Food patterns measured by factor analysis and anthropometric changes in adults

Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, 9th Floor, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 08/2004; 80(2):504-13.
Source: PubMed


Sixty-five percent of US adults are overweight, and 31% of these adults are obese. Obesity results from weight gains over time; however, dietary determinants of weight gain remain controversial.
Our objective was to examine whether food patterns derived from exploratory factor analysis are related to anthropometric changes. We hypothesized that we would derive a healthy food pattern and that it would predict smaller changes in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (in cm) than would other food patterns in models adjusted for baseline anthropometric measures.
The subjects were 459 healthy men and women participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Diet was assessed by using 7-d dietary records, from which 40 food groups were formed and entered into a factor analysis.
Six food patterns were derived. Factor 1 (reduced-fat dairy products, fruit, and fiber) was most strongly associated with fiber (r = 0.39) and loaded heavily on reduced-fat dairy products, cereal, and fruit and loaded moderately on fruit juice, nonwhite bread, nuts and seeds, whole grains, and beans and legumes. In a multivariate-adjusted model in which the highest and lowest quintiles were compared, factor 1 was inversely associated with annual change in BMI (beta = -0.51; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.20; P < 0.05; P for trend < 0.01) in women and inversely associated with annual change in waist circumference (beta = -1.06 cm; 95% CI: -1.88, -0.24 cm; P < 0.05; P for trend = 0.04) in both sexes.
Our results suggest that a pattern rich in reduced-fat dairy products and high-fiber foods may lead to smaller gains in BMI in women and smaller gains in waist circumference in both women and men.

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    • "No pattern with this denomination was found in the literature. However, some studies have identified factors containing alcoholic beverages in their composition [9,16,26,31,32]. The fourth pattern identified was called energy-dense because it is rich in sugars and saturated and trans fats. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of the present study was to identify the main dietary patterns among young adults and to investigate the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors, and social mobility with dietary patterns. Methods Data from the fourth follow-up of the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort study, Brazil, were used. A total of 2,061 young adults, whose mothers gave sociodemographic information at birth in 1978–79, provided sociodemographic and dietary data through a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002–2004, when they were aged 23–25 years. Those whose caloric intake was outside of the ±3 standard deviation range were excluded, leaving 2,034 individuals. The dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis followed by varimax orthogonal rotation. Poisson regression with robust estimation of variance was used to derive prevalence ratios (PR). Results Four dietary patterns were identified: healthy, traditional Brazilian, energy-dense and bar. In the adjusted analysis, individuals with higher schooling (≥12 years) in adult life (PR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.07-2.14) showed greater adherence whilst men (PR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93) had lower adherence to the healthy pattern. The highest adherence to the traditional Brazilian pattern was found for men (PR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.04-2.80), mullatos (PR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.64), households with ≥2 members, and for those with children (PR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.55) while individuals with higher schooling in adulthood (≥12 years) (PR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34-0.65), higher family income in adulthood (≥20 MW) (PR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99) and higher family income at birth (≥6.1 MW) showed lower adherence. The bar pattern was positively associated with male sex (PR = 2.96, 95% CI: 2.47-3.55) and low schooling (≤8 years). The energy-dense pattern was not associated with any of the variables investigated. Social mobility was associated with the traditional Brazilian pattern. Men and women who were not poor at birth and remained so in adulthood showed lower adherence to this pattern (PR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.94 for men and PR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20-0.80 for women). Conclusions Four different dietary patterns were identified among young adults. Socioeconomic and demographic factors, and social mobility were associated with food choices.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Public Health
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    • "The traditional pattern was similar to the "prudent" or "Korean traditional" pattern reported in previous studies [11,28,29]. The traditional pattern did not significantly affect blood pressure and the risk of hypertension, which is consistent with a previous study [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to identify the dietary patterns associated with the risk of hypertensions among Korean adults using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2010). This study analyzes data from 11,883 subjects who participated in the health and nutrition survey, aging from 20 to 64 years. We performed factor analysis based on the weekly mean intake frequencies of 36 food groups to identify major dietary patterns. We identified three major dietary patterns in both sexes, namely "traditional", "western" and "dairy and carbohydrate" patterns. Participants in the highest quartile of western pattern scores had significantly higher blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels than those in the lowest quartile. Although not statistically significant, a trend (P for trend = 0.0732) toward a positive association between the western dietary pattern and hypertension risk was observed after adjustments for age, sex, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, and energy intake. The dairy and carbohydrate pattern was inversely related with BMI and blood pressures and positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. After adjusting the age, sex, education, income, BMI, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern showed inverse associations with hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75; P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber, sodium, and antioxidant vitamins were significantly higher in the top quartile for the traditional pattern than in the lowest quartile for the traditional pattern (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber (P for trend < 0.0001), calcium (P for trend < 0.0001), retinol (P for trend = 0.0164), vitamin B1 (P for trend = 0.001), vitamin B2 (P for trend < 0.0001), niacin (P for trend = 0.0025), and vitamin C (P for trend < 0.0001) were significantly increased across quartiles for the dairy and carbohydrate pattern whereas sodium (P for trend < 0.0001) intake was decreased for this pattern. In conclusion, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern may be associated with a reduced risk of hypertension whereas the western pattern may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among Korean adults.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Nutrition research and practice
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    • "Refined bread was included in the group associated with the greatest increase in WC. Whole-grain bread was in the two groups that were compared: one had a lower increase in WC compared with the other Newby et al. (2004) 37 USA "
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    ABSTRACT: A long-standing belief held by the general public is that bread fattens. This encourages many people to restrict, or even eliminate, bread from their diet. The present review was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with overall obesity or excess abdominal adiposity, whether in the general population or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The literature search included articles published over the past 30 years that focused on dietary patterns that included bread (refined or whole-grain) and their association with ponderal status and abdominal fat distribution. A total of 38 epidemiological studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (22 cross-sectional, 11 prospective cohort, and five intervention). The results indicate that dietary patterns that include whole-grain bread do not positively influence weight gain and may be beneficial to ponderal status. With respect to dietary patterns that include refined bread, the majority of cross-sectional studies indicate beneficial effects, while most of the well-designed cohort studies demonstrate a possible relationship with excess abdominal fat. Because differences in the study designs make it difficult to form definitive conclusions, more studies are needed that focus specifically on bread consumption, within different dietary patterns, and its influence on ponderal status.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Nutrition Reviews
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