse on supragingival dental plaque microflora. J Clin Periodontol
53. Brecx M, Brownstone E, MacDonald L, et al. Efficacy of Listerine, Meridol and
chlorhexidine mouthrinses as supplements to regular tooth cleaning measures. J Clin
Periodontol 1992;19(3):202-207.
54. Pitts G, Brogdon C, Hu L, et al. Mechanism of action of an antiseptic, anti-odor
mouthwash. J Dent Res 1983;62(6):738-742.
55. Nelson RF, Rodasti PC, Tichnor A, et al. Comparative study of four over-
the-counter mouthrinses claiming antiplaque and/or antigingivitis benefits. Clin Prev
Dent 1991;13(6):30-33.
56. Maruniak J, Clark WB, Walker CB, et al. The effect of 3 mouthrinses on plaque
and gingivitis development. J Clin Periodontol 1992;19(1):19-23.
57. McKenzie WT, Forgas L, Vernino AR, et al. Comparison of a 0.12% chlorhexidine
mouthrinse and an essential oil mouthrinse on oral health in institutionalized, mentally
handicapped adults: one-year results. J Periodontol 1992;63(3):187-193.
58. Brecx M, Netuschil L, Reichert B, et al. Efficacy of Listerine, Meridol and
chlorhexidine mouthrinses on plaque, gingivitis and plaque bacteria vitality. J Clin
Periodontol 1990;17(5):292-297.
59. Overholser CD, Meiller TF, DePaola LG, et al. Comparative effects of 2
chemotherapeutic mouthrinses on the development of supragingival dental plaque and
gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 1990;17(8):575-579.
60. Charles CH, Sharma NC, Galustians HJ, et al. Comparative efficacy of an anti-
septic mouthrinse and an antiplaque/antigingivitis dentifrice. A six-month clinical
trial. J Am Dent Assoc 2001;132(5):670-675.
61. Pan P, Barnett ML, Coelho J, et al. Determination of the in situ bactericidal ac-
tivity of an essential oil mouthrinse using a vital stain method. J Clin Periodontol
62. Fine DH, Furgang D, Barnett ML. Comparative antimicrobial activities of anti-
septic mouthrinses against isogenic planktonic and biofilm forms of Actinobacillus
actinomycetemcomitans. J Clin Periodontol 2001;28(7):697-700.
63. Westermeyer RR, Terpolilli RN. Cardiac asystole after mouthwash ingestion: a
case report and review of the contents. Mil Med 2001;166(9):833-835.
64. Kelloway JS, Wyatt NN, Adlis S, et al. Does using a mouthwash instead of wa
ter improve the oropharyngeal removal of inhaled flovent (fluticasone propionate)?
Allergy Asthma Proc 2001;22(6):367-371.
65. Yukna RA, Broxson AW, Mayer ET, et al. Comparison of Listerine mouthwash
and periodontal dressing following periodontal flap surgery. I. Initial findings. Clin
Prev Dent 1986;8(4):14-19.
66. Myers HB. Thymol therapy in actinomycosis. JAMA 1937;108(22):1875.
67. Knols G, Stal PC, Van Ree JW. Productive coughing complaints: Sirupus
Thymi or Bromhexine? A double-blind randomized study. Huisarts en Wetenschap
68. Buccellato G. [Dermatomyositis cured by administration of para-methyl-iso
propyl-phenol (thymol)]. G Ital Dermatol Minerva Dermatol 1965;106(1):89-94.
69. Hagedorn M. [Genital vulvar lichen sclerosis in 2 siblings]. Zeitschrift fur
Hautkrankheiten 1989;64(9):810, 813-810, 814.
70. Anderson C, Lis-Balchin M, Kirk-Smith M. Evaluation of massage with essen
tial oils on childhood atopic eczema. Phytother Res 2000;14(6):452-456.
Monograph from Natural Standard 67
... It is considered as very resistant plants, which allows it to live under extreme climatic conditions concerning temperature and water supply [5]. It is considered as one of most popular plants that has in addition to its culinary uses in salads, or with sesame and sumac what we know locally as "Zaatar", many other uses as a way of traditional treatments that used for thousands of years, it well known for its antimicrobial [6], Antifungal [7], antiinflammatory [8], and antioxidant activity [9]. ...
... Table (8). Shows the revenues and net profit of one dunam thyme field during the six years of this project, and Table (9). ...
Full-text available
Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants significantly contribute to affordable healthcare and livelihood security. This study aims to investigate the economic analysis of Syrian oregano ( Origanum syriacum ) production with total area of 1000 m ² , depending on some standard economic indicators. The results showed that the annual net profit constitutes 56% of the total annual revenues. Furthermore, the net present value after six years was a positive value, and the index of profitability was 2.71, which confirms the economic viability of this project. The internal rate of return (IRR) reached 90.67%, which is a good number compared to the bank interest rate. Although this project does not occupy large areas, (a small possession 500-2000 m ² is sufficient for its establishment), but it is able to achieve guaranteed profits within a short period. Therefore, Thyme cultivation should be expanded by providing small farmers the necessary technical support and drawing their attention to economic efficiency of such project.
... The reported oral LD50 of thymol in guinea pigs, rats, mice, cats, and rabbits is 880, 980, 640, 250, and 750 mg kg −1 , respectively, 11 while the recommended daily dose of thymol sulfate for humans is 93.75 mg kg −1 . 46 The LD50 is still among the most important measures in evaluating compound toxicity, with an inverse relationship, a fact that further supports the reported data on the high safety of thymol. 47 On the other hand, Rojas-Armas et al. reported that an 28-day oral toxicity assessment of thyme oil, containing about 37-55% thymol, 48,49 revealed that the no-observedadverse-effect level (NOAEL) is greater than 250 mg kg −1 day −1 , whereas thyme oil exhibited moderate oral toxicity with a dose of 500 mg kg −1 day −1 . ...
Full-text available
In the present study, we aimed to delineate the neuroprotective potential of thymol (THY) against neurotoxicity and cognitive deterioration induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in an experimental model of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Rats received TAA (100 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally injected, three times per week) for two weeks. THY (30 and 60 mg kg-1), and Vit E (100 mg k-1) were administered daily by oral gavage for 30 days after HE induction. Supplementation with THY significantly improved liver function, reduced serum ammonia level, and ameliorated the locomotor and cognitive deficits. THY effectively modulated the alteration in oxidative stress markers, neurotransmitters, and brain ATP content. Histopathology of liver and brain tissues showed that THY had ameliorated TAA-induced damage, astrocyte swelling and brain edema. Furthermore, THY downregulated NF-kB and upregulated GFAP protein expression. In addition, THY significantly promoted CREB and BDNF expression at both mRNA and protein levels, together with enhancing brain cAMP level. In conclusion, THY exerted hepato- and neuroprotective effects against HE by mitigating hepatotoxicity, hyperammonemia and brain ATP depletion via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects in addition to activation of the CREB/BDNF signaling pathway.
... com). T. vulgaris is a herb widely used in the traditional and alternative system of medicine for curing cough, bronchitis, constipation, warts, alopecia, spam, inflammation and skin infection 4,9 . The leaf essential oil of Thymus vulgaris has been reported to have significant antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, antifungal and cytotoxic activities 7,10,11 . ...
Full-text available
The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris is extensively used in the food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic and fragrance industries. The present work was carried out to analyse the chemical constituents of T. vulgaris leaf essential oil of Western Himalayan (India) origin and study its antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. The analysis of the essential oil through GC-MS led to the identification of a total of 27 compounds representing 99.11 % of the total oil showing carvacrol (45.53 %) as the predominant constituent followed by o-cymene (11.29 %), linalool (9.60 %), diethyl phthalate (8.48 %) and thymol (6.12 %). The antioxidant study of the essential oil through DPPH and FRAP assay exhibited IC50 value and EC50 value as 1.71±0.02 and 1.032 ± 0.01 μg/ml respectively. Essential oil revealed strong antibacterial activity against nine food spoiling pathogenic bacteria with MIC values ranging from 0.02 to 1.56 μg/ml. Cytotoxic study of essential oil revealed moderate cytotoxic activity as evaluated by MTT assay with IC50 value of 135.46 and 98.59 μg/mL respectively for HepG-2 and PC-3 cancerous cell lines. The present paper with confirmatory evidence of significant bioactivity of carvacrol-rich leaf essential oil of T. vulgaris from India ascertained its therapeutic value for health benefits.
... Thyme has been used medicinally for thousands of years. Beyond its common culinary application, it has been recommended for a myriad of indications, based upon proposed antimicrobial, antitussive, spasmolytic and antioxidant activity [10]. Carvacrol and thymol are the two main phenols that constitute oregano and thyme essential oils, as well as the monoterpene hydrocarbons p-cymene and γ-terpinene [11]. ...
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate antibacterial effects of oregano and thyme essential oils on Listeria monocytogenes in fermented sausages and their effect on the sensory characteristics of these sausages. For testing purposes, sausages contaminated with L. monocytogenes were produced. Changes in the microbiological status of fermented sausages and physicochemical properties were monitored during ripening. Essential oils exhibited antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes , and in the groups with a high concentration (0.6%) of oregano or thyme essential oils (KLO2 and KLT2), the number of L. monocytogenes was below the detection threshold on day 14 of ripening, with a stronger effect of oregano. In groups with 0.3% essential oil of oregano or thyme added, the number of L. monocytogenes was reduced to below the detection threshold on day 21 of ripening. During the ripening, the a w and pH of all test groups of fermented sausages decreased. Experimental sausages with 0.3% thyme essential oil had acceptable smell and taste, while in other experimental groups, sausage smell and taste were very intense, uncharacteristic and unacceptable.
... Due to their antispasmodic, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties, they are used for therapeutic purposes. T.vulgaris is a renowned herbal medication used in the treatment of dental plaque, alopecia, dermatophyte infections, inflammatory skin disorders, gastrointestinal distress, cough and bronchitis (Basch et al., 2004). ...
Full-text available
Nature has supplied us with countless components which are rich in phytochemicals and nutrients and could play a vital role to treat serious health-related ailments. Thyme is among those natural herbs which contain thymol as an active ingredient. It is commonly used as a flavor in Asian dishes and also gives an extra aroma. Various scientific studies have identified the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant role of thyme oil. It is found to prevent the oxidation process in the body. A dose of 5m/kg per day in rats reduces infections in the body when given for two weeks. The toxicity level of thyme oil is moderate, in some rats, high doses can cause respiratory problems. Conclusively, it could play a role as an anti-oxidant if included in the regular diet.
Full-text available
Introduction: Millions all over the world live with epilepsy, and they may require long-term drug treatment. The use and interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have grown over the previous years. Coadministration of herbal products with medicines may result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and/or unfavorable interactions. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of CAM use among patients with epilepsy, to compare the results to those of the patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), to reveal factors that may drive the use of CAM, and to measure outcomes and adherence. It was also our intent to have state-of-the-art information on CAM use in our region among patients with the two diseases above. Materials and Methods: We conducted a non-interventional study using a self-developed questionnaire. It was distributed among adult patients with either epilepsy or DM who also suffered from cardiovascular consequences. A database was compiled from the anonymous questionnaires filled in voluntarily by the patients. Basic statistics were used to analyze this database. Results: A total of 227 questionnaires were filled in by 127 patients (55.9%) with epilepsy and 100 patients (44.1%) with DM. Mean age was 54.54 ± 17.33 years. Of the patients, 50.2% were male. Average body weight was 80.3 ± 17.3 kg. Of the patients, 22 (9.7%) used CAM because they believed in CAM. Two of them reported ADRs. Among the patients with epilepsy, the ratio was only 7.9% compared to 12% among those with DM. While the number of CAM users was higher among younger patients with epilepsy, it was the elderly patients with DM who tended to use CAM. Conclusion: Attention should be paid to reliance on CAM during the follow-up. Our finding that health-conscious patients tend to use CAM more often (than the general population) may indicate it is necessary to discuss CAM usage sincerely. CAMs modulating cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were the most common, leading to interactions with medication used and resulting in ADRs. This shows the importance of educating patients and treating team including clinical pharmacists in this field.
Full-text available
Nowadays teeth related disease is common among all ages of people and children. Ten out of five children are suffering from tooth decay due to the consumption of more sweets, chocolates, and eatable items by children. Various eatables affect the teeth and decay the teeth rapidly, so we need to understand the phenomena of diseases which is responsible for infection in teeth. Main objective of this review project is to collect the information and role of various herbal drugs used in Dental Care and for its management. Also represent systematic plant profile which not only useful in treatment of the teeth but also give the phytochemicals and therapeutic information of plants used the in management of teeth diseases.
Background: A large body of literature suggests that the extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (O. gratissimum) and Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) play protective roles against various inflammatory disorders. However, the possible mechanism of action with reference to the interactions of their respective phytochemical compositions with pro-inflammatory mediators as the indication of their therapeutic effects is less clear. Therefore, the immunomodulatory properties of O. gratissimum and T. vulgaris were investigated in this study. Methods: The in vitro lipoxygenase inhibitory potentials of methanolic extracts of the selected plants were assessed through colorimetric analysis. The pharmacokinetics of some identified compounds in the botanicals were investigated via the Swiss ADME server while the molecular interactions of the compounds with lipoxygenase, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, and CCL-2 were performed through molecular docking. Results: The assessment of the lipoxygenase inhibition revealed the extracts could possess anti-inflammatory agents. The pharmacokinetic results of some selected compounds identified in the botanicals showed moderate toxic effects compared to indomethacin. The molecular docking study substantiated the report of the in vitro analysis as indicated in the binding score of all the selected compounds compared to indomethacin. Conclusion: The phytochemical components of the extracts of O. gratissimum and T. vulgaris could be effective as anti-inflammatory agents that could be explored in preventing disorders associated with excessive activities of pro-inflammatory mediators.
A convincing number of investigations that indicate that thymol with other metabolites exhibited potent antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, and antiparasitic properties prompted us to verify the antibacterial efficacy of four species and one interspecific hybrid of the Thymus genus collected in the western part of Ukraine against Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC® 29213™) strain. Considering the points highlighted above and based on previous results obtained in our laboratory, in the current study, we decided to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of five ethanol extracts obtained from leaves of Thymus representatives against Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC® 29213™) strain. Fresh leaves were washed, weighed, crushed, and homogenized in 96 % ethanol (in proportion 1:19) at room temperature. The extracts were then filtered and investigated for their antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity was determined using the agar disk diffusion assay. The ethanol extracts obtained from leaves of Thymus plants showed different antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC® 29213™) strain. The antibacterial activity of extracts was greatest for Th. serpyllum followed by Th. pannonicus followed by Th. pulegioides, Th. alpestris, and then by Th. x porcii. Since the antibacterial effectiveness of medicinal plants varies dramatically depending on the phytochemical characteristics of plant families and subfamilies, it is not surprising to note the difference in this efficacy even when using samples taken from the same plant, but from two different regions. The antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extracts obtained from leaves of Thymus plants may be attributed to specific compounds or a combination of compounds. The present study lays the basis for future research, to validate the possible use of Thymus species as a candidate in the treatment of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureusin medicine and veterinary.
Full-text available
Introduction: We have reported that thymol and carvacrol can improve cognitive abilities in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) rat model. However, the mechanism of their action is not yet fully understood. Recently, our in vitro results suggested that PC12 cell death-induced by Aβ25-35 can be protected by thymol and carvacrol via PKC and ROS pathways. So, we hypothesize that the mechanisms of thymol and carvacrol in improving the learning impairment in AD rat model may be related to their effects on PKC. So, the activity of PKC and protein expression levels of PKCα was examined in the hippocampal cells of AD rat model. Methods: To examine thymol and carvacrol effects, we performed behavioral test in AD rat model induced by Aβ25–35 neurotoxicity. To access the underlying mechanism of protective effects, western blotting was performed with antibodies against PKCα. We also measured PKC activity assay by Elisa. Histopathological studies were carried out in hippocampus by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E). Results: It was shown that escape latency increased in Aβ-received rats compared to control group and thymol and carvacrol reversed this deficit. Furthermore, these compouds could enhance PKC activity, and increase the PKCα expression ratio. Moreover, H&E showed that Aβ caused shrinkage of the CA1 pyramidal neurons. However, thymol and carvacrol treatments could prevent this effect of Aβ peptides. Conclusions: This study suggests that Aβ results in memory decline and histochemical disturbances in hippocampus. Moreover, these results revealed that thymol and carvacrol could have protective effects on cognition in AD-like models via PKC activation.
In a double-blind randomized study a total of 60 patients having productive coughing complaints as a result of an uncomplicated respiratory infection were given a treatment of five days of either Bromhexine or Sirupus Thymi. No significant difference between the two groups could be found in self-reported alleviation of the complaints. Both groups appeared to have made similar gains from day 0 to day five. There was, however, a slight difference between smokers and non-smokers, the former recovering less fast than the latter. However, this difference did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that Bromhexine is no better in alleviating coughing complaints than Sirupus Thymi. It is suggested that with respect to uncomplicated respiratory infections - even - any positive influence of medication might be non-existent as the effects as witnessed in this study might also be explained as the result of natural recovery.
A few of the volatile oils, namely, thymol, carvacrol, mustard, cinnamon and clove, have been shown1 to possess fungicidal properties of considerable merit. Thymol and its liquid isomer carvacrol are the only members of this group of fungicidal volatile oils possessing the power of destroying Actinomyces quickly, when in aqueous solution. Thymol and carvacrol each kill Actinomyces in forty-five seconds in 1:1,000 aqueous solution. This marked toxicity toward Actinomyces suggests the possibility of therapeutic value.An opportunity to test the therapeutic merit of thymol in human actinomycosis presented itself in 1924. An abbreviated case report follows:J. N., a white man, aged 59, a blacksmith, habitually chewed straw. He slept on straw while recently employed on a ranch. He was seen Aug. 10, 1924, because of a mass "the size of a pigeon's egg" at the juncture of the right zygoma with the mandible. The teeth of both jaws on
Herbal expectorants and secretolytic drugs hold a sizeable share of the European market. Therefore it is essential to test their clinical effectiveness and safety. The aim of the present study was to compare the herbal medication Bronchipret(®) with various other pharmacotherapeutical options for acute bronchitis. The study was designed as a matched-pair comparison of 7783 patients. Clinical outcomes of bronchitis and adverse reactions were documented. The data were evaluated by comparing the treatment success of the test medication and 3 control groups using ordinal regression. The results suggest that clinical effectiveness of Bronchipret(®) was not less than with synthetic drugs. There was a tendency for better results with Bronchipret(®), particularly in the treatment of adults. Similar results were obtained with respect to adverse reactions. Particularly in the adult sub-group, these were markedly less with herbals as compared to synthetic drugs. These findings imply that a risk/benefit evaluation would favour Bronchipret(®) over synthetic drugs for acute bronchitis. Their interpretation is limited through the fact that this study could not be randomised nor blinded. The results therefore require confirmation through randomised, double-blind trials.
The effect of terpenes as penetration enhancers (e.g. carvone, 1,8-cineole and thymol) was studied on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of the model hydrophilic compound 5-fluorouracil through porcine epidermis. The above terpenes (5% w/v) significantly (P<0.01) increased the permeability coefficient of 5-fluorouracil in comparison to the control. Enhancement in the permeability of 5-fluorouracil by carvone, 1,8-cineole and thymol in comparison to the control was 91.62, 153.75 and 273.75, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and in vitro transepidermal water loss (TEWL) studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of enhancers on the biophysical properties of the stratum corneum and macroscopic barrier integrity of the epidermis, respectively, in order to understand the mechanism of percutaneous absorption enhancement of 5-fluorouracil by terpenes. The FT-IR spectrum of the stratum corneum treated with thymol produced a blue shift in the antisymmetric C–H stretching peak to higher wavenumbers, suggesting an increase in the disorder of the acyl chains of the stratum corneum lipids (i.e. increased lipid fluidity). Treatments of the epidermis with enhancers significantly (P<0.01) enhanced the in vitro TEWL in comparison to the control.
Antioxidants minimize oxidation of the lipid components in foods. There is an increasing interest in the use of natural and/or synthetic antioxidants in food preservation, but it is important to evaluate such compounds fully for both antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties. The properties of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, hydroxytyrosol and zingerone were characterized in detail. Thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol and hydroxytyrosol decreased peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes in the presence of iron(III) and ascorbate, but zingerone had only a weak inhibitory effect on the system. The compounds were good scavengers of peroxyl radicals (CCl3O2; calculated rate constants > 106m−1 sec−1) generated by pulse radiolysis. Thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol and zingerone were not able to accelerate DNA damage in the bleomycin-Fe(III) system. Hydroxytyrosol promoted deoxyribose damage in the deoxyribose assay and also promoted DNA damage in the bleomycin-Fe(III) system. This promotion was inhibited strongly in the deoxyribose assay by the addition of bovine serum albumin to the reaction mixtures. Our data suggest that thymol, carvacrol and 6-gingerol possess useful antioxidant properties and may become important in the search for ‘natural’ replacements for ‘synthetic’ antioxidant food additives.
We report an episode of allergic alveolitis in a female farmer due to massive exposure to organic dust contaminated with microorganisms during threshing of herbs (thyme). The patient's medical history, the results of exposure test, inhalation challenge, and bronchoalveolar lavage suggested the diagnosis of allergic alveolitis
There are 3 approaches to research for naturally occurring antifertility drugs: testing plants which have a folklore reputation as oral contraceptives; testing plants which contain constitutents such as oestrogens, coumestrols and isoflavones which could in theory affect the female cycle or contract the uterus; and to screen all available plants for their antifertility effects. Only the first 2 are practicable. Contraceptive agents prevent ovulation and fertilisation. Abortifacients act after implantation has occurred. Agents which prevent implantation after fertilisation have been termed interceptive agents. Experimental designs may not permit a distinction between these specific mechanisms, but laboratory experiments will demonstrate activity on the hypothalamus pituitary, the ovary, oviduct, uterus and vagina. Folklore contraceptives include 225 plant species classified into 181 genera and 76 families. Antifertility effects during animal screening were observed in 145 plant species, classified into 132 genera and 57 families. Only a few active principles have so far been isolated. m Xylohydroquinone occurs in Pisum spp. Lithospermic acid occurs in Lithospermum spp, Fatsia horrida, Arctostaphylos uva ursi, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Cnicus benedictus, Chenopodium album, Chamaelirium luteum, Amaranthus retroflexus, Borago officinalis and Rubus idaeus, principally in the roots. Coronoridine occurs in Tabernaemontana heyneana. Rottlerin occurs in Mallotus philippinensis. Rutin is widely distributed among fruits, particularly citrous fruits. There are other agents of unknown structure which account for plant antifertility activity. (Copper - Hindhead)