Article

Jealousy and the Meaning (or Nonmeaning) of Violence

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Abstract

Previous research has indicated that jealousy is one of the major triggers of domestic violence. Three studies here examined North Americans' ambivalent feelings about jealousy and jealousy-related aggression. In Study 1, it was shown that participants believed both that jealousy can be a sign of insecurity and a sign of love. In Study 2, it was shown that this equating of jealousy with love can lead to the tacit acceptance of jealousy-related violence. In Study 3, it was shown that a relative acceptance of jealousy-related aggression extends to cases of emotional and sexual abuse by husbands against their wives. In both Studies 2 and 3, men who hit or abused their wives over a jealousy-related matter were judged to romantically love their wives as much as those who did not engage in abuse. Violence in the context of a non-jealousy-related argument was seen quite negatively, but it lost a great deal of its negativity in the jealousy case.

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... Jealousy has also been identified as a risk factor for intimate partner violence and domestic abuse [36]. Nevertheless, jealousy is frequently romanticized in popular media, and research has confirmed that individuals often view jealousy as a sign of passion and investment in a romantic relationship [39,40,49]. ...
... Jealousy may be linked to perceptions of love, but the notion that jealousy is a sign of true devotion has been implicated as part of the set of cultural beliefs that have the potential to normalize relationship violence [40,49]. Cultural representations of love and sexuality in the media heavily influence what behaviors are expected and considered acceptable in romantic relationships [39,52]. ...
... In other words, jealousy as a sign of passionate love can be viewed as a tolerable or legitimate excuse for intimate partner violence [49]. Indeed, research has shown that jealousy-mediated violence is more likely to be construed as a sign of love as opposed to abuse [40]. Furthermore, women with histories of domestic violence often fail to identify problematic cues for violence because they interpret jealousy as a sign that their partners truly love them [39]. ...
Article
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Despite negative relationship consequences associated with jealousy, it is often romanticized and seen as a sign of passion and investment in romantic relationships. In Study 1, we developed the ten-item Jealousy is Good Scale (JIGS) to assess pro-jealousy attitudes and examined its association with existing constructs among a sample of women. JIGS scores were related to endorsement of traditional romantic beliefs and gender norms. They were also related to desiring a partner displaying jealousy and endorsing traditional norms of masculinity, including violence. In Study 2, the structure of the JIGS was confirmed for both women and men, and there was no difference in the extent to which men and women endorsed pro-jealousy beliefs. JIGS scores were again related to the endorsement of traditional romantic beliefs as well as to sexist beliefs for both men and women. Though seemingly romantic, valuing jealousy may have problematic consequences.
... Romantic jealousy describes the perception that a valued relationship is under threat of being lost to another person (Holtzworth-Munroe, Stuart, & Hutchinson, 1997;Mullen, 1991;Puente & Cohen, 2003). Such jealousy may be provoked by threats that are either real or imagined (Rilling, Winslow, & Kilts, 2004;Sheets, Fredendall, & Claypool, 1997). ...
... On the other hand, studies have also demonstrated that certain amounts of jealousy can serve to strengthen relationships (Daly, Wilson, & Weghorst, 1982). Jealousy can also highlight commitment and love within a relationship (Dobash & Dobash, 1979;Henton, Cate, Koval, Lloyd, & Christopher, 1983;Puente & Cohen, 2003), such that a certain amount of jealousy serves as a sign that one partner loves the other (Puente & Cohen, 2003). As such, this literature suggests that it might be beneficial for relationships researchers to understand the mechanisms by which jealousy appears to sometimes strengthen relationships. ...
... On the other hand, studies have also demonstrated that certain amounts of jealousy can serve to strengthen relationships (Daly, Wilson, & Weghorst, 1982). Jealousy can also highlight commitment and love within a relationship (Dobash & Dobash, 1979;Henton, Cate, Koval, Lloyd, & Christopher, 1983;Puente & Cohen, 2003), such that a certain amount of jealousy serves as a sign that one partner loves the other (Puente & Cohen, 2003). As such, this literature suggests that it might be beneficial for relationships researchers to understand the mechanisms by which jealousy appears to sometimes strengthen relationships. ...
Thesis
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/91861/1/lritchie.pdf
... Anxiety about partner infidelity has been identified as a mediator between anticipated partner infidelity and both psychological and physical aggression (Arnocky et al. 2015). Furthermore, when violence happens in the context of jealousy, it is often seen as a sign of love rather than as being problematic (Puente and Cohen 2003). In one scenariobased study, a man who used violence when jealous was seen as romantically loving his wife more than a man who did not use violence (Puente and Cohen 2003). ...
... Furthermore, when violence happens in the context of jealousy, it is often seen as a sign of love rather than as being problematic (Puente and Cohen 2003). In one scenariobased study, a man who used violence when jealous was seen as romantically loving his wife more than a man who did not use violence (Puente and Cohen 2003). Romanticizing jealousy is seen as a cultural belief that that allows individuals to normalize and excuse relationship violence (Vandello and Cohen 2008). ...
... Also, as part of our latent romantic belief variable, it was indirectly related to reports of both psychological and physical abuse. Jealousy is a well-known predictor of relationship violence (Ben-Ze'ev 2010; Caldwell et al. 2009;Foran and O'Leary 2008;Hellmuth et al. 2012;O'Leary et al. 2007;Puente and Cohen 2003;Strachan and Dutton 1992). However, jealousy is often interpreted as a romantic sign of commitment (Ben-Ze'ev 2010; Vandello and Cohen 2008), and viewing jealousy as an expected part of romance has been linked to the endorsement of other romantic beliefs (Hartwell et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Romance and control are often conflated by the media, and individuals may believe that certain controlling or jealous behaviors by men toward women are romantic and can be a sign of love and commitment in heterosexual relationships. The current study explored three types of romantic beliefs among women: endorsement of the ideology of romanticism, highly valuing romantic relationships, and the belief that jealousy is good. The goal was to determine whether these beliefs would be related to finding controlling behaviors romantic as well as to reported experiences of both physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV). We surveyed 275 heterosexual-identified women, aged 18 to 50, and measured their endorsement of romantic beliefs, the extent to which they romanticized controlling behavior, and experiences of physical and psychological abuse within their current or most recent romantic relationship. Romantic beliefs were related to romanticizing controlling behaviors, which, in turn, was related to experiences of IPV. There was also a significant indirect relationship between romantic beliefs and experiences of IPV. The data indicate that seemingly positive romantic ideologies can have insidious negative effects. Findings may be useful for clinicians and those who advocate for prevention of IPV as they illustrate a need to refocus traditional ideas of healthy relationships at the societal level.
... This offence would be of a public nature and would imply an attack on the husband's reputation. This is the rape scenario in which the victim's behaviour most offended the masculine honour code (Baldry et al., 2013;Puente & Cohen, 2003;Vandello & Cohen, 2003), for which reason the victim has to be considered guiltier for the rape suffered. (c) Marital Rape: The victim was raped by her husband following a marital argument. ...
... Desde este punto de vista, la imagen pública de la familia, incluida la de la mujer, se convierte en un activo muy valioso. Los individuos que presentan niveles elevados de afiliación a la cultura del honor (CH), tienden a justificar y legitimizar la violencia causada por los celos en la pareja (Puente & Cohen, 2003). Valoran la fidelidad de la mujer y un nivel bajo de promiscuidad sexual en ella y no perdonan ningún tipo de infidelidad, particularmente si es de tipo sexual (Canto, Álvaro, Pereira, Torres, & Pereira, 2012). ...
... Se trata de una ofensa de naturaleza pública que implica un ataque a la reputación del marido. Es pues, el contexto de violación en el que el comportamiento de la víctima supone una mayor ofensa al código de honor masculino (Baldry et al., 2013;Puente & Cohen, 2003;Vandello & Cohen, 2003), por lo que la víctima ha de ser considerada más culpable de la agresión sufrida. (c) Violación conyugal: La víctima es violada por su marido tras una discusión conyugal. ...
Article
The main objective of this research was to examine the influence of the culture of honour on victim blaming according to three types of rape scenarios involving the rape of a married woman (stranger rape vs. acquaintance rape vs. marital rape). A total of 262 university students (120 men and 142 women) participated in this study. Our results confirmed the influence of the culture of honour on the acquaintance rape scenario in the degree of victim blaming, followed by the marital rape scenario. In both scenarios the behaviour of the victim challenged the codes of the culture of honour. The results confirmed that the participants’ answers depended on the interaction of situational variables of a rape (type of scenarios) and the variables concerning the observer (the culture of honour).
... En esta investigación se analiza si una variable ideológica como la cultura del honor incide en las respuestas de los sujetos a la infidelidad que más les afecta. Por cultura del honor se entiende una predisposición a agredir o a reaccionar emocionalmente de forma violenta como forma de defender algo propio (Puente y Cohen, 2003). La cultura del honor hace referencia a un aspecto cultural con un fuerte componente emocional que tiene una gran influencia en las justificaciones y creencias sobre las reacciones consideradas lícitas ante lo que se considere una ofensa al honor. ...
... El honor atribuido al sexo femenino se centraría más en la vergüenza sexual (virginidad, modestia y restricciones sexuales) y el honor atribuido al sexo masculino en la virilidad, en la potenciación de la familia y en la reputación como hombre duro (López-Zafra, 2008). Las personas que puntúan alto en cultura del honor tienden a justificar y legitimar la violencia en la pareja provocada por los celos (Puente y Cohen, 2003). ...
... Los celos son una de las variables que inciden en la violencia en las parejas (Echeburúa y Fernández-Montalvo, 2001). Forman parte, para buena parte de la población, del mito romántico que se los concibe como un signo de amor (Yela, 2000) y son utilizados para justificar la violencia en las relaciones románticas cuando afirma el agresor que actúa por celos (Puente y Cohen, 2003). La respuesta que den los hombres y las mujeres ante la infidelidad de su pareja no sólo estaría condicionada por el grado de celos que sientan, sino por la aceptación de actitudes sexistas y de los postulados de la cultura del honor que justificaría la agresión como una respuesta aceptable ante una ofensa. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a culture of honour, sexism and jealousy influenced the type of infidelity (sexual or emotional) experienced by the participants. A total of 170 university students (80 men and 90 women) participated. They responded to six dilemmas indicating which type of infidelity most affected them (sexual or emotional) using a culture of honour scale, a sexism inventory and a jealousy scale. There were differences between men and women only in two dilemmas. The influence of a culture of honour, hostile sexism, benevolent sexism and jealousy on sexual and emotional infidelity was analyzed. Women who scored high on a culture of honour, benevolent sexism and jealousy were those who felt most affected by sexual infidelity.
... Despite the high figures available, it is believed that domestic violence is an even greater problem when we consider the following: (a) a significant number of cases are not reported; (b) the difficulty in recognizing a situation as being violent; (c) a certain level of social acceptance or justification for episodes of violence in some cases (Baptista, 2012;Gomes & Costa, 2014;Puente & Cohen, 2003). ...
... Considering the social acceptance of some episodes of violence, Puente and Cohen (2003) warn that "beliefs about jealousy, love and violence can be combined to create a dangerous syllogism in which domestic violence is at least relatively acceptable" (p.449). We must therefore be aware of the great influence of the socio-cultural context in the spread of aggressive behavior, for the social environment is often responsible for aggressive responses between intimate partners and the perpetuation of women in cycles of violence. ...
... The relationship between emotional jealous behavior and violence was previously discussed by Puente and Cohen (2003), as discussed in the present article. The researchers conducted three studies and one of them was to analyze the hypothesis that people can mitigate the meaning of violence when it occurs in a context of "jealousy" associated with love. ...
... Among the matriarchal society of Mosuo in Southwest China jealousy is frowned upon (Hua 2008). In the United States attitudes towards jealousy are mixed (Puente and Cohen 2003;Vandello and Cohen 2008) 5 . On the one hand, jealousy is praised as an expression of love, care, attachments, and vulnerability (Buss 2000). ...
... No doubt for some jealousy is a sign of love and commitment. But violence perpetuated and justified by jealousy imposes a disproportionate cost on women in romantic relationships (Mullen and Maack 1985;Daly and Wilson 1988;White and Mullen 1989;Mathes and Verstraete 1993;Puente and Cohen 2003;Vandello and Cohen 2008). Thus, in the light of current research, one is left doubting the social usefulness of jealousy. ...
Article
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What makes romantic jealousy rational or fitting? Psychologists view jealousy's function as preserving a relationship against a 'threat' from a 'rival'. I argue that its more specific aim is to preserve a certain privileged status of the lover in relation to the beloved. Jealousy is apt when the threat to that status is real, otherwise inapt. Aptness assessments of jealousy must determine what counts as 'threat' and as 'rival'. They commonly take for granted monogamous norms. Hence, compared with jealousy in monogamous relationships, norms of polyamory set the thresholds for what counts both as threat and as rival much higher.
... Jealousy is seen as an indicator of feelings of commitment and love within a relationship (Dobash & Dobash, 1979;Henton, Cate, Koval, Lloyd, & Christopher, 1983). For instance, Puente and Cohen (2003) asked college students to evaluate different scenarios in which jealousy might arise between a husband and wife. Results indicated that participants often recognized a husband's jealousy as a sign of love, even when the cause of jealousy was undetermined. ...
... Scholars have argued that jealousy maintains social and economic order within the institution of monogamy; specifically, this emotion reinforces women's dependence on men for emotional and financial support (Mint, 2010;Robinson, 1997). The consequences of maintaining social order via jealousy are twofold: it promotes justifying inequity (i.e., the phenomena known as system justification, discussed later), and, subsequently, individuals perceive jealousy as a positive emotion in monogamous relationships (Jost & Banaji, 1994;Puente & Cohen, 2003). In contrast, jealousy is perceived as a highly negative emotion among individuals in polyamorous relationships. ...
Article
In this paper, we utilize a critical feminist lens to analyze the advantages and disadvantages found within two different romantic relationship configurations: monogamy and polyamory. While visibility of polyamorous relationships has increased in recent years, there is still a lack of information and a plethora of misinformation concerning non-monogamous romantic relationship dynamics (Conley, Moors, Matsick, & Ziegler, 2012; Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2012). One such notion is that polyamory is differentially damaging to women vis-à-vis men. From a phenomenological perspective, sociocultural values dictate that women, unlike men, are prescribed to be dependent upon monogamy in order to define their selfhood; and indeed, research has provided evidence in support of this idea, as women are more apt to be offended by the idea of concurrent multiple relationships and are less likely to report a willingness to engage in these types of relationships than men are (Moors, Conley, Edelstein, & Chopik, under review-a). Using a previous review of monogamy as a starting point (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2012), we will reanalyze two major points from the review piece: sex benefits and jealousy in monogamous and polyamorous relationships. Throughout, we examine if the presumed benefits of monogamy extend to women or if alternative relationship structures, specifically polyamory, afford greater advantages. Additionally, we consider other benefits that may be unique to polyamory for women, including increased agency, financial resources, and extended social support.
... Beside the ideological variables sexism and right-wing authoritarianism, we analysed whether culture of honour is related with RMA. Culture of honour (CH) is understood as a set of social norms and attitudes that predisposes the person to assault or react in an emotionally violent manner as a way to defend something that is personal (Puente & Cohen, 2003). Gender differences have been observed around CH (López-Zafra, 2008;Shackelford, 2005). ...
... From this perspective, the family's public image, including the woman's, becomes a highly appreciated value. People who score high in CH tend to justify and legitimize violence that has been provoked by jealousy in the couple (Puente & Cohen, 2003). Whoever scores high in CH would value women's faithfulness and their low promiscuity positively, and would not forgive any type of infidelity, mainly the sexual one (Canto, Alvaro, Pereira, Torres, & Pereira, 2012;Canto, Moreno, Perles, & San Martín, 2012). ...
Article
The purpose of this work is to analyse how some ideological variables (ambivalent sexism, culture of honour, and right-wing authoritarianism) affect rape myths acceptance (RMA). Two hundred and fourteen university students (83 men and 131 women), mean age 20.39 years old, participated. The results show that there is a high correlation between RMA and hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, culture of honour, and right-wing authoritarianism. Hostile sexism and right-wing authoritarianism predict RMA in both male and female samples. Benevolent sexism predicts RMA in the female sample. In addition, in the male sample right-wing authoritarianism interacts with hostile sexism to predict RMA, while in the female sample right-wing authoritarianism interacts with benevolent sexism to predict RMA. These results show the close relationship existing between certain ideological variables and RMA.ResumenEl objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo influyen algunas variables de carácter ideológico (sexismo ambivalente, cultura del honor y autoritarismo de derechas) en la aceptación de los mitos sobre la violación (AMV). Participaron 214 estudiantes universitarios (83 hombres y 131 mujeres) con una edad media de 20.39 años. Los resultados muestran que existe una elevada correlación entre AMV y sexismo hostil, sexismo benévolo, cultura del honor y autoritarismo de derechas. El sexismo hostil y el autoritarismo de derechas predicen AMV tanto en la muestra de hombres como en la de mujeres. El sexismo benévolo predice AMV en la muestra de mujeres. Además, en la muestra de los hombres, el autoritarismo de derechas interacciona con sexismo hostil para predecir RMA, mientras en la muestra de mujeres el autoritarismo de derechas interacciona con el sexismo benévolo para predecir AMV. Estos resultados muestran la estrecha relación que existe entre ciertas variables de carácter ideológico y AMV.
... Similarly, an individual's propensity to be jealous in romantic relationships can put him or her at risk for aggressive behavior [33]. Research has shown that highly exclusive adolescent couples characterized by one partner's jealousy of the other being involved in another relationship are prone to psychological and physical aggression [34]. Also, in young adult couples, high scores in jealousy are associated with a variety of types of aggression [35]. ...
... However, the overall levels in non-clinical samples were low. The participants in our German sample reported low to moderate levels of physical and psychological aggression, comparable with other published data on adolescents in North America and Europe [17,23,27,34], which provides support for the potential generalizability of our results. Also, and in accordance with the literature [48,49], females reported higher levels of psychological and physical aggression than males did. ...
Article
Full-text available
Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents' romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners' reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes.
... Culture of honor is understood as a valuation of emotionally strong and violent behavior as a means to defend something regarded as one's own (Puente & Cohen, 2003). The culture of honor makes reference to a cultural aspect that has a strong emotional component, which has an important influence on the justifications and beliefs about the reactions that are considered lawful in the face of what is perceived as an affront to honor. ...
... Even by accepting an evolutionary predisposition in romantic jealousy (Buss, 2000), numerous cultural differences exist for the situations provoking jealousy and the type of responses associated with shame (Hupka, 1991). Those people who score high in the culture of honor tend to justify and legitimize the partner's violence provoked by jealousy (Puente & Cohen, 2003). They appreciate the loyalty of women and their low incidence of sexual promiscuity, and do not forgive any kind of infidelity, particularly if it is of a sexual nature (Canto, Alvaro, Pereira, Torres, & Pereira, 2012). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether gender and culture of honor were associated with the type of infidelity (sexual or emotional) that affected our subjects more. Samples of 192 Portuguese university students (119 women and 73 men) and 415 Brazilian university students (214 men and 201 women) participated in this research. Participants responded to six dilemmas reflecting a type of infidelity (sexual or emotional), a gender scale, and a culture of honor scale. The results of both samples are compatible with the cultural theses about jealousy. Both men and women were more affected by emotional infidelity. In addition, it was found that the relationship between the sex of the participants and the type of infidelity that induced stress in them was affected by sociocultural variables, such as culture of honor, masculinity, and femininity. Some differences in the response patterns in the case of an infidelity, in both samples (Portuguese and Brazilian), are shown and discussed.
... Chronic jealousy is associated with aggressive behavior in romantic relationships (Buss, 2000;de Weerth & Kalma, 1993;Puente & Cohen, 2003). However, this effect may depend on perceived commitment asymmetries. ...
... Jealousy has been associated with aggression toward romantic partners in some studies (Buss, 2000;de Weerth & Kalma, 1993;Puente & Cohen, 2003) and with pro-social behavior (e.g., affectionate behavior) in other studies Guerrero et al., 1995). The current research suggests that perceived commitment asymmetries can shape the expression of jealousy. ...
Article
The current research examined whether perceived asymmetries in relationship commitment moderate the associations of personality traits and emotional states with enactment of hostile behavior during relationship conflicts. Participants included both members of 53 heterosexual romantic couples (Mage = 25.5 years). Participants completed questionnaire measures assessing personality traits, emotional states, relationship commitment, and perceptions of their partner's commitment. Participants then had an observed conflict discussion with their partner, which was rated by a panel of objective observers for hostile behavior. When participants perceived that they were less committed than their partners, their enactment of hostile behavior was predicted by traits and states that are associated with antisocial and pro-social orientations (i.e., agreeableness, trait anger, chronic jealousy, and state negative emotion). In contrast, participants who perceived that they were more committed than their partners tended to refrain from hostile behavior, despite traits or states that may suggest hostile inclinations. These results suggest that perceiving that one is less committed than one's partner promotes behavioral expression of interpersonal dispositions and emotions, whereas perceiving that one is more committed than one's partner motivates inhibition of hostile behavior.
... Jealousy is a response to the threat of potential loss of relationship to another (Buss, Larsen, Westen, & Semmelroth, 1992;Sharpsteen & Kirkpatrick, 1997)a factor relevant to those who have a relationship that developed from infidelity. Jealousy is associated with relationship dissatisfaction (Elphinston, Feeney, Noller, Connor & Fitzgerald, 2013), as well as conflict, domestic violence, and relationship dissolution (Barelds & Barelds-Dijkstra, 2007;Barnett, Martinez, & Bluestein, 1995;Buss, 2001;Puente & Cohen, 2003). ...
Article
Successful mate poaching is a form of infidelity that occurs when one partner knowingly attracts the mate of another with the intention of starting a sexual and/or romantic relationship with this individual. Relationships formed from poaching tend to be of lower quality than their non-poached counterparts. A history of poaching might reflect a sociosexuality that propels seeking new partnerships without regard for exclusivity. It is unknown whether serial poaching for relationship formation is linked to more permissive sociosexual orientation. Adults (N = 653; aged 25–40; 57% women) in a romantic relationship completed online surveys assessing mate poaching, poaching history, sociosexuality, and relationship quality (commitment, satisfaction, trust, jealousy). Those in a poached relationship at the time of the study had a more extensive history of poached relationships and a more permissive sociosexuality. Participants who reported a more extensive history of mate poaching reported poorer quality relationships. The link between poaching history and relationship quality was partially accounted for by sociosexuality. This research adds to our understanding of difficulties that may be associated with the relationships of individuals who use poaching as a relationship initiation strategy, and the challenges that permissive sociosexuality may present for maintaining long-term relationships.
... All forms of romantic jealousy as theorised by Buunk (1997) were identified in the data yet played out differently across the two settings. This reflects the reality that the events that elicit jealousy, the social legitimacy that jealousy is given, and the behavioural responses to jealousy that are considered appropriate, often differ based on cultural context (Puente & Cohen, 2003;Salovey, 1991). In Uganda, there was much more discussion of reactive jealousy, attributed to infidelity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) have been informed by emerging research on common triggers of IPV and the importance of engaging with couple dynamics. This paper reports on secondary data analysis from the qualitative evaluations of the SASA! intervention in Uganda, (conducted in 2012 involving 40 community members) and the Indashyikirwa intervention in Rwanda, (conducted between 2014 and 2018 involving 14 couples and 36 other stakeholders). It explores the under-researched linkages between romantic jealousy and IPV, and describes how these interventions mitigated it. A qualitative approach using interviews and focus groups with women and men was used. Overall, jealousy was common in both settings, and led to relationship challenges including breakdown of trust; quarrels about resources; conflict, controlling behaviours, and ultimately, physical and emotional IPV. Jealousy was seen to operate through different gendered pathways. Participants described women to question men about their whereabouts and intentions because of jealousy or the suspicion of infidelity, whereas participants described men to be jealous or suspicious of women socialising with, or attracting the attention of, other men and using violence in response. Through gender transformative strategies, SASA! and Indashyikirwa were described by participants to reduce the contribution of romantic jealousy to conflict and violence by encouraging improved relationship faithfulness and honesty; supporting reduced suspicion through improved relationship trust and communication; and identifying jealousy and suspicion of, or real infidelity, as direct triggers of IPV. While these programmes show promising results, gaps remain including a lack of standardised measures of the multidimensional concept of romantic jealousy. Recognition that programmes should be evaluated for their ability to reduce romantic jealousy when identified as a trigger for IPV in a specific context should also be emphasised. More research is also needed on the forms, gendered pathways, and consequences of romantic jealousy to inform context-specific programming.
... Jealousy is an extremely important factor in men's violence against women (Puente & Cohen, 2003). Many survivors of IPV who disclose sexual abuse as part of their experiences with their partners report on accusations of sexual infidelity, or describe their partners are unusually jealous or preoccupied with their perceived unfaithfulness. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study used the methodological framework of Rothman & Thomas (1994) Intervention research design. The writer implemented an existing risk assessment guide, the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment guide (SARA). Purposive sampling included 53 male and 47 female respondents, recruited from a batterer intervention programme at FAMSA (Western Cape), referrals to Kenilworth Psychiatric Clinic, referrals from Magistrates, Psychiatrists and other treatment providers. The data collected was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative approaches to enhance trustworthiness, credibility and reliability. The findings concur with trends in literature on domestic violence. The implementation of the SARA guidelines confirmed risk factors with batterers.
... With respect to mate guarding, the link between 2D:4D and reactive aggression is noteworthy because aggression is a common reaction to infidelity (Daly & Wilson, 1988;. Men, in particular, tend to report feeling homicidal and violent after a partner's infidelity (Shackelford, LeBlanc, & Drass, 2000), and male sexual jealousy often precipitates violent behavior (Puente & Cohen, 2003;Shackelford, Goetz, Buss, Euler, & Hoier, 2005). Violent reactions to infidelity are particularly common among individuals concerned about dominance and status (Vandello & Cohen, 2003). ...
Article
The current research sheds light on a physiological mechanism potentially underlying confrontational responses to infidelity. Findings suggest that responses to infidelity threats in adulthood are shaped by hormonally mediated masculinization of the brain in utero. 2D:4D digit ratio (widely regarded as an index of prenatal testosterone exposure) moderated behavioral and endocrinological responses to infidelity threat. After an infidelity prime (but not a control prime), lower (more masculine) 2D:4D was associated with a greater tendency to approach attractive same-sex targets (intrasexual rivals) and with heightened increases in circulating testosterone, a hormone related to a variety of aggressive and confrontational behaviors.
... These factors may modulate T responses. These factors also may modulate the outcomes of jealousy, given that jealousy can lead to a range of behavioral responses including upregulating relationship effort or increasing motivations for perpetrating violence (Daly et al. 1982;Puente and Cohen 2003;Tarrier et al. 1990). Characterizing the role these factors play in hormonal and behavioral responses to jealousy can provide new insights into the antecedents and sequelae of jealousy. ...
Article
Jealousy evokes strong psychological responses, but little is known about physiological effects. This study investigated whether actively thinking about a jealousy-provoking situation would result in a testosterone (T) response, and what factors might mediate this effect. We examined T responses to imagining one’s partner engaging in one of three activities: a neutral conversation with a co-worker, a flirtatious conversation with an attractive person, or a passionate kiss with an attractive person. Women in the flirting condition experienced a significantly larger increase in T relative to those in the neutral condition; the kissing condition was intermediate. In men, there were no significant effects of jealousy condition on T. These findings are consistent with the Steroid/Peptide Theory of Social Bonds, such that the flirting condition elicited a ‘competitive’ T response, and the kissing condition elicited responses consistent with defeat.
... En la Cultura del Honor se han observado diferencias de género (Shackelford, 2005), que pueden influir en la violencia de género cuando se defiende una idea de masculinidad y feminidad que implica control por parte del hombre y sumisión por parte de la mujer (Puente y Cohen, 2003). Así, se observa que la identidad de género masculina se relaciona significativamente con una mayor importancia otorgada al honor (López-Zafra, 2008) y la femenina con la lealtad y el sacrificio. ...
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En este estudio analizamos la posible relación entre tres conceptos: los pensamientos distorsionados, la inteligencia emocional y la cultura del honor, y su posible relación con la violencia de género. Consideramos que los tres conceptos se relacionarían de forma inversa, de modo que una mayor cultura del honor implicaría una mayor cantidad de pensamientos distorsionados sobre la mujer y sobre el uso de la violencia y un menor nivel de Inteligencia Emocional y viceversa. Para comprobar si se producía esta relación se trabajó con una muestra de 135 varones (45 presos por violencia de género, 45 presos institucionalizados por otros delitos y 45 hombres no reclusos), con una edad media= 36.56 (Sd= 10.32). Entre los resultados encontramos que no existía relación alguna entre la Inteligencia Emocional y las Distorsiones cognitivas referidas a la mujer y al uso de la violencia. Por el contrario, si se encontró una relación significativa entre pensamientos distorsionados y cultura del honor, en función del grupo, obteniéndose que los no reclusos consideran y aceptan la violencia como una forma legítima de resolver problemas ante una ofensa en comparación con los hombres institucionalizados, quienes culpabilizan a la mujer de cualquier situación de malos tratos en la pareja.
... According to Turner and Stets (2005), primary emotions can lead to secondary emotions (e.g., joy and acceptance leads to love and friendliness). By that analogy, love may lead to jealousy, which, in turn, may lead to emotional abuse (Puente and Cohen, 2003). Culturally, jealousy may be used to justify violence or aggression toward partners. ...
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Though emotional abuse is one of the worst and most common types of intimate partner violence, it has not been investigated in Arabic literature. Thus, this study explored the prevalence of emotional abuse among married Jordanian men. Furthermore, the moderating roles of marriage length, marriage motivation, age, and area in the path to emotional abuse were investigated. An online survey was conducted using a random sample of Jordanian married men in Amman. A total of 1,003 participants with an average age of 42.51 and a marital relationship duration ranging from 1 to 53 years were selected. The results revealed that isolation was the most prevalent emotional abuse domain, followed by degradation, property damage, and sexual coercion. However, all emotional abuse domains were more prevalent among rural rather than urban men, in both traditional and love marriages. Emotional abuse was higher among men who married for love. Younger men reported experiencing higher emotional abuse levels, which declined with age and increasing marriage length. Further research is required to explore the nature of emotional abuse forms and their underlying reasons among married men, as differences in sociodemographic characteristics could affect the identification and understanding of emotional abuse and contribute to developing an intellectual framework capable of finding solutions for abusive marital relations in the Jordanian context.
... Men's accusations of their partner's sexual infidelity predict men's violence against their partner (Kaighobadi, Starratt, Shackelford, & Popp, 2008). Cross-culturally, male sexual jealousy (resulting from actual or imagined partner infidelity) is a leading cause of female-directed violence and homicide (Daly, Wilson, & Weghorst, 1982;Buss, 2000; see also Puente & Cohen, 2003;Archer, 2006). Smuts and Smuts (1993) offer a functional definition of sexual coercion: The use of male force against a female to secure sexual access to that female. ...
Article
Male-perpetrated female-directed violence may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, female-directed violence is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans. The current research tests the hypothesis that female-directed violence is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate female-directed violence will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of female-directed violence would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b). Male participants (n = 355) completed a survey, reporting limited demographic information (e.g., age, relationship length), in-pair copulation frequency, and history of physical violence perpetration. As predicted, violent men secured more in-pair copulations, on average, than nonviolent men, and monthly rates of violence positively correlated with in-pair copulation frequency. In humans, as in nonhuman primates, female- directed violence by males may facilitate greater sexual access to a female. We discuss the implications of the current research for an evolutionary perspective on partner violence, and draw on research on nonhuman primates to highlight profitable avenues of research on female-directed violence in humans.
... Los celos pasionales son responsables de una buena parte de la violencia en todo tipo de parejas y, de hecho, en ocasiones son percibidos por la sociedad como algo aceptable, legitimando en cierta medida y de forma tácita algunas reacciones violentas (Puente y Cohen, 2003). En la mayoría de los casos la víctima es la pareja y no el rival, aunque a veces las víctimas pueden ser ambos e incluso el propio sujeto (en forma de suicidio). ...
... An important issue for understanding the role of jealousy in romantic relationships is that jealousy constitutes one of the main romantic myths in some Western societies, such as the Spanish one, which validates it as a sign, and even a necessary requirement, for true love (Yela, 2003). Studies with U.S. samples found that when violence was justified by jealousy, it was perceived in a less negative way (Puente & Cohen, 2003). Also, studies conducted with Spanish adolescents found that a higher percentage of boys as opposed to girls considered jealousy a proof of love (De la Peña et al., 2011). ...
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Previous research has pointed to the need to address the study of violence in teen couples. However, research has not delved into the study of the variables related to the different types of violence employed by boys and girls. The purpose of this study was to test whether gender, jealousy, and dependency predict specific strategies for conflict resolution (psychological aggression and mild physical aggression). Another objective of the study was to test gender differences in the conflict resolution strategies used by Spanish teen couples and to test the association between these variables and jealousy and emotional dependency. A sample of 296 adolescent high school students between 14 and 19 years of age of both genders from the south of Spain participated in this study. Hierarchical regression models were used to estimate the relationship between psychological aggression and mild physical aggression, and jealousy, and dependency. Results showed that jealousy correlated with psychological aggression and mild physical aggression in girls but not in boys. Psychological aggression and mild physical aggression were associated with dependency in boys. Girls scored higher in psychological aggression and jealousy than did boys. Finally, the interaction between jealousy and dependency predicted psychological aggression only in girls. These results highlight the need to address the role of the interaction between dependence and jealousy in the types of violence employed in teen dating. However, it is necessary to delve into the gender differences and similarities to develop appropriate prevention programs.
... Jealousy has been described as an aversive emotional response associated with social anxiety, neuroticism, and hostility that can contribute to relational discord and intimate partner violence (Barnett, Martinez, & Bluestein, 1995;Bringle & Buunk, 1985;Buunk & Bringle, 1987;Puente & Cohen, 2003). In Western society, there is also an evident stigma associated with the expression of jealousy (Barelds & Dijkstra, 2006). ...
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Jealousy is argued to be an adaptive emotion that coordinates the use of mate retention acts, denoting behavior intended to guard a relationship from rivals, to prevent infidelity, and to hinder defection from the mateship. Nevertheless, few researchers have examined these relations. We sampled 144 women and men in romantic relationships and found that anxious (unease over potential infidelity) and preventive (preventing one's partner from consorting with others) but not reactive (anger over a partner being unfaithful) jealousy positively predicted cost‐inflicting mate retention. Only anxious jealousy positively predicted benefit‐provisioning acts. Sex moderated the relations between reactive jealousy with cost‐inflicting and benefit‐provisioning behavior, such that reactively jealous women used more of both kinds of mate retention.
... Moreover, individuals are constantly interacting with cultural practices and products, which can determine a great variability within the same culture. For the prognostic factor, as in the results of Puente and Cohen (2003), the present study found little difference, with a trend to a worse prognosis in the " jealousy " condition, especially for the aggressive husband (2.08). This finding is in agreement with the study of Zordan, Wagner, and Mosmann (2012) who investigated the alleged reasons for separation by analyzing documents of 152 marital separations filed between 1992 and 2006. ...
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Beliefs about love and jealousy can be variables that influence violence against women. The aim of our reproduction of a United States study was to compare our data with those of the original study regarding the acceptance of violence related to jealousy. A total of 264 college students participated in the study. They heard and assessed two audio recordings ("jealousy" and "no jealousy"), but half heard situations in which the husband beat his wife and half situations in which the husband does not beat his wife. After each audio recording, participants answered six questions, among them: "how much the husband loves his wife" and "how long would the relationship last". It was observed that, aggression, in the case of "no jealousy", showed to have a negative meaning both in the United States study and in the present study, which was not observed in the case of "jealousy". It may be concluded that violence against women is a cultural practice in Brazil and that social rules regarding male honor, female submission and jealousy exert influence on this practice.
... The relationship between jealousy and IPV has been examined in a number of studies with jealousy consistently being significantly related to IPV (Babcock, Costa, & Green, 2004;Fenton & Rathus, 2010;Hannawa, Spitzberg, Wiering, & Teranishi, 2006;Puente & Cohen, 2003). Jealousy represents intense emotions that may lead to the inability for men with low levels of differentiation of self to employ a response that is free of violence. ...
Article
This study explored the impact of differentiation of self on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). We sought to determine if an individual's level of differentiation of self in a relationship adds to the variance accounted for in IPV perpetration by known risk factors, i.e., relational satisfaction, marital conflict, romantic jealousy, depression, and anxiety. Results indicated that differentiation of self in a relationship is a predictor for perpetration of physical intimate partner violence even after controlling for other known risk factors.
... Men's sexual jealousy as a precursor for violence is well reported (Davis et al., 2016). Real or imagined relationship threats are related to jealousy, with the consequences of violence against either the potential rival or the woman 164 Staying safe T&F PROOFS NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION Women Who Buy Sex;by Sarah Kingston,Natalie Hammond and Scarlett Redman Format: Royal (156 × 234 mm); Style: B; Font: Times New Roman; Dir: T:/2-Pagination/WWB_RAPS/ApplicationFiles/9781138699175_text.3d; Created: 09/03/2020 @ 14:26:12 (Puente and Cohen, 2003). Adam's narrative above demonstrates that he is seen as a threat as Adam was providing pleasure that the man had not been able to offer. ...
... Trust also arises in the IPV literature in that abusive men feel their partners are untrustworthy, largely reflected through issues around jealousy (Kar & O'Leary, 2013;Neal & Edwards, 2017;Nemeth, Bonomi, Lee, & Ludwin, 2012;Puente & Cohen, 2003;Scott Tilley & Brackley, 2005). Both abusive and non-abusive participants referred to the ability (and tendency) for the women in their lives to be deceitful, unfaithful, and dishonest, whether it was lying about finances as in Roger's (NA) case, infidelity for Jesse (PA), Rudolpho (IA), Omar (IA), Tyson (IA), and Noah (NA), or simply general dishonesty in the relationships of Hector (PA), Mark (PA), and Cyril (NA). ...
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Companion animals are increasingly becoming part of our families, and the majority of homes in North America now include at least one companion animal (American Pet Products Association, 2018; Oliveira, 2014). One body of research has shown that both men and women have close relationships with companion animals (Irvine, 2013; Prato-Previde et al., 2006; Ramirez, 2006; Sanders, 1993), while another body of research shows that companion animals are the targets of threats and harm in connection to IPV perpetrated by men (Ascione et al., 2007; Barrett et al., 2017; Flynn, 2000a; Simmons & Lehmann, 2007). Most of the research at the intersection of IPV and animal abuse has used the perspective of the women survivors in the abusive relationships. This perspective is essential to establish effective programs and services for survivors of IPV, to understand the impacts of the abuse of a companion animal on their human companions, and to begin to understand the complexity of relationships with IPV. However, it is one perspective – the perspective of the abuser in the relationship is generally missing in this literature. The current study addresses this gap in the literature through focusing on the men’s perspective. Active interviews were conducted with 21 men, eight of whom had no reported perpetration of IPV recruited from the community, and thirteen who had been abusive towards an intimate partner and who were incarcerated or court-mandated participants in a domestic violence intervention program. Relationships with companion animals fell along a continuum with disinterest in the pet at one end and a cherished family member at the other. There was no discernible difference in how the companion animals were conceptualized between men who had been abusive towards an intimate partner and those with no reported abuse. Relationships with animals were characterized by unconditional love, loyalty, and trust, contrary to how most participants described their intimate relationships. Companion animals featured in the performance and construction of masculinity, from a ‘tough guy with a tough dog’ to a nurturing father. Companion animals enabled men to do a ‘softer’ masculinity in which sensitivity and emotional vulnerability were more acceptable, as well as do their masculinity in accordance with hegemonic norms of authority, power, and control. Men in this study evidenced varying acceptance of aggression towards people, including towards intimate partners, however, there was a clear consensus that aggression against animals was not acceptable. No participant reported abusing an animal in the context of IPV, which challenges the essentialization of abusive men in the literature by showing that men who abuse their partners do not necessarily engage in animal mistreatment, and in fact may have positive relationships with animals. The value of this research lies in its contribution to a better understanding of the perspectives of men who commit IPV, thus providing a more comprehensive understanding of IPV. The findings show companion animals, who are increasingly being considered members of the family and with whom relationships are highly valued, hold important roles in intimate relationships with both with and without IPV. These findings have important policy implications, namely in the modification and improvement of domestic violence intervention programs to reflect these positive relationships with companion animals through a strengths-based approach.
... Several studies indicate that in many cultures violence is perceived as an expression and proof of affection (Hayes & Jeffries, 2013;Power, Koch, Kralik, & Jackson, 2006;Puente, & Cohen, 2003;Rotimi, 2007) and that certain "ideals" of love and relationships legitimize partner abuse (Jackson, 2001;Hayes & Jeffries, 2013;Leisring, 2013). That means that culturally constructed expectations, beliefs, or notions about love influence the way violence is interpreted, performed, and emotionally experienced by those involved in violent relationships (e.g., Borochowitz & Eisikovits, 2002;Towns & Adams, 2000). ...
Article
The present study aims to identify and analyze the interpretative repertoires on love and intimate relationships used by wife batterers, exploring how the repertoires may influence the development and experience of violent intimate relationships, and how this is linked to the identity issues. Twelve wife batterers participated in the study, answering to an individual interview on their lives’ love story. Through a discourse analysis of the data, five distinct interpretative repertoires were identified—romantic, companion, passionate, pragmatic and game-playing love—and their meaning construction was analyzed. It is discussed what repertoires reveal about gender roles prescribed by the model of masculinity, and how these gender roles constrain the construction of the identity, the personal growth and the self-actualization of the batterers.
... In western literature jealousy is viewed as a standout amongst the most negative feelings people may have towards their associated beings (Valdesolo & DeSteno, 2008). In general, it is related to a large number of negative social outcomes, for example, abusive behavior, bullying, aggression, relationship conflicts, and generalized hostility (Barnett, Martinez, & Bluestein, 1995;Buss, 2000;Puente & Cohen, 2003). ...
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The main aim of present study is to test the associations between perceived jealousy, subjective happiness, and self-esteem. Moreover, it also aimed to test the role of self-esteem as a moderator between jealousy and subjective happiness. Our sample comprised of 200 university students using purposive convenient sampling technique including 100 male and 100 female students. For data collection we used Perceived Jealousy Scale (Iqbal, Fazaldad, & Hassan, 2019), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999).Findings indicate a significant negative relationship between perceived jealousy and subjective happiness (r=-.32, p <.001), and a positive relationship between subjective happiness and self-esteem. Furthermore, self-esteem acts as a moderator between perceived jealousy and subjective happiness. This study is beneficial in finding ways to enhance the self-esteem of students so that they can deal with negative emotions of jealousy and can experience positive emotions of happiness.
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Infidelity and romantic jealousy (RJ) are commonly cited relational level drivers of intimate partner violence (IPV) but remain undertheorized and underutilized in IPV research and prevention. This global systematic review aims to characterize the existing research on real or suspected infidelity and RJ in relation to IPV and inform future research and programming. We systematically searched 11 databases for peer-reviewed research, published between April 2009 and 2019, that provided data on the prevalence or a measure of association (quantitative), or pathway (qualitative), between real or suspected infidelity or RJ, and IPV. Fifty-one papers from 28 countries were included and the evidence showed a consistent association between real or suspected infidelity, RJ and IPV. Our findings identify three overarching mechanisms and six pathways between infidelity, RJ and IPV. These provide support for prominent theories in the field related to patriarchal culture, threatened masculinities and femininities and a lack of emotional regulation and conflict resolution skills, but not evolutionary theories. Our findings suggest that researchers should use standardized measurement tools that make the distinction between RJ and suspected, confirmed and accusations of infidelity. Policy and programming should aim to transform traditional gender roles, accounting for infidelity and RJ and improving couple's communication and trust.
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This study focuses on romantic relationships from the perspective of both partners. This dyadic approach was chosen to account for the fact that both partners may differently contribute to the escalation of aggression. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners' reports of aggression (relational and physical) and measures of attachment security and jealousy were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads with mutually aggressive or one-sided aggressive dyad. Of note were dyads with aggressive females and self-silencing males. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning with a lack of secure, trusting relationship qualities and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the formative character of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the gender-specific functions of aggression in one-sided aggressive dyads.
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This book is an exploration into the dynamics of interpersonal relationships, and how the spiritual quest for union is tempered by the human desire for freedom. Since being in an intimate relationship is not the cause of happiness, a major focus of this book is to help the readers understand the need to take responsibility for their own happiness. Only when people learn to understand their own happiness, regardless of being in a relationship, will they be able to cultivate a successful relationship because they want a relationship, and not because they think they need a relationship to be happy.
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In this work, we present the analysis of life stories of a group of men who are serving sentences for gender violence in Jaén II Penitentiary Institution (Andalusia, Spain), who are part of the treatment for gender aggressors. Results show some characteristics of these men, related to gender violence, are a reflection of the patriarchal system, with a traditional cultural component, such as the concept of culture of honor; the existence of gender stereotypes; jealousy or infidelity as the main justification for the crime committed; all variables directly related to gender violence. These findings represent a contribution to the fight against this serious social problema, taking into consideration the perspective of the abusive man, being a main actor.
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The overarching objective of this study was to examine a novel model investigating romantic attachment as a moderator of the relation between an individual's jealousy or an individual's perception of his or her partner's jealousy and one's couple satisfaction. The sample comprised of 502 university students currently involved in a relationship of at least 12 months. An original and comprehensive model concurrently investigating emotional, cognitive, and behavioral facets of jealousy was used. The implementation of hierarchical models revealed that cognitive jealousy was negatively associated with couple satisfaction, whereas emotional jealousy demonstrated a positive association; behavioral jealousy did not add incremental value in one's couple satisfaction. Results were applicable to both one's own and one's perception of his or her partner's jealousy for each respective facet. Cognitive jealousy was demonstrated to explain the greatest variance in one's couple satisfaction. Findings also revealed romantic attachment as a moderator of the relation between certain facets of jealousy and couple satisfaction, with attachment anxiety and avoidance leading to a strengthened or weakened relation, respectively. As such, results suggest that the negative and positive consequences of jealousy on couple satisfaction may be exacerbated among those exhibiting higher attachment anxiety. The applied and clinical implications of all findings are discussed.
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U.S. citizens are overwhelmingly opposed to the legalization of polygamous marriage, but specific reasons for this opposition remain unclear. In this study we examined young adults' (n = 814) attitudes toward polygamous marriage as a function of myriad variables. Particular attention was given to the presumed association between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and polygamous marriage. Results indicated that, overall, young adults' attitudes toward polygamous marriage were neutral. Also, attitudes toward same-sex marriage significantly correlated with attitudes toward polygamous marriage. However, not all pro–same-sex marriage participants were pro-polygamous marriage. Moreover, opposition to same-sex marriage, (female) gender, higher levels of authoritarianism, and endorsement of traditional family values conjointly and individually predicted opposition to polygamous marriage. Implications of the findings are discussed, particularly in the context of U.S. discourse over the legalization of same-sex marriage.
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Background: Emotional dependency in couples involves excessive and dysfunctional emotional bonding. Aims: This work aimed to determine the relationship between violence, jealousy, and ambivalent sexism according to emotional dependence in adolescent student couples. Methods: A cross-sectional study. A total of 234 Spanish adolescents (69.7% female, Mage = 16.77, SD = 1.11) participated in the study. Participants completed an ad hoc interview and several validated tests (Partner's Emotional Dependency Scale, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Jealousy subscale of the Love Addiction Scale, the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationship Inventory). Results: Of the sample, 40.6% indicated high emotional dependence and 14.5% extreme emotional dependence. Differences were observed according to gender (t = 3.92, p < 0.001), with adolescent boys scoring higher than adolescent girls. Extremely emotionally dependent participants showed differences in both violence (sexual, relational, verbal, and physical) and ambivalent sexism (hostile, benevolent) and jealousy scores. Generating a predictive model of emotional dependence, with the variable jealousy and ambivalent sexism as predictor variables, it was found that jealousy has the greatest predictive and major explanatory capacity (R2 = 0.297); with an R2 = 0.334. However, the contribution of the ASI-Hostile subscale was not significant when the ASI-Benevolent subscale was introduced into the model. Further, in a second model where the scores on jealousy and the couple conflict inventory's subscales were considered as predictors, are again jealousy makes the greatest predictive contribution and shows the greatest explanatory capacity (R2 = 0.296). It was found that the contribution is significant only for the predictive capacity of Sexual Violence and Relational Violence. In this sense, the educational context is one of the propitious places to detect and correct behaviors that may be indicative of potentially unbalanced and unbalancing relationships for adolescents.
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Citation: Arbinaga, F.; Mendoza-Sierra, M.I.; Caraballo-Aguilar, B.M.; Buiza-Calzadilla, I.; Torres-Rosado, L.; Bernal-López, M.; García-Martínez, J.; Fernández-Ozcorta, E.J. Jealousy, Violence, and Sexual Ambivalence in Adolescent Students According to Emotional Dependency in the Couple Relationship. Children 2021, 8, 993. https://doi.org/10.3390/children 8110993 Academic Editors:
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This study investigated concurrent links between adolescent romantic couples' reports of aggression (relational and physical) and relationship functioning (e.g., attachment security, conflict prevalence, coping strategies, jealousy, and affiliative and romantic relationship quality) using a pattern-oriented approach. The sample included 194 romantic partner dyads (Mage=16.99 years for females and Mage=18.41 years for males). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of relational and physical aggression, ranging from nonaggressive couples (42%), to those characterized by aggressive females (18%), aggressive males (14%), physically aggressive females (20%), and mutually aggressive females and males (6%). Clusters in which one partner was perceived as either relationally or physically aggressive were characterized by higher rates of conflict, less adaptive coping, and more jealousy (particularly in males). The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with high rates of conflict, a deficit in reflection and emotion regulation in conflict situations, and a lack of affiliative relationship qualities. The discussion focuses on the formative character of aggression in these early romantic relations, the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning, and the gender-specific functions of aggression in relationships characterized by unilateral aggression.
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O “ciúme” frequentemente é associado, na literatura, à violência contra a mulher cometida por seus parceiros, supondo-se uma relação causal entre ambos. Partindo do enfoque da Análise do Comportamento, buscou-se investigar se existe relação entre esses comportamentos (“ciúme” e violência) por meio dos relatos de 10 mulheres, abrigadas em uma instituição de proteção a vítimas de violência, que consideravam seus parceiros ciumentos. Criaram-se categorias de análise para as definições de “ciúme” e para os antecedentes às respostas emocionais ciumentas, além da elaboração de relações de contingências tríplices para cada exemplo de “ciúme” fornecido pelas participantes. Todas as participantes entrevistadas relataram comportamentos violentos do parceiro ao descrever uma situação de “ciúme” e todas citaram a suspeita de envolvimento com outra pessoa como situação antecedente ao “ciúme”. As análises levaram a propor uma forma diferente de tratar a relação entre “ciúme” e violência, considerando os comportamentos agressivos dos parceiros como um tipo (topografia) de “ciúme”.
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This study was conducted in order to examine effects of early adult attachment styles on exclusivity of romantic relationships. Two hundred fifty seven undergraduates participated in Study 1, which examined how early adult attachment styles influence one's "sense of exclusivity" and "expressions of the sense of exclusivity," from the perspective of attachment dimensions. Results showed that, the higher the level of anxiety was, the more regularly a "sense of exclusivity" was experienced. Furthermore, the higher the level of avoidance was, the lower the "sense of exclusivity" was experienced. In addition, participants with high avoidance were less likely to express their "sense of exclusivity." In Study 2, participants were limited to 104 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships. Exclusivity of romantic relationships as a function of early adult attachment styles was examined with the construction of causal models as follows: first, two dimensions of early adult attachment, second, feelings of discomfort when a third person intervenes in the romantic relationships, and, lastly, coping behaviors for feelings of discomfort. Results revealed that anxiety increased the frequency of lingering/sadness, while avoidance reduced the frequency of these feelings. Moreover, results indicated that avoidance caused a higher tendency to resort to destructive coping behaviors and a lower tendency towards selecting constructive coping behaviors, such as "voice." These results are discussed in terms of the relations between early attachment styles, emotional experiences, and destructive behaviors in romantic relationships.
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The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships lead individuals to risk rejection in the pursuit of acceptance. Some individuals are predisposed to experience a hypersensitivity to rejection that is hypothesized to be related to jealous and aggressive reactions within interpersonal relationships. The current study used convenience sampling to recruit 247 young adults to evaluate the relationship between rejection sensitivity, jealousy, and aggression. A mediation model was used to test three hypotheses: Higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of aggression (Hypothesis 1); higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of jealousy (Hypothesis 2); jealousy would mediate the relationship between rejection sensitivity and aggression (Hypothesis 3). Study results suggest a tendency for individuals with high rejection sensitivity to experience higher levels of jealousy, and subsequently have a greater propensity for aggression, than individuals with low rejection sensitivity. Future research that substantiates a link between hypersensitivity to rejection, jealousy, and aggression may provide an avenue for prevention, education, or intervention in reducing aggression within interpersonal relationships.
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Ciúme e amor aparecem relacionados desde muito cedo na história da humanidade e ainda hoje observa-se essa relação. No entanto, praticamente não existem dados empíricos que apóiam a relação entre ambos. O artigo de Puente e Cohen, dois norte americanos, é um dos poucos que descreve estudos empíricos sobre essa relação. Como a presente pesquisa consistiu em uma replicação sistemática de um dos estudos desses autores, mantiveram-se os mesmos objetivos: verificar se as pessoas relacionam ciúme e amor e identificar se existe diferença nas respostas considerando o gênero do participante. A amostra foi constituída de 200 participantes, os quais foram apresentados a um texto descrevendo situações nas quais uma esposa interagia com um desconhecido e as reações dos maridos: um que apresentou ciúme frente à situação e o outro que não apresentou. Posteriormente responderam a uma escala Likert avaliando a reação de cada marido. De forma geral, confirmou-se a hipótese de que à medida que o comportamento da esposa se tornava mais provocativo, os participantes perceberiam a reação do marido ciumento como mais amorosa e favorável em comparação ao não ciumento. Os dados foram analisados a partir de conceitos como cultural, controle por regras e quadros relacionais.
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Abstract The risk of violence is analyzed for women who break with her aggressor. Participants were 258 women who had broken away from a violent relationship. We validate factor structure of an instrument with six scales: Conflict, Risk perception, Manipulation, Risky actions, Justifications, and Violence. Finally, we developed a structural equations model that describes the effects of these factors on the violence after the breakdown.
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Parental psychological control (PPC)’s association with romantic relationships and the mechanisms through which PPC impairs relationship qualities remain crucial questions to understanding PPC. To this end, we examine if insecure attachment at age 18 mediated the association between PPC perceived at age 16 and jealousy at age 22. Our results showed that PPC perceived at age 16 predicted attachment anxiety at age 18, which then predicted jealousy at age 22. Both mothers’ and fathers’ models show significant mediational paths, although only mothers’ mediational paths remain significant when entered together with fathering in the model. The paths were significant regardless of the gender of the adolescents. The results suggest that adolescents of psychologically controlling parents may experience compromised attachment security during early emerging adulthood and carry that insecure attachment into their romantic relationships later in emerging adulthood. We discuss the implications for interventions and policy‐making.
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We proposed that the premise that monogamy is the exemplary form of romantic partnership underlies much theory and research on relationship quality, and we addressed how this bias has prompted methodological issues that make it difficult to effectively address the quality of nonmonogamous relationships. Because the idea that consensually nonmonogamous (CNM) relationships are functional (i.e., satisfying and of high quality) is controversial, we included a basic study to assess, in a variety of ways, the quality of these relationships. In that study, we found few differences in relationship functioning between individuals engaged in monogamy and those in CNM relationships. We then considered how existing theories could help researchers to understand CNM relationships and how CNM relationships could shed light on relationship processes, and we proposed a model of how CNM and monogamous relationships differ. Finally, in a second study, we determined that even researchers who present data about CNM are affected by the stigma surrounding such relationships. That is, researchers presenting findings favoring polyamory were perceived as more biased than researchers presenting findings favoring monogamy.
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Jealousy and love appear related since an early age in the history of humanity and such relationship has still been observed nowadays. However, there are virtually no empirical data to support the relationship between them. The article by Puente and Cohen, two North Americans, is one of the few that describes empirical studies about this relationship. As the present study consisted of a systematic replication from one of the studies by these authors, they were kept the same goals: to check if people relate jealousy and love and to identify if there is a difference in the responses considering the participant gender. The sample was consisted of 200 participants, who were presented to a text describing situations in which a wife interacted with a stranger and the husbands' reactions: one who had jealousy about the situation and the other who did not present. After, they should respond to a likert scale in which they evaluated the reaction of each husband. In general, it was confirmed the hypothesis that as wife's behavior got more provocative, the participants perceived the reaction of jealous husband as more loving and favorable compared to not jealous one. Data were analyzed from concepts such as culture, control by rules and relational framework.
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The study's aim was to investigate the participants' agreement with descriptive rules common in Western society that relate to violence against women from questionnaires administered to 252 college students and non-university individuals of both sexes. The questionnaire (ad hoc) contained 25 statements that should be answered on a scale, as well as if the participant knew or not knew someone who agreed with what was described in each of them, with the possibility of the participant to make a comment (not mandatory) in each affirmative. To analyze the data was used the t Student and r Pearson. It was found that non-university men had higher agreement with statements related to the rules that legitimize the patriarchal family model, female culpability for aggression and jealous emotional behavior relationship between and violence. The education variable was statistically significant for 20 affirmative, while the gender variable was significant statistically for 17 of the 25 statements in the questionnaire. It was also observed that there was a negative correlation between education level and agreement or disagreement with the statements of the questionnaires. It was also observed that there was a negative correlation between education level and agreement or disagreement with the statements of the questionnaires. Furthermore, in general, most participants said they knew someone who agrees with affirmative proposals. The data suggest that the level of education is predominant in relation to gender regarding the agreement or not with the rules that somehow relate to the maintenance of violence against the women.
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"Jealousy" is often associated in literature to violence against women perpetrated by their partners, presuming a causal relationship between them. Based on Behavior Analysis, a possible relation between these behaviors ("jealousy" and violence) was investigated through reports of 10 women sheltered in an institution of protection of violence victims who considered their partners jealous. Categories of analysis for the definitions of "jealousy" and the antecedents to the jealousy emotional responses were created, and contingency relations for each example of "jealousy" provided by the participants were drafted. One hundred percent of participants reported partner's violent behavior when describing a situation of "jealousy" and all cited the suspicion of involvement with another person as antecedent to "jealousy". The analysis led to the proposal of a different way of dealing with the relationship between "jealousy" and violence, considering the aggressive behavior of partners as a type (topography) of "jealousy".
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I. Jealous and Envious Thoughts and Feelings 1. The Emotional Experiences of Envy and Jealousy, Parrott 2. The Organization of Jealousy Knowledge: Romantic Jealousy as a Blended Emotion, Sharpsteen 3. A Cognitive Theory of Jealousy, Mathes 4. Envy and the Sense of Injustice, Smith II. The Experience of Jealousy in Close Relationships 5. Psychosocial Aspects of Jealousy: A Transactional Model, Bringle 6. Developmental Correlates of Jealousy, Clanton & Kosins 7. Jealousy in Close Relationships: An Exchange Theoretical Perspective, Buunk 8. Modes of Response to Jealousy-Envoking Situations, Bryson III. Family, Systems, and Culture in Jealousy and Envy 9. Jealousy: Its Conceptualization, Measurement, and Integration with Family Stress Theory, Hansen 10. Self, Relationship, Friends, and Family: Some Applications of Systems Perspectives to Romantic Jealousy, White 11. The Motive for the Arousal of Romantic Jealousy: Its Cultural Origin, Hupka 12. Envy and Jealousy: Self and Society, Salovey & Rothman
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