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The neglected relationship between social interaction anxiety and hedonic deficits: Differentiation from depressive symptoms

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Abstract

Depressive symptoms are associated with both the presence of negative subjective experiences and relative absence of positive subjective experiences. A similar affective profile of high negative affect and low positive affect (PA) has been associated with excessive social anxiety (SA). This initial cross-sectional study evaluated the incremental effects of social interaction anxiety on hedonic deficits beyond the effects of depressive and anxiety (i.e., physiological arousal, worry) symptoms. From a sample of 97 college students, a factor analysis on self-report measures of hedonic functioning derived two domains: Positive Subjective Experiences and Curiosity. Social interaction anxiety was uniquely, negatively related to Positive Subjective Experiences and Curiosity after removing variance attributable to various depressive and anxiety symptoms. In contrast, anxious arousal and nonspecific anxiety had near-zero relationships with both domains, and depressive symptoms were negatively related to Positive Subjective Experiences. These data provide some evidence for an association between social interaction anxiety and hedonic deficits that is not attributable to covariance with other internalizing conditions.

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... This term refers to fear and avoidance of, or, distress when meeting, interacting, and expressing oneself with other people (Kashdan, 2004). Central concerns include fears of being inarticulate, boring, sounding stupid, not knowing what to say or how to respond within social interactions, and of being ignored (Mattick & Clarke, 1998). ...
... Since children with nut allergies seem to have difficulty interacting with and relating to peers, but not with being observed, only the second dimension is of interest for this study. SIA is defined as "the fear and avoidance of meeting, interacting, and expressing oneself with others" (Kashdan, 2004). Individuals with SIA have been found to have a generally negative affect, reporting feelings of loneliness, poorer educational, occupational, and interpersonal functioning, and greater suicidal ideations than less socially anxious individuals (Kashdan, 2004). ...
... SIA is defined as "the fear and avoidance of meeting, interacting, and expressing oneself with others" (Kashdan, 2004). Individuals with SIA have been found to have a generally negative affect, reporting feelings of loneliness, poorer educational, occupational, and interpersonal functioning, and greater suicidal ideations than less socially anxious individuals (Kashdan, 2004). Research indicates that individuals with SIA show deficits in positive subjective experiences, which has been shown to be associated with depression (Kashdan, 2004). ...
Article
This was an empirically based study that examined the prevalence of social interaction anxiety, worry, state anxiety, and trait anxiety in individuals with a nut allergy. Three different groups were used, the first being the ‘nut allergy’ group (N = 24) consisting of individuals with a self-proclaimed nut allergy, and two comparison groups: the ‘other allergy’ group (N = 17) consisting of those with other (non-nut) allergies and the ‘allergy free’ group (N = 31) consisting of individuals who had no known allergies. The main hypotheses were that there would a direct relationship between the occurrence of a nut allergy and social interaction anxiety, worry, state anxiety, and trait anxiety. To test these hypotheses, all individuals completed 5 questionnaires: The Nut Allergy Inquiry Form, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), the State-trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S), and the State-trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T). These questionnaires were intended to measure social interaction anxiety, worry, state anxiety, and trait anxiety respectively. After conducting an analysis of variance to test each of the four hypotheses, it was determined that none of the hypothesized results of this study were significant. Therefore, the overall conclusion of this research is that there is not a direct relationship between the occurrence of a nut allergy and social anxiety, worry, state anxiety, or trait anxiety. However, it should be noted that the size of the Cohen d estimates indicated that some of the differences in means were practically significant. This is an indication that the present study lacked the power to fully test the hypotheses; it could be viewed as exploratory in nature with an eye toward a more comprehensive study.
... Extant literature on SAD has observed two symptom presentations of the disorder: Social observation anxiety, which refers to fear of public speaking and performances, and social interaction anxiety, which relates to interpersonal interactions (APA, 2013). Symptoms associated with social interaction anxiety, in particular, relate to social avoidance or withdrawing behavior (Kashdan et al. 2011a) and a depressive affect profile (Brown et al. 1998;Chorpita et al. 2000;Kashdan 2004; Kashdan et al. 2011b;Watson et al. 1988). This relates to increased loneliness and inhibition, as well as decreased energy, pleasure, well-being, and relationship satisfaction (Kashdan 2004;Kashdan et al. 2011a;Kashdan et al. 2011b;Safren et al. 1996;Schneier et al. 1994;Stein and Kean 2000). ...
... Symptoms associated with social interaction anxiety, in particular, relate to social avoidance or withdrawing behavior (Kashdan et al. 2011a) and a depressive affect profile (Brown et al. 1998;Chorpita et al. 2000;Kashdan 2004; Kashdan et al. 2011b;Watson et al. 1988). This relates to increased loneliness and inhibition, as well as decreased energy, pleasure, well-being, and relationship satisfaction (Kashdan 2004;Kashdan et al. 2011a;Kashdan et al. 2011b;Safren et al. 1996;Schneier et al. 1994;Stein and Kean 2000). ...
... Skills development in communicating needs and boundaries, and interventions to enhance self-efficacy, may help override these effects on decreased sexual satisfaction among individuals with social interaction anxiety. Further, elevated social interaction anxiety is associated with fewer and shorter-lived subjective experiences of pleasure and increased negative emotions (Kashdan 2004). This anhedonic profile may contribute to decreased sexual pleasure and lower sexual satisfaction (Kashdan et al. 2011b). ...
Article
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Social anxiety disorder is prevalent and negatively impacts adolescents and young adults. People with social interaction anxiety, a presentation category of social anxiety disorder pertaining to social relationships, tend to be more withdrawn, avoidant, and sexually dissatisfied. Some individuals with social interaction anxiety are more likely to engage in health-risk sexual behavior (HRSB), likely associated with individual differences. The present study used finite mixture modeling to discern profiles comprised of social interaction anxiety and individual differences previously associated with HRSB, replicating and extending previous findings (Rahm-Knigge et al. 2018). We also examined differences in sexual satisfaction among profiles. We replicated identifying two profiles high in social interaction anxiety that substantively differed in response to positive and negative emotions, emotion-regulation strategies, risk seeking, and non-acceptance of emotions. The profile high in social interaction anxiety and these individual differences was likelier to engage in HRSB than the other high social anxiety profile. Both high social interaction anxiety profiles were similarly low in sexual satisfaction. Despite differences in individual differences and engagement in HRSB, profiles high in social interaction anxiety reported similarly lower sexual satisfaction than the profiles low in social interaction anxiety.
... Depression manifests itself through negative affects, behavioral problems, maladjustment (Lau, Chan & Lau, 1999), and dysfunctional coping styles (Sanjuan & Magallares, 2015). According to Kashdan (2004), depressive symptoms are associated with negative subjective experiences and lack of positive subjective experiences. Similarly, excessive social anxiety is associated with low levels of positive affects and high levels of negative affects. ...
... As adolescents become lonelier and experience negative affects, they are more likely to have depressive symptoms. An important aspect of both social anxiety and depression is negative affects (Clark & Watson, 1991;Kashdan, 2004). However, depression is an emotional dysregulation. ...
Article
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The current research aims to investigate the multiple mediation of loneliness and negative emotions in the relationship between adolescents’ social anxiety and depressive symptoms. Study participants, selected through convenience sampling, consisted of a total of 263 students, including 155 females (59%) and 108 males (41%), attending various high schools in a city in the mid-Black Sea Region. Participant students’ ages ranged between 14 and 18, with an average age of 15.05 (SD=.90). Data for the current study were collected through the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents, UCLA Loneliness Scale – Short Form, Positive and Negative Emotion Scale for Adolescents, Depression Scale for Children, and Personal Information Form. Current research data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and an approach based on Ordinary Least Squares Regression, and the Bootstrap Method. The current study findings indicated that loneliness and negative emotions, both separately and together, mediated the relationship between social anxiety and depressive symptoms. No significant difference was found in the comparison conducted to reveal the more powerful mediating variable in terms of mediation effect. In addition, it was found that the model overall was significant and it explained 44% of the total variance in depressive symptoms. A discussion about and interpretation of findings obtained in the current study were included along with suggestions for relevant practitioners.
... Social interaction anxiety is characterized as fear and avoidance in interpersonal exchanges (e.g., initiating and maintaining a conversation, meeting with others, etc.) On the other hand, performance anxiety refers to fear and avoidance of doing activities in front of other people (e.g., public speaking, writing, playing a musical instrument, etc.) (Mattick & Clarke, 1998). Studies have shown that social interaction anxiety is more closely associated with anhedonia, which is a specific marker of depression, whereas performance anxiety is more relevant to the symptoms of anxious physiological arousal (Clark & Watson, 1991;Hughes et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002Kashdan, , 2004. ...
... While we focused on social interaction anxiety, social anxiety can also manifest in performance settings (performance anxiety). Although previous findings demonstrate that social interaction anxiety has a greater relevance to depression than performance anxiety does (Hughes et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002Kashdan, , 2004, the effects of performance anxiety on depressive symptoms have not been tested with respect to gender differences, and therefore, it is still unknown whether similar relationships hold with specific subtypes of social anxiety. This can be assessed in future studies by administering questionnaires that cover broader domains of social anxiety (e.g., The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS; Safren et al., 1999), The Social Phobia Diagnostic Questionnaire (SPDQ; Newman et al., 2003)) or focus on a specific component of social anxiety symptoms (e.g., the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998), Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE; Leary, 1983)). ...
Preprint
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid with each other, and comorbidity exacerbates distress and impairment. The prevalence of comorbid depression is higher in women with SAD than in men with SAD, but this is based on global depression scores and cannot speak to heterogeneous individual depression symptoms. The current study bridges this gap by examining gender differences in the relationship between social interaction anxiety and individual depression symptoms. 165 community adults (113 women, 52 men) were included in a series of bootstrapped moderation analyses to examine the main and interaction effects of social interaction anxiety and gender on total depression and individual depressive symptom scores while controlling for age and ethnic background. Social interaction anxiety positively predicted total and individual depression scores. Greater social interaction anxiety predicted greater self-dislike and worthlessness in men than in women. Our findings replicate the finding that social anxiety and depression are highly comorbid with respect to total scores and extend this finding to individual symptoms. Our findings also demonstrate that the relationship between social interaction anxiety and depressive symptoms can be modulated by gender identities. Men with social interaction anxiety may be more prone to distress associated with self/identity. These findings elucidate the specific ways in which social interaction anxiety relates to the constellation of depression symptoms in men and women and highlights the need for more tailored assessment and intervention for socially anxious men and women to target individual dimensions of symptom presentations.
... Interaction anxiety, which is also known as social anxiety, can be identified as the avoidance or fear of self-expression and interaction with people. In this respect, social interaction anxiety represents the emotional aspect of social anxiety (Kashdan, 2004). ...
... The avoidance of social environments brings about some negative affects such as loneliness (Jang & Kim, 2012), desperation (Cohen & Pressman, 2006;Uzun-Özer & Tezer, 2008), unhappiness (Demir & Kutlu, 2016) and depression (Kashdan, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging adulthood is a term between adolescence and young adulthood and extending from (roughly) ages 18 to 25. The characteristics of the terms such as identity crises, instability, self- focus, and thinking styles effect the emerging adults’ perceptions, attributions, affects, and emotional management skills. In accordance with the developmental term, the aim of the study is to investigate the predictive power of negative-positive affects and interaction anxiety on emotions management skills in emerging adulthood. The sample consisted of 435 senior students who attended University of Marmara. 298 of them are women, 137 of them are men. Interaction Anxiousness Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Scale of Emotions Management Skills, and personal information sheets were used as measurements. The findings indicated that emotional management skills were correlated with interaction anxiousness and negative-positive affect. It was found that interaction anxiousness had a predictive power on emotional management skills. Results of regression showed that negative affect had the strongest effect on emotional management skills with the exception of coping subscales. On the other hand, it was seen that only coping skill was predicted by positive emotion.
... Kecemasan interaksi sosial dan perilaku menghindar merupakan faktor utama yang menyebabkan terganggunya inisiasi kontak sosial dan pengembangan hubungan dekat yang berfungsi sebagai sumber kelekatan sosial, kebahagiaan, dukungan sosial dan penguatan-penguatan lainnya. Oleh karena itu, individu dengan kecemasan interaksi sosial diidentifikasi memiliki subjective well-being yang rendah, kurang optimis, harapan rendah, dan lemahnya semangat untuk bertahan (Kashdan, 2004). ...
... Sebagaimana yang dijelaskan dalam beberapa hasil penelitian bahwa individu dengan kecemasan interaksi sosial mengalami kesulitan dalam membangun hubungan interpersonal yang baru sehingga mudah menimbulkan kebingungan yang diiringi dengan kekacauan struktur kata ketika mereka berusaha mencoba untuk berinteraksi. Hal ini juga didukung dengan serangan kecemasan dan dorongan untuk menghindar yang kuat (Kashdan, 2004;Kashdan, Doorley, Stiksma, & Matthew, 2016;Kashdan & Farmer, 2014). Namun, subjek menunjukkan sikap yang patuh sehingga cenderung submissive ketika diminta oleh figur-figur yang dianggap memiliki otoritas atas dirinya dalam melakukan berbagai macam pekerjaan. ...
Article
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AA (laki-laki/36 tahun) mengalami kesulitan dalam melakukan interaksi sosial sehingga membuatnya jarang berkomunikasi meskipun mampu mengikuti instruksi dengan baik. Berdasarkan hasil asesmen, subjek didiagnosa mengalami gangguan skizofrenia dengan permasalahan kecemasan interaksi sosial sehingga sering menunjukkan perilaku menghindar dan senang berdiam diri di tempat tidur. Pemberian intervensi bertujuan untuk menurunkan kecemasan interaksi sosial subjek sehingga ia mampu dalam menjalin kontak sosial, menginisiasi percakapan dan mempertahankan percakapan. Intervensi diberikan dalam bentuk modifikasi perilaku model desentisasi sistematik. Hasil intervensi menunjukkan bahwa klien mengalami penurunan kecemasan interaksi sosial baik individu dengan individu maupun individu dengan kelompok yang ditandai dengan semakin aktifnya subjek setiap pagi melakukan kontak sosial melalui senyum, salam, sapa, menanyakan kabar dan melanjutkan percakapan. Selain itu, perubahan juga ditandai dengan sikap subjek yang lebih bersahabat ketika melakukan interaksi sosial terutama di dalam kelompok dan peningkatan kemampuan dalam memberikan instruksi di dalam kelompok dimana subjek mampu berperan sebagai pengajar bagi teman-temannya di dalam kelompok meskipun masih cukup kaku dan tegang.
... Social interaction anxiety is characterized as fear and avoidance in interpersonal exchanges (e.g., initiating and maintaining a conversation, meeting with others, etc.) On the other hand, performance anxiety refers to fear and avoidance of doing activities in front of other people (e.g., public speaking, writing, playing a musical instrument, etc.) (Mattick & Clarke, 1998). Studies have shown that social interaction anxiety is more closely associated with anhedonia, which is a specific marker of depression, whereas performance anxiety is more relevant to the symptoms of anxious physiological arousal (Clark & Watson, 1991;Hughes et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002Kashdan, , 2004. ...
... While we focused on social interaction anxiety, social anxiety can also manifest in performance settings (performance anxiety). Although previous findings demonstrate that social interaction anxiety has a greater relevance to depression than performance anxiety does (Hughes et al., 2006;Kashdan, 2002Kashdan, , 2004, the effects of performance anxiety on depressive symptoms have not been tested with respect to gender differences, and therefore, it is still unknown whether similar relationships hold with specific subtypes of social anxiety. This can be assessed in future studies by administering questionnaires that cover broader domains of social anxiety (e.g., The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS; Safren et al., 1999), The Social Phobia Diagnostic Questionnaire (SPDQ; Newman et al., 2003)) or focus on a specific component of social anxiety symptoms (e.g., the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998), Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE; Leary, 1983)). ...
Article
Full-text available
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid with each other, and comorbidity exacerbates distress and impairment. The prevalence of comorbid depression is higher in women with SAD than in men with SAD, but this is based on global depression scores and cannot speak to heterogeneous individual depression symptoms. The current study bridges this gap by examining gender differences in the relationship between social interaction anxiety and individual depression symptoms. 165 community adults (113 women, 52 men) were included in a series of bootstrapped moderation analyses to examine the main and interaction effects of social interaction anxiety and gender on total depression and individual depressive symptom scores while controlling for age and racial/ethnic background. Social interaction anxiety positively predicted total and individual depression scores. Greater social interaction anxiety predicted greater self-dislike and worthlessness in men than in women. Our findings replicate the finding that social anxiety and depression are highly comorbid with respect to total scores and extend this finding to individual symptoms. Our findings also demonstrate that the relationship between social interaction anxiety and depressive symptoms can be modulated by gender identities. Men with social interaction anxiety may be more prone to distress associated with self/identity. These findings elucidate the specific ways in which social interaction anxiety relates to the constellation of depression symptoms in men and women and highlights the need for more tailored assessment and intervention for socially anxious men and women to target individual dimensions of symptom presentations.
... Recent studies show that this deficit is also associated with social anxiety (e.g. 3,36,38). Socially anxious people have decreased positive affect and other positive psychological experiences (e.g., curiosity), even after controlling depressive symptoms, and have less frequent and less intense emotional response to positive social events [39]. ...
... initiating and maintaining conversations either in dyads or in groups) was found significant. As previous studies revealed its role in experiencing positive emotions, it was expected for this aspect of social anxiety to be significant [3,10,35,36,38,40]. The second type of social anxiety, the one related to fear of being observed and evaluated by others, has not been studied enough in previous research. ...
... This may be suggestive of the possible difficulty parents experience in discriminating low PA from high BI as well as the possibility that the construct of PA also taps into features of anxiety. Moreover, there is research that suggests that social anxiety may be the one anxiety disorder with a significant component of low PA (Chorpita, Plummer, & Moffitt, 2000;Kashdan, 2004). ...
... Anhedonia, or diminished interest or pleasure, is a transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology (Rømer Thomsen et al., 2015;Foti and Baskin-Sommers, 2015;Kashdan, 2004;Bedwell et al., 2014) and core diagnostic symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Anhedonia is of particular interest in depression because it may precede and increase vulnerability for depression (Loas, 1996;Pizzagalli, 2014;Gotlib et al., 2010;Rawal et al., 2012) and predicts poor treatment response Craske et al., 2016). ...
Article
Background: Anhedonia, or loss of interest or pleasure, is a feature of depression and transdiagnostic construct in psychopathology. Theory and compelling evidence from preclinical models implicates stress-induced inflammation as a psychobiological pathway to anhedonic behavior; however, this pathway has not been tested in human models. Further, although anhedonia may reflect dysregulation in multiple dimensions of reward, the extent to which stress-induced inflammation alters these dimensions is unclear. Thus, the current experimental study used a standardized laboratory stressor task to elicit an inflammatory response and evaluate effects of stress-induced inflammation on multiple behavioral indices of reward processing. Methods: Healthy young women (age 18-25) completed behavioral reward tasks assessing reward learning, motivation, and sensitivity and were randomized to undergo an acute psychosocial stressor (n = 37) or a no-stress active control (n = 17). Tasks were re-administered 90-120 minutes post-stress to coincide with the peak of the stress-induced inflammatory response. Blood samples were collected for assessment of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) at baseline and 90 and 120 minutes post stressor. Results: Stress-induced IL-6 was associated with increased response bias during reward learning and increased motivation when probability of receiving a reward was low. Sensitivity to reward in the context of a motivation task was not altered in association with stress-induced IL-6. Conclusions: Contrary to hypotheses, mild increases in IL-6 following acute stress were associated with increased reward responsiveness during reward learning and selective increases in motivation. Results contribute to an emerging and nuanced literature linking inflammation to reward processing, and demonstrate that behavioral effects of stress-induced inflammation may be detected in the laboratory setting. Clinical trial registration: NCT03828604.
... 2012; Jazbec, McClure, Hardin, Pine, & Ernst, 2005;Kashdan, 2004). The present study therefore used a family design and collected neural response to rewards in both probands and siblings. ...
Article
Depressive disorders are associated with significant economic and public health burdens as well as increased morbidity. Yet, perhaps due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease, prevention and intervention efforts are only moderately efficacious. A better understanding of core mechanisms of depressive disorders might aid in the development of more targeted intervention, and perhaps help identify individuals at risk. One mechanism that may be particularly important to depressive phenotypes is reward insensitivity. Examination of neurobiological correlates of reward-processing, which should relate more directly to the neuropathology of depression, may be helpful in identifying liability for the disorder. To that end, we used a family study design to examine whether a neural response to rewards is a familial risk factor for depression in a sample of probands with a wide range of internalizing psychopathology, as well as their biological siblings. Event-related potentials were recorded during a simple forced-choice gambling paradigm, in which participants could either win or lose small amounts of money. Lower levels of positive affect in probands predicted a reduced neural response to rewards in siblings, even over and above the sibling's own level of positive and negative affect. Additionally, the neural response to rewards was familial (i.e., correlated among siblings). Combined, these analyses suggest that a blunted neural response to rewards may be useful in identifying individuals vulnerable to depressive illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
... There is also evidence of a negative relation between PA and internalizing problems in adolescence and adulthood, but findings for childhood are inconsistent. Lower levels of PA are associated with depression in adolescents (Phillips et al., 2002) and with more anxiety and depressive symptoms in adults (Kashdan, 2004;Naragon-Gainey et al., 2009). The relation of PA to internalizing problems is more complex in childhood. ...
Article
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Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg, Rutter, & Richman, 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and nonshared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.
... loneliness (Lasgaard et al. 2011), diminished positive emotions, (e.g. Clark and Watson 1991;Brown and Barlow 2009;Kashdan 2007;Kashdan and Collins 2010), and overall poor quality of life (e.g. Brown et al. 1998;Kashdan 2004;Stein and Kean 2000). Recent research has focused on the role of emotion-related factors such as emotion knowledge and emotion regulation, and how they may contribute to these negative outcomes in SAD. ...
Article
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The present study explored when and how emotional difficulties and poor quality of life arise in the everyday lives of socially anxious individuals. 264 freshmen-year college students completed an online survey for 11 consecutive days. Comparing individuals high (HSA) and low in social anxiety, results revealed that irrespective of daily positive emotion differentiation ability, HSAs engaged daily emotion suppression strategies, pointing to inflexible emotion regulation. Furthermore, HSAs with poor daily negative emotion differentiation used the least daily cognitive reappraisal. Finally, both expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal showed group-specific effects on daily positive affect. Daily expressive suppression was more strongly associated with diminished daily positive affect in HSAs, and HSAs benefited less in terms of daily positive affect from daily use of cognitive reappraisal. Based on these findings, emotion differentiation ability and emotion regulation appear relevant clinical targets for individuals with social anxiety disorder.
... Our findings are analogous to those of an experimental study (Moon, Hollenbeck, Humphrey & Maue, 2003), that found anxiety and depression, when simultaneously used as predictors of escalating commitment, were positively and negatively associated with this criterion. It provides support to the theoretical view that individuals' affective reactions are associated with quitting behavior and further joins the empirical studies reviewed above which supports this theoretical view (Kashdan, 2004;Larsen & McGraw, 2011). ...
Article
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Using a longitudinal design, this study examined the unique effects of depressive symptoms and of anxiety symptoms on voluntary turnover of nurses during the early stage of their hospital career. We hypothesized that depressive symptoms would negatively predict turnover and that anxiety symptoms would positively predict turnover after controlling for their common variance. We also hypothesized the same effects for depressive and anxiety symptoms when assessed as changes over time. We collected longitudinal data from 201 newly employed hospital nurses in 25 general hospitals who completed questionnaires with a time lag of about six months at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2). To gauge turnover, we used the official hospitals' records at Time 3 (T3), about one year after the study's T1. Logistic regressions were used to test our hypotheses. As expected, we found that T2 anxiety symptoms increased the odds of the nurses' turnover while T2 depressive symptoms decreased it. As expected, the higher the increase between T1 and T2 in depressive symptoms, the lower the odds of the nurses turnover. However, we did not support the expectation that the T1 to T2 changes in anxiety symptoms would predict turnover positively. We suggest that the unique content of depression and anxiety differ markedly in their effects on quitting behavior.
... S.E. = 0.008, p < 0.001), consistent with past research(Kashdan, 2004;Kashdan and Steger, 2006;Kashdan et al., 2013aKashdan et al., , 2013b6 .The quality of momentary emotional experience covaries with the presence of close companionsRelative to seclusion or the presence of distant others, MLM results showed that close companions are associated with lower levels of NA (Alone: t = −0.7.51, b = −0.09, S.E. ...
Preprint
Social anxiety lies on a continuum, and young adults with elevated symptoms are at risk for developing a range of debilitating psychiatric disorders. Yet, relatively little is known about the factors that govern the momentary expression of social anxiety in daily life, close to clinically significant end-points. Here, we used smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment to intensively sample emotional experience across different social contexts in the daily lives of 228 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of social anxiety symptoms. Leveraging data from over 11,000 assessments, results highlight the vital role of close friends, family members, and romantic partners. Socially anxious individuals report smaller confidant networks and spend significantly less time with their close companions. As a consequence, they are less frequent beneficiaries of close companions’ mood-enhancing effects. Although higher levels of social anxiety are associated with a general reduction in the quality of momentary emotional experience, socially anxious individuals derived significantly larger benefits—lower levels of negative affect, anxiety, and depression—from the company of close companions. Collectively, these findings provide a novel framework for understanding the deleterious consequences of social anxiety and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.
... Social anxiety is the tendency to experience negative affect due to a fear of being embarrassed or humiliated in social situations (Kashdan, 2004;Lysaker et al. 2010;Kwapil et al. 2012). Rejection sensitivity (RS) is a type of social anxiety, where people expect to be excluded from interpersonal relationships, such as a close family member, friends and peers; in turn, RS increases expressions of vulnerability and aggression in these relationships (Langens and Schuler 2005;Lemay and Clark 2008;Blackhart et al. 2009;Sinclair et al. 2011). ...
Article
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Objectives: Schizotypy relates to rejection sensitivity (anxiety reflecting an expectancy of social exclusion) and neuroticism (excessive evaluation of negative emotions). Positive schizotypy (e.g. perceptual aberrations and odd beliefs) and negative schizotypy (e.g. social and physical anhedonia) could relate to altered attention to rejection because of neuroticism. Methods: Forty-one healthy individuals were assessed on positive and negative schizotypy and neuroticism, and event-related potentials during rejecting, accepting and neutral scenes. Participants were categorized into high, moderate and low neuroticism groups. Using temporo-spatial principal components analysis, P200 (peak latency=290 ms) and P300 amplitudes (peak latency=390 ms) were measured, reflecting mobilization of attention and early attention respectively. Results: Scalp-level and cortical source analyses revealed elevated fronto-parietal N300/P300 amplitude and P200-related dorsal anterior cingulate current density during rejection than acceptance/neutral scenes. Positive schizotypy related inversely to parietal P200 amplitude during rejection. Negative schizotypy related positively to P200 middle occipital current density. Negative schizotypy related positively to parietal P300, where the association was stronger in high and moderate, than low, neuroticism groups. Conclusions: Positive and negative schizotypy relate divergently to attention to rejection. Positive schizotypy attenuates, but negative schizotypy increases rejection-related mobilization of attention. Negative schizotypy increases early attention to rejection partly due to elevated neuroticism.
... S.E. = 0.008, p < 0.001), consistent with past research(Kashdan, 2004;Kashdan and Steger, 2006;Kashdan et al., 2013aKashdan et al., , 2013b6 .The quality of momentary emotional experience covaries with the presence of close companionsRelative to seclusion or the presence of distant others, MLM results showed that close companions are associated with lower levels of NA (Alone: t = −0.7.51, b = −0.09, S.E. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Social anxiety lies on a continuum, and young adults with elevated symptoms are at risk for developing a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet relatively little is known about the factors that govern the hour-by-hour experience and expression of social anxiety in the real world. Methods Here we used smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to intensively sample emotional experience across different social contexts in the daily lives of 228 young adults selectively recruited to represent a broad spectrum of social anxiety symptoms. Results Leveraging data from over 11 000 real-world assessments, our results highlight the central role of close friends, family members, and romantic partners. The presence of such close companions was associated with enhanced mood, yet socially anxious individuals had fewer confidants and spent less time with the close companions that they do have. Although higher levels of social anxiety were associated with a general worsening of mood, socially anxious individuals appear to derive larger benefits – lower levels of negative affect, anxiety, and depression – from their close companions. In contrast, variation in social anxiety was unrelated to the amount of time spent with strangers, co-workers, and acquaintances; and we uncovered no evidence of emotional hypersensitivity to these less-familiar individuals. Conclusions These findings provide a framework for understanding the deleterious consequences of social anxiety in emerging adulthood and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.
... Indeed, there is strong co-morbidity between SAD and depression (Sanderson, et. al, 1990), with social anxiety also being associated with low positive affect (Brown et al, 1998) and blunted hedonic experiences (Kashdan, 2004). ...
Article
Background: Drinking motives are thought to be important mediators of the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use. This project evaluates whether specific drinking motives accurately reflect alcohol dependence. If so, brief questions about drinking motives could serve as valuable alcohol screening tools with socially anxious patients. Methods: This investigation was a secondary analysis of an existing data set of 83 subjects with social anxiety disorder and at-risk alcohol use. The relationship between Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ-R-5) subscales and alcohol dependence was evaluated. Results: Coping-Depression was the only subscale that contributed to the unique prediction of a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Additionally, two items (i.e. "to cheer up when you're in a bad mood" and "to forget painful memories") predicted a diagnosis of alcohol dependence above and beyond their association with each other. Conclusions: Among patients with social anxiety, two specific questions on the DMQ-R-5 could provide a useful screen for health professionals to predict alcohol dependence. It may be fruitful to specifically target the motives of "to cheer up when you're in a bad mood" and "to forget painful memories" when providing advice during brief interventions.
... By manipulating the valence (positive, negative) and type of incentives (social, non-social) in a sample of adults with SAD and healthy control subjects during an incentivized reaction time-task (Knutson et al., 2000, we sought to identify the dissociable contributions of reward-and threat-related neural systems to social incentive processing in SAD. Given previous findings of reduced NAc activation in response to social, but not monetary rewards in SAD (Maresh et al., 2014;Richey et al., 2014) and cognitive and behavioral research indicating that this disorder is characterized by circumscribed deficits in positive affects (Brown et al., 1998;Kashdan, 2004), we predicted that SAD would be characterized by diminished activation in the ventral striatum during anticipation of positive social outcomes and not enhanced striatal activation during anticipation of negative social outcomes, in keeping with the anticipatory affect account of striatal functions (Knutson and Greer, 2008). We further predicted that these effects (degraded approach motivation and lack of enhanced avoidance motivation) would be constrained exclusively to social incentives and would not be observed during monetary incentive processing. ...
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Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) involves abnormalities in social motivation, which may be independent of well-documented differences in fear and arousal systems. Yet, the neurobiology underlying motivational difficulties in SAD is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to spatiotemporally dissociate reward circuitry dysfunction from alterations in fear and arousal-related neural activity during anticipation and notification of social and nonsocial reward and punishment. Methods: During fMRI acquisition, non-depressed adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD; N=21) and age- sex- and IQ-matched control subjects (N=22) completed 8 runs of an incentive delay task, alternating between social or monetary outcomes, interleaved in alternating order between gain or loss outcomes. Results: Adults with SAD demonstrated significantly reduced neural activity in ventral striatum during the anticipation of positive but not negative social outcomes. No differences between the SAD and control groups were observed during anticipation of monetary gain or loss outcomes or during anticipation of negative social images. However, consistent with prior work, the SAD group demonstrated amygdala hyperactivity upon notification of negative social outcomes. Conclusions: Degraded anticipatory processing in bilateral ventral striatum in SAD was constrained exclusively to anticipation of positive social information and dissociable from the effects of negative social outcomes previously observed in the amygdala. Alterations in anticipation-related neural signals may represent a promising target for treatment that is not addressed by available evidence-based interventions, which focus primarily on fear extinction and habituation processes.
... Accordingly, social and social interaction anxiousness can be divided into two categories: general fear of social interaction situations/social phobia, and fear of being socially examined during routine activities (Lyvers, Hanigan & Thorberg, 2018). Social interaction anxiousness is defined as individuals' anxiety in different social environments (Leary & Kowalski, 1993), meeting with others, fear and avoidance of interaction and self-expression (Kashdan, 2004). Disturbing emotions are among the main symptoms of social interaction anxiousness (Pierce, 2009), which is also defined as meeting other people and having trouble in speaking with them (Mattick & Clarke, 1998). ...
... It arises when people want to make a particular impression on others but doubt they will do so (Schlenker and Leary, 1982). Research shows that individuals with high social interaction anxiety avoid meeting (Mattick and Clarke, 1998), interacting with, or expressing themselves around others (Kashdan, 2004) and initiating or maintaining conversations (Kashdan, 2002). They also minimize their chances of making undesired impressions on others to reduce anxiety (Caplan, 2007). ...
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Purpose This paper aims to explore the physical attractiveness stereotype in service encounters. Specifically, this paper examines how physical attractiveness affects a customer’s response and whether a customer’s social interaction anxiety and the consumption situation moderate this relationship. Design/methodology/approach Three experiments were used to test hypotheses. Participants were subject to scenarios of varying levels of physical attractiveness (more vs less), social interaction anxiety (high vs low) and consumption situation (private vs public). Customer participation intention and citizenship behavior were measured along scales. Findings The results indicate that the physical attractiveness of service providers positively affects customer citizenship behavior, and customer participation intention mediates this relationship. However, the effect only exists for a customer with low social interaction anxiety or presents itself under public consumption conditions. Research limitations/implications This work paints a more nuanced picture of missing links in the understanding of the influence of service providers’ physical attractiveness. It enriches the physical attractiveness stereotype literature by identifying the mediating role of customer participation intention while bounding the relationship within conditions related to a customer’s social interaction anxiety and the service consumption situation. Practical implications Management may alter the performance of service employees by considering the employee’s physical attractiveness and gauging customer social interaction anxiety while keeping in mind the consumption situation. Originality/value This study advances physical attractiveness stereotype research by examining its effect on customer participation intention and citizenship behavior in the service industry. Additionally, this study adds customer social interaction anxiety and consumption situation to the existing literature that addresses employee factors affecting customer behavior.
... To be sure, some researchers have proposed that an important root of depression-as well as social anxiety-is a deficit in positive affect (Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998;Chor-Increasing Happiness 237 pita, Plummer, & Moffitt, 2000;Davidson, 1993;Kashdan, 2002;Watson, Clark, & Carey, 1988). That is, evidence suggests that depressed people with the greatest positive affect defi cits are the least likely to recover from their debilitating condition (Rottenberg, Kasch, Gross, & Gotlib, 2002). ...
... Additionally, pre-pandemic SA did not significantly predict emotional responses to affiliation among those who had experienced a greater number of COVID-related stressors, and in fact predicted more negative emotional responses to affiliation among those who had experienced fewer COVID-related stressors. It is unclear whether highly impaired, SA participants truly experienced genuine social pleasure, or only perceived pandemic-specific affiliative behaviors as positive due to conferring greater levels of social safety relative to the pre-pandemic in-person interactions that would be appraised as more threatening (Moscovitch, 2009) and therefore less pleasurable (Gilboa-Schechtman et al., 2014;Kashdan, 2004). Furthermore, it is unclear why those burdened by fewer COVID-related stressors reported experiencing affiliation during the pandemic as more distressing and less enjoyable. ...
Preprint
Background and objectives: Individuals with social anxiety (SA) have well-established fears of being negatively evaluated and of exposing self-perceived flaws to others. However, the unique impacts of pre-existing SA on well-being and interpersonal outcomes within the stressful context of the pandemic are currently unknown. Design: In a preregistered study that took place in May 2020, we surveyed 488 North American community participants online. Methods: We used multiple linear regression to analyze whether pre-existing SA symptoms predicted current coronavirus anxiety, loneliness, fears of negative evaluation, use of preventive measures, and affiliative outcomes, and whether pre-existing functional impairment and recent COVID-related stressors moderated these relations. Results: Results highlighted the negative effects of pre-existing social anxiety (SA) on current mental health functioning, especially for participants with higher pre-existing functional impairment and greater exposure to COVID-related stressors. Although participants with higher pre-existing SA reported currently feeling lonelier and more fearful of negative evaluation, they also endorsed greater efforts to affiliate with others. Conclusions: High SA individuals may have heightened desire for social support within the isolating context of the pandemic, in which COVID-related social restrictions enable greater avoidance of social evaluation but may also mask the enduring impairment associated with pre-existing SA.
... Additionally, pre-pandemic SA did not significantly predict emotional responses to affiliation among those who had experienced a greater number of COVID-related stressors, and in fact predicted more negative emotional responses to affiliation among those who had experienced fewer COVID-related stressors. It is unclear whether highly impaired, SA participants truly experienced genuine social pleasure, or only perceived pandemic-specific affiliative behaviors as positive due to conferring greater levels of social safety relative to the pre-pandemic in-person interactions that would be appraised as more threatening (Moscovitch, 2009) and therefore less pleasurable (Gilboa-Schechtman et al., 2014;Kashdan, 2004). Furthermore, it is unclear why those burdened by fewer COVID-related stressors reported experiencing affiliation during the pandemic as more distressing and less enjoyable. ...
Article
Background and objectives Individuals with social anxiety (SA) have well-established fears of being negatively evaluated and exposing self-perceived flaws to others. However, the unique impacts of pre-existing SA on well-being and interpersonal outcomes within the stressful context of the pandemic are currently unknown. Design In a study that took place in May 2020, we surveyed 488 North American community participants online. Methods We used multiple linear regression to analyze whether retrospective reports of pre-pandemic SA symptoms predicted current coronavirus anxiety, loneliness, fears of negative evaluation, use of preventive measures, and affiliative outcomes, and whether pre-pandemic functional impairment and recent COVID-related stressors moderated these relations. Results Results highlighted the negative effects of pre-pandemic SA on current mental health functioning, especially for participants with higher pre-pandemic functional impairment and greater exposure to COVID-related stressors. Although participants with higher pre-pandemic SA reported currently feeling lonelier and more fearful of negative evaluation, they also endorsed greater efforts to affiliate with others. Conclusions High SA individuals may have heightened desire for social support within the isolating context of the pandemic, in which COVID-related social restrictions enable greater avoidance of social evaluation but may also mask the enduring impairment associated with pre-pandemic SA.
... Specifically, social anxiety (SA) appears to be the only type of anxiety to show strong, negative relationships with self-reported trait (Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998;Chorpita, Plummer, & Moffitt, 2000;Kashdan, 2004Kashdan, , 2007Watson, Clark, & Carey, 1988) and moment-tomoment PA (Kashdan & Collins, 2010) that comorbid depressive symptoms do not account for. ...
Article
People differ in their self-reported propensities to experience positive affect (PA). Even those prone to internalizing symptoms show varied proclivities to PA; social anxiety (SA), for instance, unlike other types of anxiety, shows a strong negative association with PA that cannot be explained by diminished reward sensitivity. Heightened reliance on suppression of emotional displays (expressive suppression; ES) may be an alternate contributor to attenuated PA among people with elevated SA, relative to people with other types of anxiety. A first step toward testing this hypothesis is clarifying the ES-PA association and examining whether it varies as a function of anxiety type (social anxiety vs. other types of anxiety). This meta-analysis (k = 41; n = 11,010) revealed a significant, negative association between ES and PA (r = −0.158); however, this relationship was not significant for individuals with social or other anxiety disorders. Moreover, two moderators (sample culture—Western: r = −0.16; Eastern: r = 0.003; type of emotion suppressed—Negative: r = 0.18; Positive: r = −0.12) accounted for significant heterogeneity in effect sizes. This review synthesizes the literature on ES and PA in healthy and anxious samples; findings suggest moderating variables merit closer attention in future studies.
... The first set of predictions was guided by the hypothesis that SAD is associated with weak reward responses. Prior studies indicate that SAD is associated with diminished positive experiences (Brown et al., 2007;Kashdan, 2004Kashdan, , 2007, possibly due to abnormalities in brain reward circuity (Schneier et al., 2000; but see Schneier et al., 2009). As mentioned earlier, several prior PRT studies have found weaker response biases in adults with anhedonia relative to healthy controls (e.g., Liu et al., 2016;Pizzagalli et al., 2008). ...
Article
Choices and response times in two-alternative decision-making tasks can be modeled by assuming that individuals steadily accrue evidence in favor of each alternative until a response boundary for one of them is crossed, at which point that alternative is chosen. Prior studies have reported that evidence accumulation during decision-making tasks takes longer in adults with psychopathology than in healthy controls, indicating that slow evidence accumulation may be transdiagnostic. However, few studies have examined perceptual decision making in anxiety disorders, where hypervigilance might enhance performance. Therefore, this study used the Hierarchical Drift Diffusion model to investigate evidence accumulation in adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and healthy controls as they performed a probabilistic reward task (PRT), in which social rewards were delivered for correct perceptual judgments. Adults with SAD completed the PRT before and after gaze-contingent music reward therapy (GCMRT), which trains attention allocation and has shown efficacy for SAD. Healthy controls also completed the PRT twice. Results revealed excellent performance in adults with SAD, especially after GCMRT: relative to controls, they showed faster evidence accumulation, better discriminability, and earned more rewards. These data highlight a positive effect of attention training on performance in anxious adults and show how a behavioral trait that is typically problematic-hypervigilance in SAD-can nevertheless confer advantages in certain contexts. The data also indicate that, in contrast to other forms of psychopathology, SAD is not characterized by slow evidence accumulation, at least in the context of the social PRT. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Given the initial support for ACT in the treatment of depression and SAD separately, it may serve as a potentially viable alternative treatment approach for addressing depression-SAD comorbidity. Evidence indicates that depression and SAD share features that may make this comorbidity pattern unique from depression comorbid with other anxiety disorders (e.g., lower reward sensitivity, avoidance behaviors, excessive reassurance-seeking; Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998;Kashdan, 2004;Nelson et al., 2000), suggesting that this specific comorbidity pattern is deserving of clinical focus. Recent years have seen the development of cognitive-behavioral transdiagnostic approaches in response to the acknowledgment of comorbidity within "realworld" clinical settings, such as the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (Barlow, Allen, & Choate, 2004). ...
Article
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Depression and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are highly comorbid, resulting in greater severity and functional impairment compared with each disorder alone. Although recently transdiagnostic treatments have been developed, no known treatments have addressed this comorbidity pattern specifically. Preliminary support exists for acceptance-based approaches for depression and SAD separately, and they may be more efficacious for comorbid depression and anxiety compared with traditional cognitive-behavioral approaches. The aim of the current study was to develop and pilot test an integrated acceptance-based behavioral treatment for depression and comorbid SAD. Participants included 38 patients seeking pharmacotherapy at an outpatient psychiatry practice, who received 16 individual sessions of the therapy. Results showed significant improvement in symptoms, functioning, and processes from pre- to post-treatment, as well as high satisfaction with the treatment. These results support the preliminary acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of this treatment in a typical outpatient psychiatry practice, and suggest that further research on this treatment in larger randomized trials is warranted.
... Social interaction anxiety is defined as the anxiety or distress felt when meeting or talking to people of the opposite sex, strangers, or friends (Mattick & Clarke, 1998). It manifests itself as a person's avoidance or fear of meeting others, interacting, and expressing himself (Kashdan, 2004). It includes fundamental concerns such as the fear of being incomprehensible and boring, not knowing what to say or how to say in social interactions, and fear of being ignored (Mattick & Clarke, 1998). ...
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AR TICLE INFO ABSTRACT Article History Re ce ived 11.08.2021 Re ce ived in re vised form 08.01.2022 Acce pte d 11.02.2022 Article Type : Research Article This re search e xamined the serial me diating e ffe ct of inte raction anxiety and insight in to the re lationship be tween self-esteem and approval de pendence in unive rsity stude nts. The research group comprise d 511 volunteer university stude nts, of whom 78,7% were females and 21,3% were male s. Re search data was collected via "The Two-Dimensional Se lf-Esteem Scale", "The Scale of Inte rpe rsonal Re lationship Dimensions", "Inte raction Anxiousness Scale", and "Insight Scale". In analysing the data, descriptive statistics were examined and the relationship between variables was calculated using the Pe arson correlation coefficient. The bootstrap me thod was used to te st the me diation mode l.The me diation analysis re sults re ve aled that inte raction anxiety and insight functione d as mediation variables in the relationship between self-esteem and approval dependence. According to the findings, an incre ase in se lf-esteem causes a decline in inte raction anxiousness, which causes an increase in insight, which in turn le ads to a de cline in approval de pe ndence. Findings re lated to the model that was tested were discussed following the lite rature. Sugge stions for re se arche rs and fie ld practitione rs we re liste d. © 2022 IJPES. All rights re se rved Ke ywords: Se lf-e steem, inte rpersonal re lationships, approval de pendence, inte raction anxiety, insight, serial me diator mode l.
... On the other hand, some studies have suggested some distinct contributions with all four facets of extraversion/positive emotionality (sociability, tendency to experience positive emotions, ascendance, and fun-seeking) being more related to anxiety, whereas only low positive emotionality was more related to depression (Naragon-Gainey et al., 2009;Wang et al., 2012). Social anxiety disorder is characterized by a penetrating fear of social evaluation situations (Clark & Wells, 1995) and is defined as the fear and avoidance of meeting, interacting, and expressing oneself with others (Kashdan, 2004), which can be measured by the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and social phobia scale (social interaction vs. situations involving observation by others) (Heimberg et al., 1992;Safren et al., 1998). Insula dysfunction is not only associated with severity of symptoms in major depression disorder (Wang et al., 2015) but also in anxiety (Paulus & Stein, 2006;Shin & Liberzon, 2010;Simmons et al., 2011). ...
Article
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High rates of comorbidity between depression and anxiety are frequently observed. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between depression and social interaction anxiety using a dimensional approach. The current study aimed to explore the associations between depression and social interaction anxiety with a multivariate approach in a comparably large dataset (n = 194, 95 males). All participants completed a structural and a resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and self‐report measures of depression via Beck's Depression Inventory II and social interaction anxiety by social interaction anxiety scale. Voxel‐based morphometry (VBM) results first identified grey matter volumes of insula were positively correlated with depression dimension scores. Next, whole brain seed‐to‐voxel analyses were conducted using a VBM‐identified insula as a seed region to examine associations between depression/social anxiety and functional connectivity. The results suggested that a significant positive effect of depression/social anxiety was found on the connectivity between insula and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Moreover, variations in depression meditated the association between insula‐dlPFC connectivity and social interaction anxiety. Overall, the results indicate that individual differences in depression relate more to insula‐dlPFC coupling compared to social interaction anxiety. A positive correlation between depression scores and total grey matter volumes of insula. The insula‐dlPFC coupling was positively associated with both depression and social interaction anxiety scores. The insula‐dlPFC connectivity contributed more to depression dimensions than to social interaction anxiety.
... Depression and social anxiety are highly commorbid (Kessler et al., 2005) share a profile of high negative and low positive affect (Kashdan, 2004) and the experience of negative cognitions (Arditte Hall et al., 2019) . Biases in cognitions include interpreting ambiguous situations as negative and attentional biases towards negative stimuli and away from positive information (Alvi, 2020) . ...
... Posljednjih su se nekoliko desetljeća istraživanja usmjeravala na negativna iskustva i događaje te probleme u funkcioniranju prouzročene socijalnom anksioznošću i povezane s njome (Kashdan, 2007b;Kashdan i Steger, 2006). Kashdan (2007b) je dokazao da je povezanost socijalne anksioznosti i pozitivnog afekta stabilna i negativna, čak i uz kontrolu depresivnih simptoma i depresivnog poremećaja (vidjeti još Kashdan, 2002;Kashdan, 2004). U skladu s time, Kashdan i Steger (2006) navode kako unutar svoga prirodnoga socijalnog okruženja socijalno anksiozne osobe izvještavaju o manje svakodnevnih pozitivnih emocija i pozitivnih događaja od neanksioznih. ...
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Social anxiety often leads to various interpersonal problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of the need to hide the true self from others and of experiencing positive emotions in explaining the friendship quality of socially anxious students. The study was conducted with 630 students from three Croatian universities. The participants filled out the following questionnaires: General data questionnaire, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, The Core Extrusion Schema Measure and Friendship Quality Questionnaire. The results of hierarchical regression analysis, after controlling for gender and both types of social fears, indicate that the specific significant predictors of students' friendship quality are the need to hide the true self and the frequency of experiencing positive emotions. Gender is the consistent significant predictor, but does not moderate the relationship between social anxiety and friendship quality. The obtained results are useful in theoretical understanding of self-disclosure and the development of close relationships, and have practical implications that can be useful in therapy for socially anxious people who tend to use the strategy of hiding the true self.
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Curiosity is a personality trait that is inversely related to depression and positively related to subjective wellbeing. However, the relationship between curiosity and these two outcomes is still unclear which hampers our general understanding of well-being. Based on research within positive psychology that showed character strengths such as curiosity can indirectly decrease depression, we hypothesized that the inverse relationship between curiosity and depression would be mediated by subjective well-being. Two hundred and fifty seven participants, between 18 and 64 years old (M = 24.50, SD = 8.33) completed a web-based survey comprising: The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory – II, Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression and the Steen Happiness Index. We found that well-being mediated the relationship between curiosity and depression. The results indicate that curious individuals tend to report higher levels of subjective well-being which, in turn, is associated with lower levels of depression. Our findings contribute to the understanding of positive results obtained from clinical samples that underwent positive psychotherapy of depression.
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Over the last several decades, there has been increasing interest in the role that anhedonia plays in various psychopathologies, ranging from mood disorders, to eating disorders, to psychotic disorders. The term ‘anhedonia’ (which simply means, without pleasure) has been used to describe a wide range of constructs, affective experiences, and events. Given the breadth of the term, it is likely that different aspects of anhedonia may be related to different psychopathologies in various ways. This review discusses how the literature has parsed anhedonia and how the various components and facets of anhedonia may relate to various psychopathological constructs. In addition, this review takes concepts and theories from the broad affective science literature and identifies additional components of anhedonia that may be critical to the field’s understanding of the construct. Given the importance that anhedonia plays in a multitude of psychopathological constructs, a careful analysis of the various components and facets of anhedonia may provide a conceptual framework for research in this area.
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Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan are at increased risk of anxiety, and community-based group interventions can provide them an accessible form of assistance. Understanding and serving the counseling needs of Vietnamese immigrant women is a new challenge for Taiwan counseling professionals. This study presents the results of outreach efforts by the university counseling staff member offering counseling services for immigrant women in a rural community. A support group is used to address the anxiety among Vietnamese immigrant women. A sample of ten Vietnamese immigrant women participated in the intervention group, and their participation was subjected to quantitative study and analysis using the subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Results indicated no significant changes for the STAI-State and the STAI-Trait, but a significant change for the SIAS, suggesting that the social interaction anxiety measures may be the more relevant outcome indicators than the measures of state and trait anxiety in supporting group intervention. Implications are considered for current group intervention practices in rural communities with the aim to help the counseling professionals better understand the practice of group intervention in the context of immigrant women suffering from anxiety.
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This book collects the contributions of a number of clinical psychiatrists all over the world, interested in developing basic research about anxiety and in applying it in clinical contexts. It is divided into four sections, covering general issues about anxiety (ethological and developmental ones), basic research issues on specific aspects of anxiety (bioanatomical ones, correlation with personality structure and so on), and new clinical and therapeutical proposals and hypothesis. Each author summarized the clinical importance of his work, underlining the clinical pitfalls of this publication.
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Introduction: Anhedonia-diminished interest or pleasure in response to rewards-is a dimension implicated in several psychiatric disorders linked to smoking. This laboratory study sought to identify motivational mechanisms linking anhedonia and tobacco addiction by testing the hypothesis that anhedonia, abstinence, and their interaction would predict excesses and deficits in the perceived pleasantness of smoking-related and positive pictures, respectively. We assessed the pleasantness of negative pictures as a secondary outcome. Methods: After a baseline session involving self-report measures of anhedonia and other factors, 125 regular smokers attended two counterbalanced experimental sessions (overnight abstinent and non-abstinent) at which they rated the pleasantness of positive, smoking-related, negative, and neutral (control) pictures presented via computer. The difference in pleasantness ratings of positive, smoking-related, and negative pictures relative to neutral pictures served as the index of participants' appraisal of the motivational salience of nondrug reward, drug reward, and aversive signals, respectively. Results: With and without adjusting for sex and depressive symptoms, greater anhedonia significantly or marginally predicted greater pleasantness of smoking (vs. neutral), lower pleasantness of positive (vs. neutral), less unpleasantness of negative (vs. neutral) pictures (|βs| = 0.18 to 0.35, ps = .007 to .07). Anhedonia by abstinence interaction effects on pleasantness ratings of each stimulus category (vs. neutral) were not significant (|βs| ≤ 0.02, ps ≥ .36). Conclusions: Anhedonia and abstinence additively increase the salience of smoking-related cues in anhedonic smokers. Smoking cessation efforts that attenuate sensitization to smoking stimuli may benefit anhedonic smokers early in quit attempts. Implications: Taken together, these findings provide tentative evidence that anhedonia is associated with a relative imbalance in the motivational salience of drug relative to nondrug rewards and may be associated with a generalized hypo-reactivity to both positive and negative stimuli. Though some prior smoking research has evidenced this relative imbalance in anhedonia with self-report or a smoking-choice task, we additionally show that this pattern may extend to hyper-affective reactivity to smoking-related stimuli being coincident with hypo-affective reactivity to nondrug-related positive stimuli (ie, may extend to greater pleasantness ratings of smoking pictures being accompanied by lower pleasantness ratings of positive pictures).
Conference Paper
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هراس اجتماعی عموماً یک تخریب اساسی در فرایند پردازش اطلاعات، افکار، نگرش ها و اعتقادات در نظر گرفته شده که باعث تحریک و نگهداری عواطف و رفتارهای وابسته به هراس اجتماعی می‌شود. پژوهشگران تحریف های فکری معینی چون بی‌کفایتی ادراک شده و ترس از ارزیابی منفی را از عوامل ایجاد هراس اجتماعی معرفی کرده اند اما انتظار می‌رود که اگر فردی محیط را حمایتگر ارزیابی کند در شرایط تنش زا بتواند به طور موثرتری با موقعیت کنار آمده و راهکارهای لازم را اتخاذ کند. بر این اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه بین حمایت جتماعی ادراک شده و هراس اجتماعی در دانشجویان میباشد. ۱۱۸ دانشجو (۶۶ دختر و ۵۲ پسر) که به روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای تصادفی انتخاب شده بودند مقیاس چند وجهی حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده و مقیاس هراس اجتماعی را تکمیل نمودند .اعتبار و روایی ابزار های مورد استفاده احراز گردیده است. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده با استفاده از تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه به‌روش همزمان مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد که حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده و قادر به پیش بینی منفی و معنادار هراس اجتماعی می باشد. همچنین بین میانگین نمرات دانشجویان دختر و پسر از لحاظ هراس اجتماعی نیز تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نگردید. نتیجه اینکه ادراک محیط اجتماعی و خانواده به عنوان محیطی حمایتگر پیش بینی کننده کاهش میزان هراس اجتماعی در دانشجویان است
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Background: Individuals with social interaction anxiety, a facet of social anxiety disorder, are heterogeneous with respect to approaching or avoiding risky behaviors, including substance use. Additionally, the relation between social anxiety and cannabis use frequency has been inconsistent in the literature. Objective: The present study aimed to clarify the relation between social interaction anxiety and cannabis use by examining the effects of personality traits known to differentially predict substance use, including sensation seeking, emotion dysregulation, urgency, behavioral approach, and behavioral inhibition. Methods: We explored heterogeneity in social interaction anxiety using finite mixture modeling to discern profiles differing in mean scores on measures of social interaction anxiety and personality. We then examined how profiles differed in their likelihood of cannabis use. Results: The profile with low social interaction anxiety and high scores on personality measures was the most likely to use cannabis at all time periods. Two profiles with high social interaction anxiety scores were discerned. Between these two profiles, the profile with the highest levels of social interaction anxiety and most measured personality traits was more likely to use cannabis across all measured time periods. The profile with the high social interaction anxiety and low scores on personality measures was the least likely to use cannabis. Conclusions: Results of the present study identified personality traits most associated with increased risk of cannabis use for people high and low in social interaction anxiety, including facets of emotion regulation, urgency, and sensation seeking.
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Social interaction anxiety become one of the main obstacles of female undergraduate students in social interaction. This study aimed to determine correlation between self-esteem and social interaction anxiety among female undergraduate students in Indonesia. This study involved 357 female undergraduate students, between the age range of 17-23 years. The sampling of this study was purposive sampling. The duration of this study were two weeks. Measurement of this study was done by using Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg,1965) consist of 10 items, 5 favourable items and 5 unfavourable items, with two aspects, there are self-acceptance and self-respect. While Social Interaction Anxiety was measured by Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (Mattick and Clarke,1998) with 20 items, 17 favourable items and 3 unfavourable items, used by likert scale that have been adaptation in five alternative answer (agree to strongly disagree). This scale was unidimensional scale. Spearman correlation used to analysis the data. Result indicated that there is negative correlation between self-esteem and social interaction anxiety among female undergraduate students, with r=-0.508; p=0.000. The relationship between the two variables showed that the lower self-esteem by female undergraduate students in Indonesia, have higher social interaction anxiety. When female undergraduate students have lower self-esteem, they tend to reduce their social interaction because they have anxiety to rejected from the environment. Based on these result, it can be said that the hypothesis is accepted. Further explanation will be discussed in the following study.
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Objectives Recent initiatives have highlighted the importance of investigating clinically relevant variations in social processes that contribute to mental illness. Surprisingly little research has examined the associations between socially and clinically relevant transdiagnostic factors, such as social anxity (SA) and rejection sensitvity (RS), on theory of mind (ToM) decoding ability. Methods The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task and self-report measures of SA and RS were completed by 199 adult participants. Results Linear regression analyses suggest a specific difficulty decoding positive emotion associated with SA and global decrements in ToM associated with RS that may reflect a negative interpretation bias. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for understanding how those with SA and RS perceive and navigate social interactions, which may contribute to the maintenance of symptoms and decreased psychosocial functioning.
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This study was addressed to assess nomophobia in an Italian sample (N = 456, 53.1% men, Mage = 31.8, SD = 11.1), also providing a deeper knowledge about how it is distributed across demographics, as well as identifying its best predictors. The main goal was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of difficulty in emotion regulation and social interaction anxiety on nomophobia through loneliness. Our findings indicated that loneliness explained the effect of the expressive suppression strategy (fully) and social interaction anxiety (partially) on nomophobia, whereas it was not a significant mediator when the cognitive reappraisal strategy was taken into account. Our study suggests that loneliness during the pandemic plays a crucial role in explaining the associations between the investigated predictors and the outcome variable, offering a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this emerging construct. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and shortcomings and suggestions for future works are presented.
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Background Social difficulties are inherent to social anxiety and are critical in depression. A key feature in both disorders is social avoidance, which leads to the loss of opportunities and precludes from improving social abilities. The need for studying social functioning using interactive tasks that immerse the subject in a social context has been highlighted. Methods We developed an interactive task that allows measuring social avoidance. In each round, participants choose between two categories of co-players, with which kind of partner they would like to make a team. In material terms, it is always better to choose the high-category option. However, this maximizes chances for being the worst player in the team, which relates to upward social comparison and guilt. Participants with varied levels of depression and social anxiety symptoms performed this task. Results The higher the depression and social anxiety symptoms, the more that participants avoided the high-category partners, the lower the number of points earned and the higher the negative emotions (guilt, nervousness, shame) reported about having to play with a co-player, with this effect becoming more accentuated as the rank of the co-player increased. Limitations The study sample was restricted to university students and included mostly women. Conclusions This work provides a tool for studying social avoidance through an interactive set-up and contributes to the understanding of this behavior in mental health.
Conference Paper
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خودکارآمدی و اجتماعی به باور افراد در مورد توانایی هایشان برای صحیح عمل کردن در موقعیت های اجتماعی اشاره دارد. افرادی که دارای نگرش مثبتی به زندگی هستند به ارزیابی آنچه می توانند به دست آورند در برابر آنچه قادر به کسب آن نیستند، می‌پردازند. اینگونه افراد موفقیت های اجتماعی خود را به توانایی های درونی خود نسبت می‌دهند که همین مسئله می‌تواند زمینه‌ساز افزایش میزان خودکارآمدی اجتماعی در این افراد باشد. بر این اساس هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه بین جهت گیری زندگی و خودکارآمدی اجتماعی در دانشجویان میباشد. ۱۱۸ دانشجو (۶۶ دختر و ۵۲ پسر) که به روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای تصادفی انتخاب شده بودند مقیاس جهت گیری زندگی و پرسشنامه خودکارآمدی در موقعیت های اجتماعی را تکمیل نمودند. پایایی و روایی ابزار های مورد استفاده احراز گردیده است. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده با استفاده از تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه به‌روش همزمان مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد که جهت‌گیری به زندگی قادر به پیش بینی مثبت و معنادار خودکارآمدی اجتماعی است. همچنین بین دختران و پسران از لحاظ خودکارآمدی اجتماعی تفاوتی مشاهده نشد. نتیجه اینکه هر چه افراد نگرش مثبت تری به زندگی داشته باشند موقعیت های اجتماعی یا غیر اجتماعی را بیشتر موافق با خواست خود ارزیابی کرده و بنابراین خودکارآمدی اجتماعی بیشتری را احساس می کنند
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Context Previous studies on social phobia have relied primarily on retrospective questionnaire data. This study uses the experience sampling method (ESM) to prospectively examine daily behaviors associated with social anxiety as they occur in natural contexts. Method Forty individuals with social phobia and 194 students with a range of social anxiety answered questions administered through a portable microcomputer for 7 days concerning their activities, social contacts and emotional experiences. Results Individuals with social phobia demonstrated differences in the frequency of certain social contacts and in the contexts in which anxiety was experienced. However, although their emotional experience was generally more negative, socially phobic individuals did not report fewer social interactions and reported greater improvement of depressed mood when interacting with others. Conclusion Social contact is important for the emotional well-being of individuals with social phobia, and the application of novel methodological approaches such as ESM may permit new perspectives for understanding this disorder.
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An examination of the use of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis by researchers publishing in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin over the previous 5 years is presented, along with a review of recommended methods based on the recent statistical literature. In the case of exploratory factor analysis, an examination and recommendations concerning factor extraction procedures, sample size, number of measured variables, determining the number of factors to extract, factor rotation, and the creation of factor scores are presented. These issues are illustrated via an exploratory factor analysis of data from the University of California, Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale. In the case of confirmatory factor analysis, an examination and recommendations concerning model estimation, evaluating model fit, sample size, the effects of non-normality of the data, and missing data are presented. These issues are illustrated via a confirmatory factor analysis of data from the Revised Causal Dimension Scale.
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We have interpreted the literature showing left anterior hypoactivation in depression as reflecting a decrease in approach-related motivation and behaviour among depressed subjects. In support of this model, we have previously demonstrated a decreased responsiveness to reward in subclinically depressed dysphoric subjects. The current study was designed to replicate and extend those findings. Clinically depressed subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for major depression were compared to a group of nondepressed control subjects on a verbal memory task under three monetary payoff conditions: neutral, reward, and punishment. Although control subjects changed their pattern of responding in both the reward and punishment conditions, relative to the neutral condition, so as to maximise their earnings, depressed subjects did not do so during reward. The two groups did not differ during the punishment condition. These findings provide additional evidence of a decreased responsiveness to reward in depressed individuals, and are consistent with the hypothesis that the left prefrontal hypoactivation observed in depression reflects a deficit in approach-related behaviour.
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Evaluative processes refer to the operations by which organisms discriminate threatening from nurturant environments. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects neutrality, whereas high activation of such processes reflects maximal conflict. Attitudes, an important class of manifestations of evaluative processes, have traditionally been conceptualized as falling along a bipolar dimension, and the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying attitudes have been conceptualized as being reciprocally activated, making the bipolar rating scale the measure of choice. Research is reviewed suggesting that this bipolar dimension is insufficient to portray comprehensively positive and negative evaluative processes and that the question is not whether such processes are reciprocally activated but under what conditions they are reciprocally, nonreciprocally, or independently activated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.
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L. A. Clark and D. Watson (1991) proposed a tripartite model of depression and anxiety that divides symptoms into 3 groups: symptoms of general distress that are largely nonspecific, manifestations of anhedonia and low positive affect that are specific to depression, and symptoms of somatic arousal that are relatively unique to anxiety. This model was tested by conducting separate factor analyses of the 90 items in the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (D. Watson & L. A. Clark, 1991) in 5 samples (3 student, 1 adult, 1 patient). The same 3 factors (General Distress, Anhedonia vs. Positive Affect, Somatic Anxiety) emerged in each data set, suggesting that the symptom structure in this domain is highly convergent across diverse samples. Moreover, these factors broadly corresponded to the symptom groups proposed by the tripartite model. Inspection of the individual item loadings suggested some refinements to the model.
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Using outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders (N = 350), the authors tested several models of the structural relationships of dimensions of key features of selected emotional disorders and dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Results supported the discriminant validity of the 5 symptom domains examined (mood disorders: generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; panic disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; social phobia). Of various structural models evaluated, the best fitting involved a structure consistent with the tripartite model (e.g., the higher order factors, negative affect and positive affect, influenced emotional disorder factors in the expected manner). The latent factor, GAD, influenced the latent factor, autonomic arousal, in a direction consistent with recent laboratory findings (autonomic suppression). Findings are discussed in the context of the growing literature on higher order trait dimensions (e.g., negative affect) that may be of considerable importance to the understanding of the pathogenesis, course, and co-occurrence of emotional disorders.
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Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
Book
Written for clients, this workbook teaches that social anxiety is a normal part of life, but it can sometimes have a negative impact. The important question is not whether someone experiences social anxiety but to what degree and how often. The term social anxiety disorder describes the distress and interference that comes along with severe social anxiety. Information is presented on the nature of social anxiety, empirically supported cognitive–behavioral techniques used to treat it, how to best implement these techniques, and how to deal with the problems that arise during treatment. The attempt is to offer a complete treatment that is informed by individual case conceptualization within an evidence-based practice framework. This third edition includes case examples that represent diverse clients across race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and gender identity.
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Social phobia is increasingly recognized as a prevalent and socially impairing mental disorder. However, little data is available regarding the general and disease-specific impairments and disabilities associated with social phobia. Furthermore, most studies have not controlled for the confounding effects of comorbid conditions. This study investigates: (a) the generic quality of life; (b) work productivity; and, (c) various other disorder-specific social impairments in current cases with pure (n = 65), comorbid (n = 51) and subthreshold (n = 34) DSM-IV social phobia as compared to controls with no social phobia (subjects with a history of herpes infections). Social phobia cases reported a mean illness duration of 22.9 years with onset in childhood or adolescence. Current quality of life, as assessed by the SF-36, was significantly reduced in all social phobia groups, particularly in the scales measuring vitality, general health, mental health, role limitations due to emotional health, and social functioning. Comorbid cases revealed more severe reductions than pure and subthreshold social phobics. Findings from the Liebowitz self-rated disability scale indicated that: (a) social phobia affects most areas of life, but in particular education, career, and romantic relationship; (b) the presence of past and current comorbid conditions increases the frequency of disease-specific impairments; and, (c) subthreshold social phobia revealed slightly lower overall impairments than comorbid social phobics. Past week work productivity of social phobics was significantly diminished as indicated by: (a) a three-fold higher rate of unemployed cases; (b) elevated rates of work hours missed due to social phobia problems; and, (c) a reduced work performance. Overall, these findings underline that social phobia in our sample of adults, whether comorbid, subthreshold, or pure was a persisting and impairing condition, resulting in considerable subjective suffering and negative impact on work performance and social relationships. The current disabilities and impairments were usually less pronounced than in the past, presumably due to adaptive behaviors in life style of the respondents. Data also confirmed that social phobia is poorly recognized and rarely treated by the mental health system.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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We examined the roles of curiosity, social anxiety, and positive affect (PA) and neg- ative affect (NA) in the development of interpersonal closeness. A reciprocal self-disclosure task was used wherein participants and trained confederates asked and answered questions escalating in personal and emotional depth (mimicking closeness-development). Relationships between curiosity and relationship out- comes were examined using regression analyses. Controlling for trait measures of social anxiety, PA, and NA, trait curiosity predicted greater partner ratings of attrac- tion and closeness. Social anxiety moderated the relationship between trait curios- ity and self-ratings of attraction such that curiosity was associated with greater attraction among those low in social anxiety compared to those high in social anxi- ety. In contrast, trait PA was related to greater self-ratings of attraction but had no relationship with partners' ratings. Trait curiosity predicted positive relationship outcomes as a function of state curiosity generated during the interaction, even after controlling for state PA.
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The development and validation of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) two companion measures for assessing social phobia fears is described. The SPS assesses fears of being scrutinised during routine activities (eating, drinking, writing, etc.), while the SIAS assesses fears of more general social interaction, the scales corresponding to the DSM-III-R descriptions of Social Phobia—Circumscribed and Generalised types, respectively. Both scales were shown to possess high levels of internal consistency and test–retest reliability. They discriminated between social phobia, agoraphobia and simple phobia samples, and between social phobia and normal samples. The scales correlated well with established measures of social anxiety, but were found to have low or non-significant (partial) correlations with established measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and social desirability. The scales were found to change with treatment and to remain stable in the face of no-treatment. It appears that these scales are valid, useful, and easily scored measures for clinical and research applications, and that they represent an improvement over existing measures of social phobia.
Describes a multimodal, psychoeducational group treatment course for unipolar depression offered at the University of Oregon Depression Research Unit. The course teaches people techniques and strategies for coping with the problems that are assumed to be related to their depression, focusing on target behaviors such as social skills, thinking, pleasant activities, and relaxation, and on cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression. The rationale and theoretical framework of the course are reviewed, and a course overview is presented. The course consists of 12 2-hr sessions conducted over 8 wks, and participants are selected from respondents to newspaper, TV, and radio advertisements. Efficacy of the course was evaluated by comparing Ss who received immediate treatment with Ss who were on a waiting list for 8 wks before starting treatment. Findings reveal more clinical improvement for all of the active conditions compared with the delayed treatment condition, and improvement continued to be substantial at 1- and 6-mo follow-up. A syllabus of the course is presented, emphasizing the goals, assignments, and thoughts to consider for each session. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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There are 2 broad aims in writing this book. The first is to produce a comprehensive practical text of cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders. In order for a treatment guide to be of most value it should offer a detailed description of not only what to do in treatment but also an account of how to do it. This book does both. The book is illustrated throughout with case examples and examples of therapeutic dialogues. All of the material used is based on actual cases. The second aim of this work is to present a pure approach to cognitive therapy that makes a significant contribution to advancing theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined relations between social activity and state and trait measures of Positive and Negative Affect. In Study 1, Ss completed scales relevant to 3-factor models of personality and a weekly mood and social activity questionnaire for 13 wks. In Study 2, Ss completed measures of the 5-factor model of personality and a daily mood and social activity survey for 6–7 wks. In within- and between-Ss analyses, socializing correlated significantly with state measures of Positive Affect and with trait measures of Extraversion/Positive Emotionality. These relations were relatively general across various types of positive affect and social events; however, specific types of social events also were differentially related to affect. In contrast, social activity had no consistent association with measures of Negative Affect or the other personality dimensions. The results support a temperamental view of Extraversion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study explored the relationships among dispositional self-consciousness, situationally induced-states of self-awareness, ego-involvement, and intrinsic motivation Cognitive evaluation theory, as applied to both the interpersonal and intrapersonal spheres, was used as the basis for making predictions about the effects of various types of self-focus Public self-consciousness, social anxiety, video surveillance and mirror manipulations of self-awareness, and induced ego-involvement were predicted and found to have negative effects on intrinsic motivation since all were hypothesized to involve controlling forms of regulation In contrast, dispositional private self-consciousness and a no-self-focus condition were both found to be unrelated to intrinsic motivation The relationship among these constructs and manipulations was discussed in the context of both Carver and Scheier's (1981) control theory and Deci and Ryan's (1985) motivation theory
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daily variations may be understood in terms of the degree to which three basic needs, autonomy, competence, and related-ness, are satisfied in daily activity. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine this hypothesis across 2 weeks of daily activ-ity and well-being reports controlling for trait-level individual differences. Results strongly supported the hypothesis. The authors also examined the social activities that contribute to sat-isfaction of relatedness needs. The best predictors were meaning-ful talk and feeling understood and appreciated by interaction partners. Finally, the authors found systematic day-of-the-week variations in emotional well-being and need satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of daily activities and the need to consider both trait and day-level determinants of well-being.
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Upon being exposed to a high self-focus, potentially socially threatening situation, excessively socially anxious (SA) individuals were posited to experience amplified negative emotional states, as well as diminished positive emotional, cognitive, and intimacy-related outcomes. Ninety-one college students engaged in a reciprocal self-disclosure task with a trained confederate. Participants and confederates took turns answering (while a camera was directed at them) and asking questions that gradually increased in personal content. The results indicated that high SA individuals experienced more intense negative affect, less intense positive affect, and poorer social self-efficacy compared to low SA individuals in both conditions. However, differences between high and low SA individuals were larger in the social threat/self-focus condition, and self-focused attention partially accounted for these effects. In terms of specificity, nearly all findings remained after statistically controlling for depressive symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety effects were generally absent on measures of observed behavior and intimacy outcomes. These findings implicate the role of social threat and self-focused attention in contributing to affective and cognitive disturbances among SA individuals.
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Although decades of research have examined relationships between social anxiety and negative outcomes, this study examined relations with indices of positive psychological functioning. In college students (n = 204), a factor analysis on self-report measures of positive psychological functioning derived 3 conceptually meaningful broad domains: Positive Subjective Experiences, Curiosity, and Appetitive Motivations. Analyses were conducted to test whether social interaction anxiety demonstrated unique relationships with positive psychological domains after controlling for shared variance with social observation anxiety (e.g., eating in public, public speaking) and neuroticism. Social interaction anxiety explained unique variance in all 3 domains after separately controlling for social observation anxiety and neuroticism. In contrast, social observation anxiety demonstrated near-zero relationships with all 3 domains, and neuroticism predicted Positive Subjective Experiences, and to a lesser degree, Curiosity. These data provide evidence for the unique association between social interaction anxiety and positive psychological functioning, with implications for future basic and applied research.
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This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual's physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed.
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Investigated the verbal behavior of 152 undergraduates in 4 different classes. Trait anxiety, trait curiosity, and perceived instructor threat were measured by the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, the State–Trait Curiosity Inventory, and the Tuckman Teacher Feedback Form. Student-initiated questions and responses to instructor questions were rated by trained observers during 8 1-hr class sessions. In general, males gave more responses than females, and Ss who perceived their instructors as threatening gave fewer responses than those who rated their instructors as nonthreatening. High curiosity stimulated student-initiated verbal behavior for both sexes, but only when the instructor was perceived as nonthreatening. For males, high anxiety inhibited the students' responses to instructor questions when the instructor was perceived as threatening, whereas females gave few responses to instructor questions regardless of their personality characteristics. (20 ref)
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We review psychometric and other evidence relevant to mixed anxiety-depression. Properties of anxiety and depression measures, including the convergent and discriminant validity of self- and clinical ratings, and interrater reliability, are examined in patient and normal samples. Results suggest that anxiety and depression can be reliably and validly assessed; moreover, although these disorders share a substantial component of general affective distress, they can be differentiated on the basis of factors specific to each syndrome. We also review evidence for these specific factors, examining the influence of context and scale content on ratings, factor analytic studies, and the role of low positive affect in depression. With these data, we argue for a tripartite structure consisting of general distress, physiological hyperarousal (specific anxiety), and anhedonia (specific depression), and we propose a diagnosis of mixed anxiety-depression.
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Distinguishing between depression and anxiety has been a matter of concern and controversy for some time. Studies in normal samples have suggested, however, that assessment of two broad mood factors—Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA)—may improve their differentiation. The present study extends these findings to a clinical sample. As part of an ongoing twin study, 90 inpatient probands and 60 cotwins were interviewed with the anxiety and depression sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS; Robins, Helzer, Croughan, & Ratcliff, 1981). Respondents also completed trait NA and PA scales. Consistent with previous research, NA was broadly correlated with symptoms and diagnoses of both anxiety and depression, and acted as a general predictor of psychiatric disorder. In contrast, PA was consistently related (negatively) only to symptoms and diagnoses of depression, indicating that the loss of pleasurable engagement is a distinctive feature of depression. The results suggest that strengthening the PA component in depression measures may enhance their discriminative power.
Article
Daily mood ratings and corresponding diary entries were studied to determine relations between common events and two independent mood factors--Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA)--in a sample of 18 young adults over a 3-month period. In an extension of findings from earlier interindividual studies, PA (enthusiastic, delighted vs. sluggish, drowsy) was found to be associated with a wide range of daily events, whereas fewer correlations were found between these events and NA (distressed, nervous, angry vs. calm, relaxed). The relation between high PA and reported social interactions (particularly physically active social events) was especially robust, and its effects were noted repeatedly; NA was unrelated to social activity. As hypothesized, high NA was associated with physical problems; contrary to expectations, low PA also tended to be correlated with health complaints. Overall, the results reaffirm the importance of assessing NA and PA independently and suggest that PA is an interesting and important dimension that deserves more research attention. Theoretical considerations and clinical implications are discussed.
Article
Individuals with subthreshold social phobia (SSP) in the community are characterized relative to nonphobic, healthy controls (C), and diagnosed social phobics (SP). Data from 1488 subjects from the Duke University Epidemiological Catchment Area Study were examined. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to compare the SSP, SP, and C groups on 10 sets of variables. Compared with C respondents, SSP respondents were more likely to be female and unmarried and to report less income and education. The SSP respondents were also more likely to report work attendance problems, poor grades in school, symptoms of conduct disturbance, impaired subjective social support, lack of self-confidence, lack of a close friend, use of psychotropic drugs in past year, and a greater number of life changes, chronic medical problems, and mental health visits within the past 6 months. In a multivariate logistic regression model with group membership as the dependent variable, compared with C respondents, SSP respondents were more likely to be female, to have less education, and to report more indicators of poor school performance and symptoms of adolescent conduct disturbance. In contrast, in a similar but separate multivariate model, compared with SP respondents, SSP respondents met the criteria for fewer DSM-III psychiatric disorders and were less likely to report impaired instrumental support. Social phobia adversely affects over 10% of the population. Previous epidemiologic catchment area-based prevalence estimates have probably been unrealistically low.
Article
This study examined the nature of impairment of functioning in persons with social phobia and assessed the validity of two new rating scales for describing impairment in social phobia. In 32 patients with social phobia and 14 normal control subjects, impairment was assessed using the Disability Profile and the Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, new instruments designed to provide clinician- and patient-rated descriptive measures of current and lifetime functional impairment related to emotional problems. Validity of the new scales was assessed by measuring internal consistency, comparing scores for patients and controls, and comparing scores with those on standard measures of disability, social phobia symptoms, and social support. More than half of all social phobic patients reported at least moderate impairment at some time in their lives, due to social anxiety and avoidance, in areas of education, employment, family relationships, marriage/romantic relationships, friendships/social network, and other interests. Social phobic patients were rated more impaired than normal controls on nearly all items on both measures. Both scales were internally consistent, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients for lifetime and current disability subscales in the range of .87 to .92. Significant positive correlations of scores on the new scales with scores on coadministered standard scales of social phobia symptoms and disability demonstrated concurrent validity. Disability was not significantly correlated with measures of social support. Social phobia is associated with impairment in most areas of functioning, and the new scales appear useful in assessing functional impairment related to social phobia.
Article
The person's perception of his or her quality of life has been neglected in studies of mental health in general and anxiety disorders in particular. However, the judgement of the impact of a mental disorder based on symptomatic distress while ignoring one's overall quality of life is incomplete. In the present study, we examined social phobic patients' judgments of their satisfaction with various domains of life they deem important using the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI; Frisch, unpublished). Social phobics judged their overall quality of life lower than Frisch's (unpublished) normative sample. Quality of life was inversely associated with various measures of severity of social phobia (especially social interaction anxiety), functional impairment, and depression. It was not, however, related to performance anxiety or trait anxiety. Quality of life also varied across combinations of subtype of social phobia and the presence/absence of avoidant personality disorder, and as a function of marital status. Patients showed significant improvement in quality of life scores after completion of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia.
Article
The current paper presents a model of the experience of anxiety in social/evaluative situations in people with social phobia. The model describes the manner in which people with social phobia perceive and process information related to potential evaluation and the way in which these processes differ between people high and low in social anxiety. It is argued that distortions and biases in the processing of social/evaluative information lead to heightened anxiety in social situations and, in turn, help to maintain social phobia. Potential etiological factors as well as treatment implications are also discussed.
Article
In this article, we examine subjective vitality, a positive feeling of aliveness and energy, in six studies. Subjective vitality is hypothesized to reflect organismic well-being and thus should covary with both psychological and somatic factors that impact the energy available to the self. Associations are shown between subjective vitality and several indexes of psychological well-being; somatic factors such as physical symptoms and perceived body functioning; and basic personality traits and affective dispositions. Subsequently, vitality is shown to be lower in people with chronic pain compared to matched controls, especially those who perceive their pain to be disabling or frightening. Subjective vitality is further associated with self-motivation and maintained weight loss among patients treated for obesity. Finally, subjective vitality is assessed in a diary study for its covariation with physical symptoms. Discussion focuses on the phenomenological salience of personal energy and its relations to physical and psychological well-being.
Article
L. A. Clark and D. Watson's (1991) tripartite model groups the symptoms of depression and anxiety into 3 components: nonspecific symptoms of general distress, which do not distinguish depression and anxiety; physiologic arousal, which is relatively unique to anxiety; and anhedonia (or low positive affect), which is unique to depression. Structural equation modeling was used to test this model with self-report data from 3 different samples: outpatients seeking treatment for mood disorder, anxiety disorder, or both (n = 483) outpatients seeking treatment for substance abuse (n = 453), and college students (n = 516). The tripartite model did not fit any of the sample covariance matrices, because the nonspecific symptoms of depression and anxiety could not be adequately represented by a single General Distress factor. An alternative model, in which the Anhedonia and Nonspecific Depression factors loaded on a second-order