Article

The effect of finger millet feeding on the early responses during the process of wound healing in diabetic rats

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Abstract

In the present study, the role of finger millet feeding on skin antioxidant status, nerve growth factor (NGF) production and wound healing parameters in healing impaired early diabetic rats is reported. Hyperglycemic rats received food containing 50 g/100 g finger millet (FM). Non-diabetic controls and diabetic controls received balanced nutritive diet. Full-thickness excision skin wounds were made after 2 weeks prior feeding of finger millet diet. The rate of wound contraction, and the levels of collagen, hexosamine and uronic acid in the granulation tissue were determined. The skin antioxidant status and lipid peroxide concentration were also monitored during the study. In hyperglycemic rats fed with finger millet diet, the healing process was hastened with an increased rate of wound contraction. Skin levels of glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol in alloxan-induced diabetic rat were lower as compared to non-diabetics. Altered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also recorded in diabetics. Interestingly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were elevated in the wound tissues of all the groups, when compared to normal (unwounded) skin tissues. However, in diabetic rats the TBARS levels of both normal and wounded skin tissues were significantly elevated (P < 0.001) when compared with control (non-diabetic) and diabetics fed with FM. Impaired production of NGF, determined by ELISA, in diabetic rats was improved upon FM feeding and further confirmed by immunocytochemical observations reflects the increased expression of NGF in hyperglycemic rats supplemented with FM-enriched diet. Histological and electron microscopical evaluations revealed the epithelialization, increased synthesis of collagen, activation of fibroblasts and mast cells in FM-fed animals. Thus, increased levels of oxidative stress markers accompanied by decreased levels of antioxidants play a vital role in delaying wound healing in diabetic rats. However, FM feeding to the diabetic animals, for 4 weeks, controlled the glucose levels and improved the antioxidant status, which hastened the dermal wound healing process.

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... These bioactive compounds, which include ferulic acid, quercetin, and ferulic-rich arabinoxylans or feraxans among others, have been reported to exhibit important therapeutic effects. Some important health effects such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties have been reported in recent trials with the millet (Sripriya et al. 1996;Anthony et al. 1998;Kumari & Sumathi 2002;Rajasekaran et al. 2004;Chethan & Malleshi 2007;Shobana & Malleshi 2007;Banerjee et al. 2012;Shahidi & Chandrasekara 2013). Information on finger millet, however, is fast accumulating with available literatures, scarcely emphatic on their bioactive profiles, bioaccessibility, and possible health benefits. ...
... Hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, nephropathy, and neuropathy associated with diabetes were significantly reversed in a diabetic group fed the diet containing the finger millet seed coat matter (Shobana et al. 2010;Devi et al. 2014). In addition, finger millet-based diets were found to enhance the antioxidant status and better control the blood glucose levels in rats (Rajasekaran et al. 2004). These effects result from the high dietary fibre content of the grain and presence of antinutritional factors known to reduce starch digestibility and glucose diffusion. ...
... In the later stage of diabetes, dermal injuries are known to worsen, resulting in deep wounds and amputation risk if not properly treated. In a study carried out by Rajasekaran et al. (2004), the effect of finger millet feeding on dermal wound healing of induced diabetic rats was evaluated. In the experiment, feeding of diabetic rats with finger millet for a period of 4 weeks resulted in an improved wound healing process. ...
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Finger millet is among minor cereal grains that are underutilised. However, over the years, research interest in the millet has increased owing to its abundance of bioactive compounds. These compounds which include, among others, ferulic acid-rich arabinoxylans or feraxans, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and quercetin have been associated with certain health promoting properties and have been found bioaccessible in the grain. Following the recent interest in natural curative substances over their synthetic counterparts in the treatment of food dependent diseases, finger millet has shown potential nutraceutical effects. Some important health effects such as antidiabetic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties have been reported in recent trials with the grain. This review emphasises the dietary fibre - arabinoxylan, and phenolic compounds of finger millet and their properties, and further discusses available evidence on their bioaccessibility and bioactivity. The information presented will further explore the potential of finger millet utilisation, its bioactive compounds, bioaccessibility, and potential health benefits, in view of stimulating further research.
... However, experimental studies indicate that millets can exert antioxidant effects and reduce oxidative stress and hyperglycemia. [21][22][23][24][25] These beneficial effects of millets may be due to their composition and enzyme inhibitory properties of seed coat phenolics which may cause inhibition of Α-Glucosidase and pancreatic amylase indicating protection of beta cells of the pancreas. 23 Another experiment, with finger millet feeding, during the process of wound healing, revealed beneficial effects in diabetic rats, by decreasing blood glucose and healing process. ...
... 23 Another experiment, with finger millet feeding, during the process of wound healing, revealed beneficial effects in diabetic rats, by decreasing blood glucose and healing process. 24 In hyperlipidemic rats, millet consumption was associated with a significant reduction in serum concentration of triglyceride and C-reactive protein without any effects on oxidative status. 25 The decline in triglycerides and C-reactive protein is similar to our study, whereas no effect on oxidative stress is surprising because millets are rich in antioxidant polyphenolic, flavonoids and carotenoids. ...
... 25 The decline in triglycerides and C-reactive protein is similar to our study, whereas no effect on oxidative stress is surprising because millets are rich in antioxidant polyphenolic, flavonoids and carotenoids. [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] The intervention subjects showed non-significant decline in BMI, (from 28.921±4.809 to 27.167±11.84), ...
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Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has become a global public health problem, characterized by increased intake of western style diets and decline in physical activities which are pro-inflammatory. Food diversity, nutrient profile, glycemic index and lower content of salt sugar and Tran’s fat are an important consideration for a healthy anti-inflammatory diet which may be advised for prevention of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This clinical observation aims to examine the effects of a millets based functional food rich intervention diet on coronary risk factors among subjects with known diabetes. Method: After permission from the review board of a hospital, hospital records of 65 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were drawn for this study. Of 65 patients with diabetes, 5 were excluded and remaining 60 were administered millet-based functional food rich intervention diet (millets 60%, soya bean 20%, brown rice 10%, peanuts 8% and flex seeds 2%). Clinical data, dietary intakes and physical activity were assessed by validated questionnaires. Blood pressures were measured by sphygmomanometer. Result: Treatment with millet based intervention diet for 12 weeks was associated with a significant decline in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, HbA1c indicating that this diet can prevent diabetes. Total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides showed a significant decline compared to baseline levels. Pro-inflammatory cytokines; C-reactive proteins, TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 also showed significant reduction after treatment with intervention diet compared to baseline levels. In association with these changes, there was a significant decline in systolic and diastolic blood pressures, parameters of oxidative stress; TBARS, MDA and diene conjugates with an increase in antioxidant vitamins; A,E and C and beta-carotene. Underlying these changes, all subjects received an 11 fold greater amount of millet-based intervention diet which increased from mean 21.36±3.8g/day to 235.20±23.6 (p<0001).Among females (n=33), there was a significant increase in hemoglobin and serum calcium and magnesium indicating that millet based diet can also prevent under nutrition. Conclusion: It is possible that millet-based intervention diet can cause a significant decline in blood glucose, HbA1c, oxidative stress, blood pressures, blood lipoproteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines with an increase in antioxidant vitamins, magnesium, calcium and hemoglobin. Randomized, controlled intervention trials, would be necessary to confirm our findings. Keywords: hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, cytokines, nutrition, inflammation, whole grains
... For complementary and alternative medicine, many natural sources rich in various nutritional factors, including proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins, have been attempted to reveal the promotion of wound healing, because restoring injured dermal tissues requires an amount of energy [1]. Furthermore, their antioxidant activities have shown therapeutic potential of these resources for wound healing [7][8][9][10]. The major components of natural extracts such as flavonoids, phenols and tannins are known to act as free radical scavengers [11]. ...
... Although the antioxidant-related mechanisms are unclear, the complex and coordinated anti-oxidation system might be involved in dermal wound healing. For example, inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) produces anti-inflammatory responses during treatment with fucoidan extracted from Laminaria japonica [31], probably because nitric oxide (NO) is an important inflammatory mediator [10]. In turn, the inhibitory effects of LMF on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and LI-1β, reduced the proinflammatory enzymes iNOS and COX-2, resulting in decreased oxidative stress [47]. ...
... A portion of dermal samples was homogenized as 10% in cold phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2), and it was then centrifuged at 12,500× g for 60 min at 4 • C [10]. The supernatants were subjected to biochemical assays or stored at −80 • C until use. ...
Article
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Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMF) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Thus, we examined the effects of LMF extracted from Undaria pinnatifida on dermal wounds. Five round dermal wounds were created on the dorsal back of rats, and they were then treated topically with distilled water (DW), Madecasol Care™ (MC) or LMF at 200, 100 and 50 mg/mL, twice a day for a week. There were dose-dependent increases in wound contraction in the groups receiving LMF but not in the MC group, compared with the DW. Histopathological examination revealed that LMF treatment accelerated wound healing, which was supported by increases in granular tissue formation on day four post-treatment but a decrease on day seven, accompanied by an evident reduction in inflammatory cells. In the LMF-treated wounds, collagen distribution and angiogenesis were increased in the granular tissue on days four and seven post-treatment. Immunoreactive cells for transforming growth factor-β1, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 or matrix metalloproteinases 9 were also increased, probably due to tissue remodeling. Furthermore, LMF treatment reduced lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant activities. These suggested that LMF promotes dermal wound healing via complex and coordinated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and growth factor-dependent activities.
... Inhibitors like aldose reductase prevents the accumulation of sorbitol and reduce the risk of diabetes induced cataract diseases (Chethan et al., 2008) [4] . Finger millet feeding controls blood glucose level improves antioxidant status (Hegde et al., 2005) [10] and hastens the dermal wound healing process in diabetic rats (Rajasekaran et al., 2004) [16] . Millets are good sources of magnesium that is known to be capable of reducing the effects of migraine and heart attack. ...
... Inhibitors like aldose reductase prevents the accumulation of sorbitol and reduce the risk of diabetes induced cataract diseases (Chethan et al., 2008) [4] . Finger millet feeding controls blood glucose level improves antioxidant status (Hegde et al., 2005) [10] and hastens the dermal wound healing process in diabetic rats (Rajasekaran et al., 2004) [16] . Millets are good sources of magnesium that is known to be capable of reducing the effects of migraine and heart attack. ...
... Antioxidants significantly prevent tissue damage and stimulate the wound healing process. Rajasekaran et al. (2004) [16] have reported good antioxidant effects of finger millet on the dermal wound healing process in diabetes induced rats with oxidative stress-mediated modulation of inflammation. The chemical reaction between the amino group of proteins and the aldehyde group of reducing sugars, termed as nonenzymatic glycosylation, is a major factor responsible for the complications of diabetes and aging. ...
Article
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Minor millets (Nutri cereals) are the groups of small seeded cereals belonging to the family Poaceae. There are upto thirty-five species of grasses from 20 genera are well known as small millets. The most important cultivated species of small millets are finger millet, Foxtail, proso millet, barnyard millet, kodo millet and little millet. One of the minor millet namely barnyard millet is the richestsource of calcium content, about 10 times that of rice or wheat. Minor millets are also full of micronutrients like Mg, Ca, Mn, tryptophan, phosphorous, fibre, B vitamins. These micronutrients act as antioxidants which are essential to human body. Additional specialty of minor millets is, they need very less water for their cultivation and can withstand severe climatic conditions. There is need of new high yielding, promotional strategies and policies are necessary to increase the area under nutri cereals crops to achieve nutritional security as well as sustain rainfed farming in the country.
... According to WHO, about 422 million people worldwide have diabetes, the majority living in low-and middle-income countries, and 1.6 million deaths are directly attributed to diabetes each year, barnyard millet could become an ideal food. Seeds/ grains are gluten free and therefore could be consumed by everyone The flour is compliant and therefore, used in preparing various other delicacies like baby foods, snacks, and other dietary products (Vijayakumar et al., 2009 [33] ; Anju and Sarita, 2010 [21] ; Surekha et al., 2013) [13,21,28] . Value addition is also possible by adding the flour of Jhangora with other cereal flours to increase nutritive value, without much affecting the taste (Veena et al., 2004;Surekha et al., 2013) [31,28] . ...
... According to WHO, about 422 million people worldwide have diabetes, the majority living in low-and middle-income countries, and 1.6 million deaths are directly attributed to diabetes each year, barnyard millet could become an ideal food. Seeds/ grains are gluten free and therefore could be consumed by everyone The flour is compliant and therefore, used in preparing various other delicacies like baby foods, snacks, and other dietary products (Vijayakumar et al., 2009 [33] ; Anju and Sarita, 2010 [21] ; Surekha et al., 2013) [13,21,28] . Value addition is also possible by adding the flour of Jhangora with other cereal flours to increase nutritive value, without much affecting the taste (Veena et al., 2004;Surekha et al., 2013) [31,28] . ...
... (Shahidi et al., 2012) [27] . 5. Abundant source of phenolic acids and tannins, phenolics may be cogent in the interception of cancer tenderness and progression in vitro (Kim et al., 2010) [11] . 6. Rich in Anti-oxidants, like Ferulic acid: which act as free radical scavenger and therefore possess antiinflammatory activity, and plays role in anti-aging and metabolic syndrome. (Rajasekaran et al., 2004 andHegde et al., 2002) [21,6] . 7. Seeds extracts contains proteins, that are anti-microbial and inhibit growth of Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Fusarium oxysporum (Radhajeyalakshmi et al., 2003) [20] . ...
Article
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Indian barnyard millet (Jhangora) is a wholesome diet package and also rich in fibre and minerals. Its properties like Low carbohydrate, low glycemic Index and gluten free grains add additional benefits against various health issues like obesity and diabetes. This article highlights the importance of Jhangora in terms of its Nutritional Values and Pharmacological Benefits. Keywords: Jhangora, Indian barnyard millet, diabetes, weight loss, obesity, micronutrients
... Okoyomoh et al. (2013) [25] reported that finger millet exerts antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, as a result of a study where finger millet seed coat matter has fed to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Similarly, Rajasekaran et al. (2004) [26] identified the wound healing properties of finger millet on diabetic rats. Moreover, a significant decrease in postprandial blood glucose levels had been identified when finger millet preparations were fed to type II diabetes mellitus patients over a month [16]. ...
... Okoyomoh et al. (2013) [25] reported that finger millet exerts antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, as a result of a study where finger millet seed coat matter has fed to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Similarly, Rajasekaran et al. (2004) [26] identified the wound healing properties of finger millet on diabetic rats. Moreover, a significant decrease in postprandial blood glucose levels had been identified when finger millet preparations were fed to type II diabetes mellitus patients over a month [16]. ...
... Hegde et al. (2005) reported that significant increase in protein and collagen and decrease in lipid peroxides occurred when aqueous paste of finger millet flour was applied topically on the excision wound (rat model) once daily for 16 days. Rajasekaran et al. (2004) reported that Ragi feeding improved the antioxidant status on skin which hastened the dermal wound healing process. ...
... Chethan (2008) worked upon the extraction of seed polyphenols from Ragi and their nutraceutical potential and reported that the millet polyphenols inhibit the millet malt amylases and aldose reductase from cataracted human eye lenses. Rajasekaran et al. (2004) concluded that in hyperglycemic rats fed with Ragi diet, the healing process was hastened with an increased rate of wound contraction. However, Finger millet feeding to the diabetic animals controlled the glucose levels which hastened the dermal wound healing process. ...
Thesis
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Traditional weaning foods for infant-feeding practised in countries like India, are usually cereal based. Cereals including finger millet (Eleusine Coracana) in combination with milk solids are generally used for the preparation of porridge. This review attempts to explore the utilization of finger millet for the preparation of different cereal foods mainly porridges using different processing methods and simultaneously it focuses on the nutritional features and plausible health benefits of ragi. With the changes in scenario of utilization pattern of processed products and awareness of the consumers about the health benefits, finger millet has gained importance because of its functional components. Hence to enjoy the benefits of the functional constituents of ragi and milk, it is imperative to identify the judicial combination of both of these components through appropriate research.
... [4][5][6] Aside from its nutritive value, millet is also recognized for its numerous potential health benefits, which include the enhancement of wound healing, the prevention of cardiovascular disease, and decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels. [7][8][9][10] A previous study postulated that oxidative stress might cause various chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, arthritis and diabetes. [11] Antioxidants are thought to be important in reducing oxidative damage. ...
Article
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Millet is a major drought-resistant crop that serves as a nutrient rich food staple in Africa and Asia. In addition, millet contains an abundance of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. The intake of antioxidants through the diet is essential for improving human health. This review aimed to evaluate the antioxidant compounds in millet, as well as the factors that influence antioxidant activity. The Millet contained several natural occurring phenolic compounds which include phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins, in addition to xylo-oligosaccharides (XOs), insoluble fibers and peptides. Certain lipophilic antioxidants, including vitamin E and carotenoids, were extensively distributed among varieties. Furthermore, the bioactivity of the antioxidants can be affected by food processing. Germination and fermentation could enhance the antioxidant properties, due to increased antioxidants content (phenolic compounds). In summary, it is possible to use millet as a nutraceutical and antioxidant food resource to reduce disease risks and maintain health.
... Hyperglycemic rats received 50 g finger millet per 100 g of diet. [66] Full-thickness excision skin wounds made after 2 weeks prior feeding of finger millet diet. The rate of wound contraction and the levels of collagen, hexosamine, and uronic acid in the granulation tissue were determined. ...
Article
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Millets are one of the underutilized groups of cereal grains. In spite of the presence of high nutritional and nutraceuticals components, these are still considered as food of poor people. Millets are considered as rich source of energy, carbohydrate, and protein and are comparable to other cereals but have more fat, calcium, iron, dietary fiber, and Vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) content. These are found to be rich sources of phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, catechins, phytic acid, and phytosterols. Researchers have reported that the presence of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds help in the prevention of many diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cataractogenesis. These phytochemicals are reported to have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties also.
... Boiling and pressure cooking also result in reduction in tannins. Fermentation is known to reduce the anti-nutritional factors and hence improves (1) Induction of G1 phase arrest (2) Loss of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential resulting in caspase-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells [73] Inflammation and wound healing Antioxidants: 50 g of finger millet per 100 g feed in diabetic and non-diabetic rats Enhances dermal wound healing process in diabetes with oxidative stress-mediated modulation of inflammation [74] Administration of proso/ foxtail millet Lower C reactive protein [68] Ageing Antioxidant: Methanolic extract of finger millet Inhibit glycation and cross-linking of collagen Scavange free radicals in protection against ageing [69] Anti-microbial activity Protein extracts, polyphenols Anti-fungal and antibacterial activity: active against Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus niger [75] Seed coat phenolic extract Loss of fungal functionality by: ...
Article
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World is facing agrarian as well as nutritional challenges. Agricultural lands with irrigation facilities have been exploited to maximum, and hence we need to focus on dry lands to further increase grain production. Owing to low fertility, utilization of dry lands to produce sufficient quality grains is a big challenge. Millets as climate change compliant crops score highly over other grains like wheat and rice in terms of marginal growing conditions and high nutritional value. These nutri-cereals abode vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, phyto-chemicals and antioxidants that can help to eradicate the plethora of nutritional deficiency diseases. Millets cultivation can keep dry lands productive and ensure future food and nutritional security.
... [6] Recently, many plants have been evaluated successfully for their diabetic wound healing properties which include Aloe barbadensis Miller. (Liliaceae), [8] Eleusine coracana L., [9] Acalypha langiana Muell. (Euphorbiaceae), [10] Sparassis crispa Wulf. ...
... 20 The consumption of food products from FM also lowered TG and C-reactive protein as compared to rice products. 32 FM has also shown multiple health benefits including glucose-lowering properties, wound healing properties, antiobesity properties, etc. 33,34 However, there are very limited reports on the role of polyphenols from millet especially those from FM and KM in protecting HFD induced obesity and associated complications. Our data showed higher phenolics in KM-PRE than in FM-PRE which is in agreement with the previous report 35 where KM has been shown to have the highest amount of both soluble and insoluble polyphenols as compared to the FM, foxtail millets, proso millets, pearl millets and little millets. ...
Article
Finger millet (FM) and kodo millet (KM) are known for their multiple health benefits. Several studies have indicated the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of polyphenol rich extracts (PREs) from them. However, the protective roles of PREs from these millets in overcoming high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify the polyphenols in FM-PREs and KM-PREs using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and to evaluate the role of PREs in mitigating lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in murine macrophage cells and in the reduction of HFD-induced metabolic complications using male Swiss albino mice. The results suggested that KM-PRE had higher polyphenol content than FM-PRE, of which taxifolin (98%) and catechin (86.6%) were the major fractions respectively. FM-PRE and KM-PRE prevented obesity, however, KM-PRE was more profound in preventing weight gain, adipose tissue hypertrophy, hepatic steatosis, and systemic inflammation than FM-PRE. This study suggests that FM-PRE and KM-PRE could be exploited for developing functional foods or nutraceuticals against obesity and comorbidities.
... Vitamin E, a major lipid soluble antioxidant, is the most effective chain breaking antioxidant within the cell membrane where it protects membrane fatty acids from lipid peroxidation [25,29,33,36] . Antioxidants, free radical scavenger and lipid peroxidation activities of Finger millet may prove as boon for combating lifestyle/aging originated disorders such as Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and rheumatic disorders affecting 37 million, 62 million, 46 million, and 7 million people respectively [15,17,23,26,33] . Finger millet has three times more Ca than milk and 10fold higher Ca than brown rice, wheat or maize. ...
Article
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This paper deals with focussing on multidimensional effect of Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) in curing number of diseases/disorders. It is an annual underutilized herb belonging to Poaceae family. It is predicted from temperate to tropical climate throughout the country up to an altitude of 1900 m. The medicinal plants have been one of the major sources of medicines since the beginning of civilization. There is robust demand for plant based medicines, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals items all across the globe. Aim of this study was to review the phyto-geographical, chemical constituents of different plant parts and therapeutic potential of the plant. It is powerful nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agent aiding in curing major concerning disease of our country such as cardiovascular diseases (37 million), diabetes (62 million), osteoporosis (46 million), rheumatic arthritis (7 millions). This review article is presented to acknowledge the updated information.
... The high content of dietary iber makes a feeling of fullness after consumption of inger millet and therefore it is excellent as a reduced snack (Thilakeratne, 2010). Antioxidants in inger millet assist in wound healing in diabetes patients by partially protecting the insulin producing cells from alloxan-mediated cell damage thereby promoting the healing process (Rajasekaran et al., 2004). Finger millet is currently gaining popularity among Sri Lankan elderly population for the above mentioned qualities of this crop. ...
Chapter
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Dengue has been recognized as one of the major public health concerns in Sri Lanka nowadays. Suppression of vector population and limiting the vector-human contact has become the main strategies in the disease control programmes. In control of dengue vectors, chemical-based methods are widely used to reduce vector densities. However, downsides allied with the chemical-based control approaches such as the development of resistance against insecticides, adverse impact to the non-target organisms and environment have widened the attention toward eco-friendly methods in the integrated vector control concept for vector management. In Sri Lanka, several biological-based control approaches have been evaluated and used in control progammes with different magnitudes. However, many of these approaches have not been involved in the vector control strategic plan. The present work reviews the biological vector control approaches which have been evaluated in Sri Lanka at some scale and reiterate the potential strengths in integrated vector management.
... Richness of antioxidants and phenolic compounds in millets also contribute towards reducing effects of ageing and metabolic syndrome. Antioxidants compounds in finger millet also have potential to heal the dermal wound (Rajasekaran et al., 2004). ...
Chapter
Millets and pseudocereals are ancient domesticated food grains and continue to be staple foods for a large segment of Asian, African and Andean population. They are nutritionally superior to major cereals in terms of slow digestible carbohydrates, non-allergenic proteins, dietary fibre and micronutrients. They contain 55–75% starch, 7–15% protein, 2–5% lipid, 2–4% minerals, and 7–15% dietary fibre. The unique nutritional features of these food grains lay in the health beneficial nutraceutical contents. The nutritional and health benefits of millets and pseudocereals have been very well documented and they are recommended to minimize the intensity as well as management of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. The nutritional and health benefits of these grains have been receiving increased attention and efforts are being made to provide them to the non-traditional consumers worldwide in convenience ready-to-cook and ready-to-eat forms. In the present scenario of sedentary life style, prevention of life style related diseases and to lead healthy life, regular consumption of millets, and pseudocereals is highly desirable.
... The seed coat of finger millet grain contains high amount of phenolic compounds including derivatives of benzoic acid such as gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, and vanillic acid which have been reported to exhibit important therapeutic effects and antioxidant activity (Banerjee et al. 2012). In recent trials with the millets, finger millet along with some other millets has been reported to contain several important bioactive compounds having antioxidative, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial properties (Sripriya et al. 1996;Anthony et al. 1998;Kumari and Sumathi 2002;Rajasekaran et al. 2004;Shahidi and Chandrasekara 2013). ...
Article
Finger millet is being recognized as a potential future crop due to their nutrient contents and antioxidative properties, which are much higher compared to the other minor millets for providing health benefits. The synthesis of these nutritional components is governed by the expression of several gene(s). Therefore, it is necessary to characterize these genes for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind de novo synthesis of nutrient components. Apart from this, these important compounds could also serve as candidate genes for imparting stress tolerance in other crop plants also. In the present study, effort has been made to identify genes involved in Ascorbate–Glutathione cycle (Halliwell–Asada Pathway) and related pathway genes for elucidating its role in antioxidative potential mechanism through transcriptome data analysis. APX, DHAR, MDHAR, GR, and SOD have been identified as the key genes of the pathway in two genotypes GP-1 (low Ca²⁺) and GP-45 (high Ca²⁺) of finger millet with reference to rice as a model system, besides, 30 putatively expressed genes/proteins were also investigated. Furthermore, the sequences of identified genes were analyzed systematically; gene ontology (GO) annotation and enrichment analysis of assembled unitranscripts were also performed using Blast2GO. As a result, 49 GO terms, 5 Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers, and 2 KEGG pathway maps were generated. GO results revealed that these genes are mainly involved in two biological processes (BP), viz., oxidation–reduction process (GO:0055114) and cellular oxidant detoxification (GO:0098869), and showed oxidoreductase activity (GO:0016491). KEGG analysis showed that APX, DHAR, MDHAR, and GR are directly connected to biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites, mainly polyphenolic compounds (flavonoid, tannin, and lignin) involved in glutathione metabolism (KEGG:00480) and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism (KEGG:00053). While SOD, is indirectly connected and also has significant medicinal attributes and antioxidant properties. Moreover, Fragments Per Kilobase of transcript per Million mapped reads (FPKM) values were also calculated for expression analysis and found that the FPKM values of genes present in GP-1 are higher than that of GP-45. Thus, GP-1 genotype was found to have higher stress regulated gene expression in comparison to GP-45. Taken together, the present transcriptome-based investigation unlocks new avenues for systematic functional analysis of novel ROS scavenging candidate genes that could be effectively applied for improvising human health and nutrition.
... ROS accumulation causes the depletion of natural antioxidants (reduced GSH), leading to diminished defence mechanisms against free radical overload resulting in inflammation. Total GSH was estimated as previously described with slight modifications [16]. The colour generated was read at 412 nm and compared with that in the control. ...
Article
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Substantial evidence has shown that most cases of memory impairment are associated with increased neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, the potential of a standardised Andrographis paniculata aqueous extract (APAE) to reverse neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was examined in vivo. Rats were treated with APAE (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg⁻¹, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days prior to LPS (1 mg·kg⁻¹, i.p.)-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. Spatial learning and memory were evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, while neuroinflammation and oxidative stress were assessed through the measurement of specific mediators, namely, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), antioxidant glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were also evaluated. LPS caused significant memory deficits in the 2-day MWM protocol, whereas pretreatment with standardised APAE dose-dependently improved performance in the MWM test. APAE treatment also blocked the LPS-induced hippocampal increase in the concentration and expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and production of ROS and TBARS and enhanced the activities of AChE and BChE. Furthermore, APAE enhanced the decrease in the levels and expression of hippocampal antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) following LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive deficit. The findings from these studies suggested that standardised APAE improved memory and had potent neuroprotective effects against LPS-induced neurotoxicity.
... Likewise, according to Matanjun et al. (2008) E. cottonii is considered to be a rich source of antioxidants. Antioxidants significantly prevent tissue damage and stimulate the wound healing process (Rajasekaran et al., 2004). Therefore, seaweeds which produce antioxidant compounds can be responsible for biological activities such as anti-inflammatory ones (Shanmugam and Mody, 2000) thus, helping in repairing wounds. ...
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Wounds are unavoidable events of life and arise due to agents that induce stress or injury. Wound has been a menace the world over and healing is a survival mechanism and represents an adaptation to the maintenance of normal anatomical structure and function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential wound healing properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Eucheuma cottonii. A two centimeter diameter of skin excision wound was made on normal rats. Treatment with honey (100 mg/kg body weight) was used as positive control and untreated rats as negative control groups. Inflammation and proliferation phases of wound healing including wound contraction, re-epithelization and granulation tissue development were monitored. This study showed both extracts increased the rate of wound contraction compared with the positive and negative control groups. Ethanolic extract of E. cottonii was more effective than aqueous extract by 20% (P<0.05). Histopathological findings showed ethanolic extracts enhanced epithelization and tissue granulation significantly compared with both control groups. E. cottonii possesses several antioxidant compounds, which may be responsible for the accelerated wound healing. We demonstrated for the first time in the present study that this seaweed extracts showed faster healing even when compared with honey.
... Coulibaly et al. (2011) reported millets as rich source of magnesium and phyto-chemicals containing phytic acid which is known for lowering cholesterol level in millets and reduce the effects of migraine and heart attack.Rajasekaran et al. (2004) have reported good antioxidant effects of finger millet on the dermal wound healing process in diabetes induced rats with oxidative stress-mediated modulation of inflammation. ...
... An animal model study showed that finger millet feeding to diabetic animals for 4 weeks controlled the blood glucose and improved the antioxidant status which hastened the dermal wound healing process (Rajasekharan et al. 2004). Sluijs et al. (2010) in their study showed a positive correlation between higher GI food and diabetes. ...
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Millets or nutri-cereals are high-energy foods; that were domesticated and cultivated as early as 10,000 years ago. The millets cultivation is taken up usually in degraded and marginal lands that receive very less rainfall and are poor in soil nutrient content. Seven important millets cultivated globally are finger millet, pearl millet, foxtail millet, barnyard millet, proso millet, kodo millet, and little millet. Overdependence on cereals after the green revolution and the present-day sedentary lifestyle of people has proliferated health-related disorders like obesity, diabetes, coronary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and risk of colon, breast, and oesophageal cancer. The only way to fight back is through the introduction of nutritionally rich millets in our daily diets. Millets are unique for their richness in dietary fibers, antioxidants, minerals, phytochemicals, polyphenols, and proteins; that act as elixir to fight against health-related disorders. Recent global phenomenon of climate change has lead to a decrease in the yield of major staple cereals and has paved path for introduction of millets into agriculture production system to formulate climate resilient cropping systems because millets are C4 plants with very superior photosynthetic efficiency, short duration, higher dry matter production capacity, and a high degree of tolerance to heat and drought. Keeping the above advantages of millets, the efforts have hastened to collect, conserve, and utilize germplasm of millets in breeding programs. Of late, several private and government agencies have ventured into value addition of millets to manufacture food and non-food products. But, the governments have a key role in formulating policies to promote cultivation and consumption of millets.
... If the contraction is small, it slows the closure of the wound, which allows bleeding and susceptibility to microbial infections. The definitive closure of some types of wounds, such as diabetic wounds, however, is mainly due to the formation of granulation tissue and re-epithelialization [67]. Myofibroblasts, through their actin filaments, are able to reduce the lesion area facilitating epithelialization as they are aligned on the contraction axes, producing centripetal movements of the wound edges. ...
Article
A hydrogel containing exocellular (1 → 6)-β-D-glucan (lasiodiplodan, LAS) was developed and its wound healing potential was evaluated. β-Glucans have attracted much interest by the cosmetic industry sector because of their bioactive and functional properties and in promoting skin health. In the present work an β-glucan was studied as a healing biomaterial that has not hitherto been reported in the scientific literature. LAS produced by the ascomy-cete Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI was used in the formulation of a healing hydrogel. Physicochemical and mi-crobiological quality parameters, antioxidant potential and stability of the formulation was evaluated. FTIR, thermal analysis and SEM techniques were also employed in the characterization. Wistar rats were used as a biological model to investigate the wound healing potential. Histological analyses of cutaneous tissue from the dor-sal region were conducted after 4, 7, 10 and 14 days of treatment, and evaluated re-epithelialization, cell proliferation and collagen production. Physicochemical stability, microbiological quality and antioxidant potential , especially in relation to its ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals were found. The hydrogel stimulated cell re-epithelialization and proliferation during all days of the treatment, and stimulated an increase of collagen fibers. Lasiodiplodan showed immunomodulatory activity in wound healing and this biomacromolecule could be an alternative compound in wound care.
... Very few researchers have examined the anti-inflammatory potential of millet grains as drugs in the pharmaceutical field. Millets, especially finger millet have extensively been studied as a rich source of bioactive compounds and examined on the dermal wound healing process in diabetes induced rats with oxidative stress-mediated modulation of inflammation(Rajasekaran, Nithya, Rose, & Chandra, 2004). ...
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The available cultivable plant‐based food resources in developing tropical countries are inadequate to supply proteins for both human and animals. Such limition of available plant food sources are due to shrinking of agricultural land, rapid urbanization, climate change, and tough competition between food and feed industries for existing food and feed crops. However, the cheapest food materials are those that are derived from plant sources which although they occur in abundance in nature, are still underutilized. At this juncture, identification, evaluation, and introduction of underexploited millet crops, including crops of tribal utility which are generally rich in protein is one of the long‐term viable solutions for a sustainable supply of food and feed materials. In view of the above, the present review endeavors to highlight the nutritional and functional potential of underexploited millet crops. Practical applications Millets are an important food crop at a global level with a significant economic impact on developing countries. Millets have advantageous characteristics as they are drought and pest‐resistance grains. Millets are considered as high‐energy yielding nourishing foods which help in addressing malnutrition. Millet‐based foods are considered as potential prebiotic and probiotics with prospective health benefits. Grains of these millet species are widely consumed as a source of traditional medicines and important food to preserve health.
... Millets also contains B vitamins, especially niacin, B6 and folic acid. Additionally it is being studied for its health benefitting properties such as antimicrobial (Chethan and Malleshi, 2007;Isingoma et al., 2015), antioxidant (Chethan and Malleshi, 2007;Chandrasekara and Shahidi, 2010), cholesterol lowering (Mathanghi and Sudha, 2012;Dayakarrao et al., 2016), blood glucose lowering effect (Rachie and Peters, 2002;Rajasekaran et al., 2004;Glewet al., 2008;Mathanghi and Sudha, 2012), nephro protective (Dayakarrao et al., 2016;Mathanghi and Sudha, 2012), anticataractogenic (Mathanghi and Sudha, 2012), anti-inflammatory (Taylor et al., 2006;Taylor and Emmambux, 2008;Shahidi, 2011b and2011c), antiviral (Mathanghi and Sudha, 2012), anticancer (Thompson, 1993), and antidiabetic effect (Mathanghi and Sudha, 2012). Finger millet as potential prebiotics contains good amount of healthy components (Manisseri and Gudipati, 2012). ...
... Consumption of finger millet based diets resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose levels due to its higher fiber content and antinutritional factors than rice and wheat (Kumari and Sumathi, 2002). It also has beneficial effect on nerve growth factor production and wound healing properties at early diabetic condition (Rajasekaran et al., 2004). The grains and various fractions of finger millet have the potentials to prevent and treat diabetics (Saleh et al., 2013;Devi et al., 2014;Kam et al., 2016). ...
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Finger millet plays a vital role in the food and nutritional security of many people in developing countries particularly in Asia and Africa. It is a staple food for poor people in many regions of Asian (India, China, Nepal, and Sri Lanka etc.) and African (South Africa, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and Nigeria etc.) countries. Finger millet contains nutrient rich components such as dietary fibers, minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals that include phenolic compounds with several potential health benefits. Calcium (Ca) is an important macronutrient for healthy life of plants, humans and animals. It plays an indispensable role in structure and signaling and its deficiency causes low bone density, osteoporosis, colon cancer etc. Finger millet grains contain exceptionally higher amount of Ca (>300 mg/100 g) when compared to other major cereals. Ca transporter and sensor family genes are involved in the uptake, transport and accumulation of Ca. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of Ca transporter and sensor family genes is important for growth, development and seed fortification in finger millet. Expression analysis of Ca transporter and sensor family genes has been carried out in various tissues of finger millet. Only a very little research work has been done to understand the Ca accumulation in the grains of finger millet. In this review, we discuss the nutritional importance and health benefits of finger millet. We discuss the studies on Ca sensor, accumulation and transport genes that help to improve the grains of finger millet with special reference to Ca. Improved Ca content in finger millet may help to alleviate the Ca deficiency throughout the world particularly in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa.
... In addition, polyphenols isolated from finger millet potentially inhibit the activities of porcine pancreatic α-amylase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase, lowering blood sugar levels [5]. The administration of 50 g finger millet per 100 g of diet for hyperglycemic rats improves antioxidant status, wound healing and nerve growth factor production [6]. The treatment of 20% millet seed coat matter to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats improves hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, nephroprotective, and anticataractogenic effects [7]. ...
Article
The structural elucidation and investigation of the immunostimulatory effects of crude polysaccharides (ECPs), non-starch polysaccharides (ECPs-I), and deproteinated non-starch polysaccharides (ECPs-II) derived from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) were performed. The extracted ECPs, ECPs-I, and ECPs-II primarily comprised different levels of carbohydrate (82.9, 41.9 and 62.0 %), protein (5.3, 38.4 and 22.0 %), and uronic acid (0.5, 2.4 and 0.7 %). Monosaccharide composition analysis showed that glucose (88.2 and 40.6) was the main sugar unit present in ECPs and ECPs-I, followed by galactose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose, and mannose; however, ECPs-II contained galactose (42.2 %) as a major unit. The average molecular weights of ECPs, ECPs-I, and ECPs-II were found to be 120, 78 and 43 kDa, respectively. The polysaccharides as well as non-starch polysaccharides did not show any toxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells. ECPs-II treatment significantly enhanced the activation of RAW 264.7 cells by inducing nitric oxide (NO) production, upregulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and various pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Furthermore, the RAW 264.7 cells were activated after ECPs-II treatment via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling (MAPK) pathways induced by a cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40) expression. The structure of ECPs-II mainly consists of (1→3,4)-linked galactopyranosyl and (1→3,5) arabinopyranosyl.
... Coulibaly et al. (2011) reported millets as rich source of magnesium and phyto-chemicals containing phytic acid which is known for lowering cholesterol level in millets and reduce the effects of migraine and heart attack.Rajasekaran et al. (2004) have reported good antioxidant effects of finger millet on the dermal wound healing process in diabetes induced rats with oxidative stress-mediated modulation of inflammation. ...
... Moreover, it has been reported to have various health benefits, including antitumorigenic, atherosclerogenic, and antimicrobial activities [12,13]. For instance, finger millet improved the glucose levels and antioxidant capacity in a diabetic rat model [14]. Similarly, finger millet protected rats from hyperglycemic and oxidative stresses [15]. ...
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Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) contains high levels of calcium and polyphenols, which have a variety of beneficial functions. We tested the hypothesis that finger millet ethanol extracts (FEs) have an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The study groups were assigned as follows: (1) Wistar Kyoto rats (normal); (2) SHRs treated with saline (negative control); (3) SHRs treated with captopril 50 mg/kg bw (positive control); (4) SHRs treated with FE 250 mg/kg bw (FE250); and (5) SHRs treated with FE 500 mg/kg bw (FE500). FE supplementation improved the lipid profiles, including the triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, without deterioration in liver function. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentration and superoxide dismutase activity significantly improved after the application of FE250 and FE500. Interestingly, FE250 and FE500 application dramatically reduced the systolic blood pressure. FE supplementation exhibited powerful control over the renin-angiotensin system by reducing the angiotensin-converting enzyme levels and renin mRNA expression in the kidney. Additionally, FE500 application ameliorated vascular remodeling, reversed the thickening media, and decreased the media thickness/lumen diameter ratio of the aorta. These results imply that FEs are a potent antihypertensive nutraceutical for regulating the renin–angiotensin system and simultaneously inhibiting oxidative stress.
... The high content of dietary iber makes a feeling of fullness after consumption of inger millet and therefore it is excellent as a reduced snack (Thilakeratne, 2010). Antioxidants in inger millet assist in wound healing in diabetes patients by partially protecting the insulin producing cells from alloxan-mediated cell damage thereby promoting the healing process (Rajasekaran et al., 2004). Finger millet is currently gaining popularity among Sri Lankan elderly population for the above mentioned qualities of this crop. ...
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The transition from the conventional economic practices to bioeconomy is identiied as a requisite for ensuring food and energy security for the increasing human population in a sustainable manner and maintaining ecological balance. Sri Lanka as a biodiversity hotspot as well as a developing country its perfectly in the model of bioeconomy. Agriculture plays a major role in the economy of Sri Lanka and also in the bioeconomy. Increasing the productivity of the existing agricultural lands, rather than utilizing more land, would be the strategy to ensure food security. In achieving this goal, there is a need to cultivate the crops having the potential for high yields and the feasibility for crop improvement. The crop species, inger millet and sorghum are recognized as perfect candidates in this context. Finger millet is a highly nutritious crop with enormous health beneits and possessing the capacity for high yields with low input. Further, inger millet displays the potential for bioethanol production and to be used as fodder, qualifying to the title 'Crop of future'. Sorghum is mainly used as a staple food, livestock feed and fodder, biofuels and in the brewery industry. It is the cereal crop recording the highest levels of drought tolerance and is considered as the 'Camel of the crops'. As both crops are highly recommended to be used in the crop improvement programmes, the bioeconomy of Sri Lanka can be strengthened using these two crops. This chapter highlights the beneits of upgrading the two crops from 'underutilized' state to be of crops having great potential in marching towards bioeconomy. Keywords: Agriculture, Finger millet, Sorghum, Underutilized cereals
... The high content of dietary iber makes a feeling of fullness after consumption of inger millet and therefore it is excellent as a reduced snack (Thilakeratne, 2010). Antioxidants in inger millet assist in wound healing in diabetes patients by partially protecting the insulin producing cells from alloxan-mediated cell damage thereby promoting the healing process (Rajasekaran et al., 2004). Finger millet is currently gaining popularity among Sri Lankan elderly population for the above mentioned qualities of this crop. ...
... The high content of dietary iber makes a feeling of fullness after consumption of inger millet and therefore it is excellent as a reduced snack (Thilakeratne, 2010). Antioxidants in inger millet assist in wound healing in diabetes patients by partially protecting the insulin producing cells from alloxan-mediated cell damage thereby promoting the healing process (Rajasekaran et al., 2004). Finger millet is currently gaining popularity among Sri Lankan elderly population for the above mentioned qualities of this crop. ...
... The high content of dietary iber makes a feeling of fullness after consumption of inger millet and therefore it is excellent as a reduced snack (Thilakeratne, 2010). Antioxidants in inger millet assist in wound healing in diabetes patients by partially protecting the insulin producing cells from alloxan-mediated cell damage thereby promoting the healing process (Rajasekaran et al., 2004). Finger millet is currently gaining popularity among Sri Lankan elderly population for the above mentioned qualities of this crop. ...
Chapter
Role of microalgae in sustainable bioeconomy
... The high content of dietary iber makes a feeling of fullness after consumption of inger millet and therefore it is excellent as a reduced snack (Thilakeratne, 2010). Antioxidants in inger millet assist in wound healing in diabetes patients by partially protecting the insulin producing cells from alloxan-mediated cell damage thereby promoting the healing process (Rajasekaran et al., 2004). Finger millet is currently gaining popularity among Sri Lankan elderly population for the above mentioned qualities of this crop. ...
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Microalgae are a diverse group of ubiquitous microorganisms which have important ecosystem services and industrial applications in sustainable bioeconomy
... The production of H₂O₂ and ROS in the inflammatory process in the wound area causes increases in the TBARS level. Inflammatory responses are required for wound repair following injury [32].In our current findings, the negative effect of diabetes, lipid peroxidation in hyperglycemic rats with bFGF application could not be eliminated. The reason for this can be shown as increased oxidative stress due to diabetes.bFGF ...
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The importance of nutrition as a foundation for healthy development is underestimated. Now-a-days people are very conscious about their healthy living practices to overcome metabolic disorders and life style diseases. This publication deals with the review on the scientific empirical studies on the nutritional aspects, functional aspects and health benefits of millets from seed structure to processed products, which are conducted in India and elsewhere across the globe. Further, it deals elaborately with nutritional evaluation of the value added sorghum product technologies that have been developed and standardized under the IIMR-led consortium of NAIP sub-project on millets value chain conducted by NIN. The products have shown to have high nutritional values and the micronutrient studies conducted have reported, these to have relatively low glycemic index and glycemic load. Sorghum/millet processed products recipes and the method of preparation are embedded with content that can be of some use to various stakeholders, researchers, academic fraternity, consumers and entrepreneurs which is timely and is expected to help the researchers. It is hoped that the results published will create awareness and ensure that the highly nutritious millets consumption is popularized worldwide.
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In most of the African and Asian countries food insecurity and hunger are the main problem. Millets are grown as vital crop in the semiarid tropics region for centuries in such countries. Millets which are referred as poor man's crop does not only attract the growers due to its less harvesting time and its ability to grow in harsh climatic conditions, even at drought conditions but also due to food business operators to produce products that are free from gluten. Along with macro and micro nutrients, millets are rich in dietary fibers, resistant starch, antioxidants, polyphenols and other nutraceutical compounds. It also contains various phytochemical that are known to have positive health effects. Millets are utilized as traditional food such as tortilla, roti, injera, tuwo, kisra etc. as well as different millet‐based products like bread, biscuits, kurdai, flakes, idli, dosa, upma, utappa, chakli, chiwada and cakes. This chapter highlights the nutritional importance of millet based functional foods targeting the health benefits along with case studies. Classifications of millets on the basis of their cultivation under harsh growing conditions are also discussed in this chapter. Future prospects of millets based functional foods with a health benefitting nutraceuticals property are also discussed.
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The chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are increasing throughout the populations and the burden of diseases is rising globally. Epidemiological evidences supports claim that intake of foods with certain health benefits and reducing the risk of NCDs are having positive correlation, therefore, a rise in demand for foods including phytochemicals can be observed. Cereals and yams are known to be rich sources of phytochemicals which can be utilized to produce functional food products having the potential of reducing the risk of chronic NCDs such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and certain types of cancers. In this review, the potentials of various cereals and yams that are being used as functional food products for human consumption to reduce the risk of NCD are being examined. The study further included a review on different phytochemicals in cereals and yams based functional food products Review Article Chiranthika et al.; AJRB, 7(4): 53-69, 2020; Article no.AJRB.62575 54 and their bioactivity, potential of microencapsulation, cereal by products, influence of starch modification on functional food products, and capability of utilizing cereal by products in functional food industry.
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Adolescence is the general name of the period that starts at the age of 10-11 and lasts almost twenty years, including physical, mental and social changes. The period between 10 and 13 years of age is called pre- adolescence. In adolescence, physical, cognitive, emotional and social changes occur. . In this chapter, it was aimed to determine the hygiene characteristics of early childhood children.
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Background: Eucheuma Cottonii is a type of red algae obtained from Sabah with main active component, sulfated polysaccharide or k-carrageenan. Aims: The objective of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and potential wound-healing properties in aqueous extraction of E cottonii in order to meet the increasing demand for halal and natural cosmeceutical products. Methods and results: Aqueous extract of E cottonii was investigated for active compounds by phytochemical screening and IR spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity was carried out using DPPH method, and the IC50 value was 1.99 mg/mL. Antibacterial activity was examined against Staphylococcus Aureus using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and showed 10.03 ± 0.06 mm zone of inhibition, achieved by 200 mg/mL of extracts. A wound was made by skin excision of area around 100 mm2 on each mouse. Test group was treated with aqueous extract gel (10% w/w); meanwhile, the mice that were treated with honey acted as the positive control group and the untreated mice as negative control group. Results showed that the wound contraction rate inclined to aqueous extracts as compared to untreated group (P < .05). Percentage of wound healing for aqueous extracts and untreated group were 87.7% ± 2.0% and 57.6% ± 5.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Aqueous extract was found to be comparable to the honey in wound healing.
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Finger millet is one of the food crops with rich nutritional composition. It has been cultivated from 85 m to 3130 m altitudes of Nepal. A total of 121 household surveys were conducted in 11 villages of two ecological zones (Tarai /Siwalik and Mid-hills) of Central Nepal from September 2017 to March 2018 using questionnaire to document the ethno-medicinal value of finger millet. Locally finger millet is recognized as medicinal value besides food. More than 80% of local people were aware about its medicinal values and 83% of local people used it as medicine to cure the diarrhoea of cattle and 81% of people indicated it is very good for bone. The medicinal values of finger millet mentioned by the informants were compared with the published scientific facts. The comparison revealed that 15 different types of human ailments can be cured by using finger millet and its products. The human ailment categories are mostly related with lifestyle related diseases like diabetes, blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and so on.
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INTRODUCTION With the development of technology, the use of electrical energy in the society and the interaction with the devices that produce electromagnetic field are increasing.(1) Concerns about extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields are increasing. Research report are suggesting a possible relationship between electromagnetic fields and childhood cancers. Although the frequency ranges of ELF-EMF fields vary between 1-300 Hz, most of the electrical devices in daily life operate between 50 or 60 Hz.(2) With the rapid increase in mobile phone technology, accessibility in society is increasing. They form an electromagnetic field in the range of 900-2100 MHz. The use of mobile phones by individuals at home, at school and at work continuously has effects on human health and living organisms. (3) RF-emitting devices are widely used in industry, telecommunications, medicine and everyday life.(4) In 2011, the International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC) commission classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as carcinogens for humans (2B). In the light of epidemiological studies and scientific information, this committee re-evaluated the recommendations regarding the cancer risks of RF radiation in 2019. IARC has proposed an update to the “probable” that RF recipients may be potential (Group 2A) cancer agents.(5) When a new electromagnetic source is planned or installed, the health impact should be minimized as far as possible according to ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principles.(4) This chapter focuses on the effects of man-made electromagnetic fields, which have been increasing in our environment in recent years, on humans. These biological effects are of great concern in society. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields The mechanisms of interaction between EMF and biological systems have been studied for most of this century. RF fields induce torques on molecules. Biophysical modelling approaches contribute to the understanding of radiofrequency interactions at the cellular and molecular levels.(11) 900, 1800 and 2100 MHz RF fields have been reported to cause oxidative DNA damage in brain tissue of rats.(3) The workers working in the hairdressing salons constantly interact with the hairdryer. It is stated that the electromagnetic field created by this device reduces the total antioxidant level and increases the oxidant level in the blood serum of the employees.(8) High frequency EMF waves have more energy than low frequency waves and therefore tend to be more harmful. In general, according to the literature review, although there is no relationship between ELF-EMFs or RF-EMFs and childhood cancers, they state that these results have short-term exposures. To obtain definitive answers, long-term studies are needed.(9) RF fields may alter the transmission of Na and K ions in the cell membrane. (11) There are scientific reports that longterm occupational exposure to ELF-MF can increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia in men.(12) Static and ELF-EMFs on living organisms are altering free radical activity in the cell. However, chronic exposure leading to the excessive and persistent presence of free radicals can cause oxidative stress and should be avoided. (17) In cell culture studies, ELF-EMF exposures (50 Hz, sinusoidal, 1–24 h, 20–1,000 microT, 5 min on/10 min off) may cause single and double-strand DNA breaks depending on dose and time. (13) Electromagnetic fields and cancer Mobile phone users who use more than the long period of 10 years, glioma, acoustic neuroma, and has been reported Academic Studies in Health Sciences 217 to increase the risk of intracranial tumor.(4) Long-term exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, even below the limits (0.04 and 0.4 W/kg SAR) for humans, has been shown to increase significantly in the number of tumors in the lung and liver of animals compared to the control group.(6) There is a thermal or non-thermal mechanism that supports tumor growth of the biological process underlying a possible relationship between exposure to mobile phones and cancer risk.(10) Some epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to ELF-EMFs may pose an increased risk in certain types of adult and childhood cancers, including leukemia, central nervous system cancer, and lymphoma.(13) In Denmark, the incidence of cancer has been investigated in people with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. In the study, it was emphasized that there is an increased risk of leukaemia in some occupations working in the electricity business. Besides, a slight excessive risk for male breast cancer in these areas has been proposed, but has not been confirmed by a coherent increase among women.(14) Studies on cytogenetic damage and increased cancer risk in human cells are important and needed.(15) Some studies Show that RF fields are not related to cancer formation.(11) Nevertheless, studies linking ELF-EMF to cancer are weak. More and better research is needed.(16) However, the options of cancer treatment in medicine have been investigated. Although electromagnetic fields (EMF) in medicine are used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, the use of non-ionizing EMF for cancer treatment is an emerging concept. Radiofrequency radiation by clinical oncologists has been used as a hyperthermia approach at high temperatures.(7) Antioxidants against EMF fields The use of ganoderma and melatonin has been reported to protect oxidative damage caused by electromagnetic fields.(1) Vitamins E and A play a role in reducing oxidative stress caused by cell phone exposure to testes.(18) Different doses of ionizing radiation were used on E.coli bacteria. Carob, basil, ginger, rosemary, yarrow and cumin showed a protective effect against the effects of radiation in the study.(19) Research methods used Proliferative cell nuclear antigens (PCNA), TUNEL assay, histological, histopathological and various microscopic imaging method are used to determine the effects of cells exposed to electromagnetic fields.(1) The effects of electromagnetic fields on learning and memory, the behavior of the experiment animals are made with the Morris water tank.(2) The Comet assay method is used to detect DNA damage at a single-cell level.(3) Result With the development of technology, electromagnetic devices are increasing in our environment. Especially in developing countries and around the world, the interaction time with these devices increases and raises concern. In recent years, accessibility to mobile phones has been increasing. At the same time, occupational electromagnetic field exposures also make workers uneasy. Therefore, scientific studies on electromagnetic fields are increasing and warnings are made about their effects on the biological system. Research reports on the relationship between cell phones and other electromagnetic field exposures to cancer are increasing. In addition, although there is not a complete consensus in the scientific studies, international commissions are working on these areas. Longer electromagnetic field exposures and more reliable data are needed.
Article
Several crops, including millets with immense nutritional and therapeutic values, were once a part of our regular diet. However, due to domestication and selection pressures, many of them had become marginally cultivated crops confined to a particular region, race, or locality. Millets are a perfect example of neglected species that have the potential to address both food and nutritional insecurities prevalent among the ever-growing global population. Starvation and malnutrition contribute to a large number of health-related issues, being the main reason behind the occurrence of most of the severe diseases worldwide. These constraints are repeatedly disturbing both the social and economic health of global society. Naturally, millets are rich in minerals, nutrients, and bioactive compounds, and these crops are less dependent on synthetic fertilizers, systemic irrigation, and pest/weed control. Given this, the review emphasizes the nutritional values, health benefits, processing techniques, and genomic advancements of millets. In addition, it proposes a roadmap for enhancing the utility and commercialization of millets.
Article
This study investigated the effects of germinated millet flour on inflammation, oxidative stress, adiposity, and liver steatosis in Wistar rats fed with a high-fat high-fructose diet. In phase 1 of the experiment (8 weeks) the animals were separated into a control group with an AIN-93M diet (n = 10) and a high-fat high-fructose group (HFHF) (n = 20) with a diet rich in saturated fat (31%) and fructose (20%). In phase 2 (10 weeks), the control group was maintained on the AIN-93M diet (n = 10) and the HFHF group was divided into HFHF group (HFHF diet, n = 10) and the Millet group (HFHF with germinated millet flour replacing 43.6% dietary fiber, 100% starch, 36% protein and 39% oil in the experimental diet, n = 10). The germinated millet flour reduced (p<0.05), in comparison with HFHF group, the adiposity (24.18±4.45g to millet and 32.89±8.46g to HFHF), triglycerides (100.00±17.93g to millet and 147.8±21.57g to HFHF), uric acid, ALT, NF-κB (131.9±97.14pg/ml to millet and 346.3±58.88pg/ml to HFHF), TNF-α (98.80±19.90pg/ml to millet and 141.4±25.12pg/ml to HFHF), platelet/lymphocyte and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, liver steatosis, inflammatory infiltrate (0.1880±0.07pg/ml to millet and 1.269±0.17pg/ml to HFHF), MDA levels, and liver collagen deposition. Further, germinated millet increased (p<0.05) IL-10 (1511±528.50pg/ml to millet and 483.8±91.59pg/ml to HFHF), PPARα protein, total antioxidant capacity of the liver (0.2825±0.04pg/ml to millet and 0.2075±0.05pg/ml to HFHF) and the activity of SOD and catalase, compared to HFHF group. Thus, germinated millet flour was able to reduce adiposity and liver steatosis and presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, which highlight its functional biological effects.
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Globally malnutrition is an emerging challenge in the context of rising uncertainty of food supplies. The latest estimates of the Food and Agriculture Organization revealed that up to the year 2017 the number of undernourished people in the world has increased to 821 million. Stunting, wasting, and anemia are the most prevalent form of malnutrition in low-income and food-deficit countries. Hidden hunger or micronutrient deficiency is yet another malnutrition problem faced globally. Together all these factors put children and women at a greater risk of dying as they become susceptible to common infections and life-threatening diseases. With changing lifestyle and food habits noncommunicable diseases have emerged as major health problems worldwide more so in developing countries. It is predicted that noncommunicable diseases will increase substantially in low- and middle-income countries because of lifestyle, transition associated with increasing urbanization, and globalization. Millets are the ancient heritage grains grown on poor soils without the use of chemicals therefore in a way these are organic grains. Owing to their exceptional nutritional profile in terms of micronutrients concentration, fiber content, gluten free nature, resistant starch, and various phytochemicals of therapeutic uses they are known as miracle grains. In the present chapter, a brief account of malnutrition statistics and the role of millets in achieving nutritional security to combat hidden hunger has been furnished.
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Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertner) referred to as one of Africa’s lost crops has a higher economic value than most cereals because of its ability to grow under adverse agro-climatic conditions, its versatility, nutritional and health benefits as described in scientific reports. The nature of its seeds is so small that weevils cannot penetrate inside. These qualities make finger millet outstanding and suitable to be fostered as a crop with food security potentials for African. Although it is of little importance in West Africa, it has become a staple food for millions of people in India, and Nepal. Finger millet is used in several forms differing from one country to another. These include its use for unleavened bread, finger millet balls, thin-or thick porridge, fermented porridge, malt, beverage, beer and animal feed. Finger millet falls in the category of ancient crops with low research attention; hence its awareness is very poor. The cultivation of finger millet may further decline because it is highly neglected and unutilized. This chapter aims at highlighting the potentials of finger millet for food security in Africa and how it can be utilized in the development of diverse food products and formulations.
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Raising population at global level needs solving the problems related to food and health due imbalance use of fast foods of high calories. The problems of obesity, diabetes, cardiac arrests, porous bones, depressions etc. are so called general diseases of modern era. So many cereals are available which economically feasible and tasty but not healthy. At present people are very conscious with health. Millets are one of the best solution to found highly nutritious and health benefits in pandemic era. Researchers are proving that millet has a better option to other cereals. It contains energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Value added products of millets are possible to solve negative effect of agriculture and food security. So the review focused on millet nutritive value, health benefits, processing techniques with their value added products to enhance consumption of health.
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Diabetes is a significant public health issue. The global diabetes epidemic has had a tremendous impact on India, and the disease burden has increased dramatically. Diabetes is quickly increasing in prevalence, especially in Indian cities, according to data. Therefore, an ideal drug is sought that has better safety and tolerability and the most effective control of diabetes. Many effective medications come from plant sources. Natural products like onion and garlic can effectively control diabetes. In this review, we should pay attention to Aloe vera and its bioactive compounds, that with the development of traditional medicine, Aloe vera can be used to treat various diseases. Some reports have questioned the safety and efficacy of Aloe vera or its compounds, especially at different doses, and some studies have shown no side effects. In this review we also focus on benefits on human health so that Aloe vera is part of the daily diet in many countries and appears to be non-toxic, it is necessary to investigate whether aloe vera dietary supplement can be a beneficial preventive or nutritional mitigation strategy to reduce the effects of diabetes. This review focuses on Aloe vera and its biologically active compounds that play a role in the treatment or prevention of this morbid disease: diabetes, including its underlying mechanism of blood sugar lowering properties, and herbal products that have been marketed for the treatment of diabetes or the therapeutic effect of diabetes.
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There is a growing trend for preventing diet-related diseases by consuming functional foods. The concentrated bioactive compounds extracted from foods known as nutraceuticals have also been used for the treatment of some diseases. In this era of functional foods, millets have been emerged as superfoods. Millets are naturally rich in health-promoting nutrients and nonnutritive phytochemicals. The dietary fiber content of millets is several times higher than that of the staple cereals. A high dietary fiber content decreases the glycemic index of the food. Dietary fiber also acts as prebiotics and helps in the growth of healthy gut microbiota. The millet proteins contain all the essential amino acids and are free from gluten. The millet fats are rich in unsaturated fatty acids. They are also a good source of essential minerals, such as calcium, iron, zinc, and B-complex vitamins. Their phytochemical contents, that is, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tannins, are several times higher than those of the staple cereals. These nonnutritive components have been reported to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticardiovascular, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, and wound-healing properties.
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Background: Increased oxidative stress and stress enzyme 11β hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase-1 (11β HSD-1) served as the major contributing factors for delayed wound healing in diabetes mellitus (DM). Piper betel (PB) leaves are reported to possess anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-microbial properties. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of topical application of PB leaves extract on oxidative stress and 11β hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase-1 (11β HSD-1) expression in diabetic wounds. Materials and methods: A total 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly chosen. The experimental rats received a single intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Four full thickness (6 mm) wounds were created on the dorsum of each rat. The animals were equally divided (n = 8) into four groups based on the days of treatment (i.e. days 3 and 7): Control (Ctrl), diabetic untreated (DM-Ctrl), diabetic treated with 1% silver nitrate cream (DM-SN) and diabetic treated with 50 mg/kg of P. betel leaves extract (DM-PB). The rats were sacrificed on day 3 and 7 of post wound creations. Results: Following day 7 wound creation, topical application of PB extract showed significant increase in hydroxyproline content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, 11β-HSD-1 enzyme expression in the diabetic wounds compared to untreated diabetic wounds. The results were supported by the observations based on histological and ultrastructural features of the wound tissue applied with PB extract. Conclusion: PB leaves extract improved the delayed wound healing in diabetes mellitus by decreasing the oxidative stress markers and 11β HSD-1 expression.
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The rate of autoxidation of epinephrine and the sensitivity of this autoxidation to inhibition by superoxide dismutase were both augmented, as the pH was raised from 7.8 → 10.2. O2⁻, generated by the xanthine oxidase reaction, caused the oxidation of epinephrine to adrenochrome and the yield of adrenochrome produced per O2⁻ introduced, increased with increasing pH in the range 7.8 → 10.2 and also increased with increasing concentration of epinephrine. These results, in conjunction with complexities in the kinetics of adrenochrome accumulation, lead to the proposal that the autoxidation of epinephrine proceeds by at least two distinct pathways, only one of which is a free radical chain reaction involving O2⁻ and hence inhibitable by superoxide dismutase. This chain reaction accounted for a progressively greater fraction of the total oxidation as the pH was raised. The ability of superoxide dismutase to inhibit the autoxidation of epinephrine at pH 10.2 has been used as the basis of a convenient and sensitive assay for this enzyme.
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The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on proliferation/differentiation of mast cells was investigated in vitro. Although NGF alone neither supported colony formation of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC) nor induced development of mast cell colonies from nonadherent bone marrow cells (NBMC), addition of NGF to the suboptimal dose of interleukin 3 (IL3) significantly increased the numbers of mast cell colonies produced by BMCMC or NBMC in methylcellulose. When stimulated by IL3 alone, cells in mast cell colonies were not stained by berberine sulfate, a fluorescent dye. In contrast, mast cells developing in methylcellulose cultures obtaining both 11,3 and NGF were stained by berberine sulfate. The fluorescence was abolished by the treatment of heparinase but not of chondroitinase ABC, suggesting that mast cells stimulated by 11,,3 and NGF produced and stored heparin proteoglycan. The histamine content of BMCMC maintained by IL-3 was also increased by addition of NGF. Since BMCMC showed mucosal mast cell-like phenotype, NGF appeared to induce the phenotypic change to connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC). In the culture containing BMCMC, 3T3 fibroblasts, and IL-3, the phenotypic change of BMCMC to CTMC was observed as well. Since NGF was detected in this coculture and since addition of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody suppressed the phenotypic change, NGF produced by fibroblasts appeared to induce the phenotypic change. Neither BMCMC alone nor IL3 alone increased the concentration of NGF. Therefore, there is a possibility that BMCMC stimulated by IL3 may induce the production and/or release of NGF by fibroblasts .
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Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a polypeptide which, in addition to its effect on nerve cells, is believed to play a role in inflammatory responses and in tissue repair. Because fibroblasts represent the main target and effector cells in these processes, to investigate whether NGF is involved in lung and skin tissue repair, we studied the effect of NGF on fibroblast migration, proliferation, collagen metabolism, modulation into myofibroblasts, and contraction of collagen gel. Both skin and lung fibroblasts were found to produce NGF and to express tyrosine kinase receptor (trkA) under basal conditions, whereas the low-affinity p75 receptor was expressed only after prolonged NGF exposure. NGF significantly induced skin and lung fibroblast migration in an in vitro model of wounded fibroblast and skin migration in Boyden chambers. Nevertheless NGF did not influence either skin or lung fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, or metalloproteinase production or activation. In contrast, culture of both lung and skin fibroblasts with NGF modulated their phenotype into myofibroblasts. Moreover, addition of NGF to both fibroblast types embedded in collagen gel increased their contraction. Fibrotic human lung or skin tissues displayed immunoreactivity for NGF, trkA, and p75. These data show a direct pro-fibrogenic effect of NGF on skin and lung fibroblasts and therefore indicate a role for NGF in tissue repair and fibrosis.
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The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on proliferation/differentiation of mast cells was investigated in vitro. Although NGF alone neither supported colony formation of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC) nor induced development of mast cell colonies from nonadherent bone marrow cells (NBMC), addition of NGF to the suboptimal dose of interleukin 3 (IL-3) significantly increased the numbers of mast cell colonies produced by BMCMC or NBMC in methylcellulose. When stimulated by IL-3 alone, cells in mast cell colonies were not stained by berberine sulfate, a fluorescent dye. In contrast, mast cells developing in methylcellulose cultures obtaining both IL-3 and NGF were stained by berberine sulfate. The fluorescence was abolished by the treatment of heparinase but not of chondroitinase ABC, suggesting that mast cells stimulated by IL-3 and NGF produced and stored heparin proteoglycan. The histamine content of BMCMC maintained by IL-3 was also increased by addition of NGF. Since BMCMC showed mucosal mast cell-like phenotype, NGF appeared to induce the phenotypic change to connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC). In the culture containing BMCMC, 3T3 fibroblasts, and IL-3, the phenotypic change of BMCMC to CTMC was observed as well. Since NGF was detected in this coculture and since addition of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody suppressed the phenotypic change, NGF produced by fibroblasts appeared to induce the phenotypic change. Neither BMCMC alone nor IL-3 alone increased the concentration of NGF. Therefore, there is a possibility that BMCMC stimulated by IL-3 may induce the production and/or release of NGF by fibroblasts.
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Four full-thickness skin wounds made in normal mice led to the significant increase in levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in sera and in wounded skin tissues. Since sialoadenectomy before the wounds inhibited the rise in serum levels of NGF, the NGF may be released from the salivary gland into the blood stream after the wounds. In contrast, the fact that messenger RNA and protein of NGF were detected in newly formed epithelial cells at the edge of the wound and fibroblasts consistent with the granulation tissue produced in the wound space, suggests that NGF was also produced at the wounded skin site. Topical application of NGF into the wounds accelerated the rate of wound healing in normal mice and in healing-impaired diabetic KK/Ta mice. This clinical effect of NGF was evaluated by histological examination; the increases in the degree of reepithelialization, the thickness of the granulation tissue, and the density of extracellular matrix were observed. NGF also increased the breaking strength of healing linear wounds in normal and diabetic mice. These findings suggested that NGF immediately and constitutively released in response to cutaneous injury may contribute to wound healing through broader biological activities, and NGF improved the diabetic impaired response of wound healing.
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Oxidants may be natural carcinogens and contribute to several stages of malignant transformation. Active oxygen released by inflammatory phagocytes may induce mutations in protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in neighbouring target cells. In addition, oxidants can promote cell growth. Like polypetide growth factors they activate kinases. Because they break DNA, they also induce the poly ADP-ribosylation of chromosomal proteins. Both phosphorylation and poly ADP-ribosylation appear to participate in the transcriptional induction of the growth-related protooncogene c-fos. Growth stimulation by oxidants is modulated by the cellular antioxidant defenses. Maximal growth promotion is observed when cells are protected from excessive toxicity but still maintain a sufficient oxidant signal for the induction of growth-competence genes.
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: Disrupted vasculature and high energy-demand by regenerating tissue results in wound hypoxia. Wound repair may be facilitated by oxygen therapy. Evidence supporting the mode of action of hyperbaric oxygen in promoting wound healing is sketchy, however. Topical oxygen therapy involves local administration of pure oxygen. The advantages of topical oxygen therapy include low cost, the lack of systemic oxygen toxicity, and possibility of home treatment. While this modality of wound care is of outstanding interest, it clearly lacks the support of mechanism-oriented studies. The search for mechanisms by which oxygen supports wound healing has now taken another step. Respiratory burst-derived oxidants support healing. Oxidants serve as cellular messengers to promote healing. Although this information is of outstanding significance to the practice of oxygen therapy, it remains largely unexplored. The search for “natural remedies” has drawn attention to herbals. Proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins are a group of biologically active polyphenolic bioflavonoids that are synthesized by many plants. Proanthocyanidins and other tannins facilitate wound healing. A combination of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and resveratrol facilitates inducible VEGF expression, a key element supporting wound angiogenesis. Strategies to manipulate the redox environment in the wound are likely to be of outstanding significance in wound healing.
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The free radical quenching action of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) on 1,1′-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (5.407×1017 spins/ml−1) and hydroxyl (0.6015×1015 spins /ml−1) radicals was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. A 10 ml concentrate of the methanol extract was prepared using 25 g of the cereal grains and all analysis done after 1:10 dilution. DPPH radical quenching with 50 μl of the extracts showed that the brown finger millet quenched 94% whereas the white finger millet quenched only 4%. The phenolic content of brown finger millet was 96% higher than the white variety. Processing of the brown finger millet by germination and/or fermentation decreased the quenching activity. In comparison, foxtail millet, pearl millet and sorghum, quenched 91, 59 and 52 percent respectively, while wheat, rice (dehusked) and rice husk quenched 18, 1.8 and 20% respectively. Brown finger millet (50 μl) also quenched 77% of hydroxyl radicals. The results indicate that finger millet is a potent source of antioxidant compounds.
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Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly formed in the human body. Free-radical mechanisms have been implicated in the pathology of several human diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria, and rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, the superoxide radical (O 2 ·− ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are known to be generated in the brain and nervous system in vivo, and several areas of the human brain are rich in iron, which appears to be easily mobilizable in a form that can stimulate free-radical reactions. Antioxidant defenses to remove O 2 ·− and H2O2 exist. Superoxide dismutases (SOD) remove O 2 ·− by greatly accelerating its conversion to H2O2. Catalases in peroxisomes convert H2O2 into water and O2 and help to dispose of H2O2 generated by the action of the oxidase enzymes that are located in these organelles. Other important H2O2-removing enzymes in human cells are the glutathione peroxidases. When produced in excess, ROS can cause tissue injury. However, tissue injury can itself cause ROS generation (e.g., by causing activation of phagocytes or releasing transition metal ions from damaged cells), which may (or may not, depending on the situation) contribute to a worsening of the injury. Assessment of oxidative damage to biomolecules by means of emerging technologies based on products of oxidative damage to DNA (e.g., 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), lipids (e.g., isoprostanes), and proteins (altered amino acids) would not only advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms but also facilitate supplementation and intervention studies designed and conducted to test antioxidant efficacy in human health and disease.
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Cellular systems are subject to constant oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress has been implicated as a factor in the aetiology of a variety of degenerative diseases and in the ageing process. ROS are capable of causing adverse modifications of macromolecules including lipids, DNA and proteins. Cellular systems also possess antioxidant defence systems whose role is to minimise adverse oxidative changes. The balance between prooxidant forces and antioxidant defence systems influences the body’s susceptibility to prooxidant damage. A variety of nutrient and non-nutrient dietary constituents, including vitamins C, E and carotenoids, have been shown to affect this prooxidant/antioxidant balance and consequent risk of certain degenerative diseases. Defining optimal intakes of these nutrients and non-nutrients is a key challenge in nutrition research.
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This review examines the mechanisms which may cause impaired wound healing in patients with diabetes mellitus
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This chapter discusses selected methods for the determination of ascorbic acid in animal cells, tissues, and fluids. Methods for determining ascorbic acid are numerous. In general, chemical analyses for the vitamin are divided into two groups; the determination of the reduced form and the determination of the oxidized form. The former group of analyses is usually based upon the oxidation–reduction properties of ascorbic acid. These are widely used as the fundamental reactions in the measurement of vitamin C. The latter group of analyses is usually based upon the oxidation of the ascorbic acid and the subsequent formation of a hydrazone or a fluorophore. Best results are obtained if samples, especially plasma, are quickly stabilized with either trichloroacetic acid or metaphosphoric acid and immediately analyzed. Prompt stabilization is especially important in the case of plasma or serum. The greater stability of ascorbic acid in acid solution is because of the decreased tendency for the hydrolysis of the lactone ring with decreasing pH.
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Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver have been investigated. After perfusing the lung to remove contaminating blood, this organ was found to have an apparent concentration of glutathione (2mM) which is approx. 20% of that found in the liver. Both organs contain very low levels of glutathione disulfide. Neither phenobarbital nor methylcholanthrene had a significant effect on the levels of reduced glutathione in lung and liver. In addition, the activities of some glutathione-metabolizing enzymes--glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activity assayed with four different substrates--were observed to be 5-to 60-fold lower in lung tissue than in the liver.
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N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)hydroxylysine, and the fluorescent cross-link pentosidine are formed by sequential glycation and oxidation reactions between reducing sugars and proteins. These compounds, termed glycoxidation products, accumulate in tissue collagen with age and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. Although glycoxidation products are present in only trace concentrations, even in diabetic collagen, studies on glycation and oxidation of model proteins in vitro suggest that these products are biomarkers of more extensive underlying glycative and oxidative damage to the protein. Possible sources of oxidative stress and damage to proteins in diabetes include free radicals generated by autoxidation reactions of sugars and sugar adducts to protein and by autoxidation of unsaturated lipids in plasma and membrane proteins. The oxidative stress may be amplified by a continuing cycle of metabolic stress, tissue damage, and cell death, leading to increased free radical production and compromised free radical inhibitory and scavenger systems, which further exacerbate the oxidative stress. Structural characterization of the cross-links and other products accumulating in collagen in diabetes is needed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between oxidative stress and the development of complications in diabetes. Such studies may lead to therapeutic approaches for limiting the damage from glycation and oxidation reactions and for complementing existing therapy for treatment of the complications of diabetes.
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Oxidants, which are generated by multiple pathways in mammalian organisms, may be natural carcinogens and contribute to several stages of malignant transformation. Active oxygen released by inflammatory phagocytes and more stable "clastogenic factors" can induce mutations and chromosomal aberrations in neighboring target cells. These oxidant-induced DNA sequence changes, though rare, may affect the activities of proto-oncogenes and suppressor genes. In addition, oxidants can promote cell growth. Like polypeptide growth factors they activate kinases. Because they break DNA, they also induce the poly ADP-ribosylation of chromosomal proteins. Both phosphorylation and poly ADP-ribosylation appear to participate in the transcriptional induction of the growth-related proto-oncogene c-fos. Growth stimulation by oxidants is modulated by the cellular antioxidant defenses. Maximal growth promotion is observed when cells are protected from excessive toxicity but still maintain a sufficient oxidant signal for the induction of growth-competence genes.
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This chapter describes the malondialdehyde (MDA) as index of lipid peroxidation. The determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) has attracted widespread interest, because it appears to offer a facile means of assessing lipid peroxidation in biological materials. Malondialdehyde occurs in biological materials in free state and in various covalently bound forms. Urine also contains small amounts of MDA adducts with guanine, the phospholipid bases serine and ethanolamine, and other unidentified reactants. Free MDA is a minor and variable excretory product. It is apparent from the occurrence of these derivatives in urine that MDA forms adducts with proteins, nucleic acids, and other substances in vivo, and this compromises the assessment of lipid peroxidation in the tissues based on the determination of free MDA. The pH required for maximum yield of MDA varies among biological materials depending on the nature of the derivatives present. MDA may be generated during hydrolysis by the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the sample and by the degradation of preexisting oxidation products. Pigments present in the sample, or generated during hydrolysis, also can interfere in the colorimetric assessment of MDA. These problems, and possibilities for their resolution, are discussed in the chapter.
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The early wound healing phases, and zinc and copper metabolism were assessed in traumatized insulin dependent diabetic rats. Granulation tissue was obtained by implanting Ivalon sponges subcutaneously and analysed on the fourth and seventh postoperative days by applying quantitative biochemical methods. The DNA content on day 4 and the amounts of RNA, hydroxyproline and hemoglobin on day 7 were significantly lower in granulation tissue from diabetic rats. The alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), was raised in the diabetic granulation tissue. The concentrations of zinc and copper were found to be increased in the kidney of diabetic rats compared with operated, non-diabetic controls. Our data suggest that the early granulation tissue formation is disturbed, with a prolonged inflammatory phase, decreased collagen formation and reduced vascularization. Zinc and copper are accumulated in the kidney of rats with uncontrolled, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
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Many of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus involve defects in the connective tissue such as poor wound healing, diminished bone formation, and decreased linear growth. Because collagen is the major protein component of these connective tissues, we examined collagen production in diabetic rats as a probe of this generalized defect in connective tissue metabolism. Doses of streptozocin ranging from 35 to 300 mg/kg were used to induce diabetes of graded metabolic severity in rats. Parietal bone or articular cartilage was removed and incubated at 37 degrees C with 5 microCi L-[5-3H]proline for 2 h, and collagen and noncollagen protein production were quantitated after separation with purified bacterial collagenase. Within 2 wk after induction of diabetes, collagen production was significantly reduced in bone and cartilage from diabetic rats to 52% (P less than .01) and 51% (P less than .01) of control (buffer-injected) levels, respectively. In contrast, noncollagen protein production in bone and cartilage from diabetic animals was no different from in tissue from control rats. The correlation between collagen relative to total protein production (relative rate) and the degree of hyperglycemia was highly significant for both bone (r = -.77, P less than .001) and cartilage (r = -.87, P less than .001). Other factors found to correlate with altered collagen production were the duration of diabetes and the amount of weight loss. Thus, diabetes is associated with a marked decrease in collagen production, which was seen early after induction of diabetes and was specific when compared with noncollagen protein production. Cumulative effects of these marked changes in collagen production may contribute to the chronic connective tissue complications in diabetes.
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Manual and automated methods for the determination of blood glucose have been devised using an oxidase/peroxidase system, with dl adrenaline, a non-carcinogen, as oxygen acceptor. The manual technique employs a stable single solution protein precipitant and the other reagents used are also stable. The automated methods are operated at 40/hr sample speed and washover between samples, over a very wide concentration range, is negligible.
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A variety of methods have been developed by various investigators for the analysis of vitamin E in animal tissues, but many of the earlier procedures involving column chromotography and gas–liquid chromatography are rather complicated and time consuming. The most commonly used methods are based on the saponification and solvent extraction of lipids, the removal or destruction of interfering substances, and the determination of tocopherol spectrophotometricaily or spectrofluorometrically. The methods chosen are for common animal tissues, such as blood and organ tissues. A high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for vitamin E has been introduced as a method of choice, but HPLC equipment is expensive and not readily available in every laboratory. The standard colorimetric and fluorometric methods are easily carried out using common laboratory equipment and are often adequate for routine analysis of vitamin E in animal tissues for biological research and for clinical testing. For more sophisticated and sensitive detection of commonly occurring α-tocopherol along with trace amounts of other forms of tocopherol and tocotrienol in animal tissues, the HPLC method is highly recommended.
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Delayed wound healing is a troublesome complication of Diabetes. Results from recent investigations concerning the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for diabetic wound healing deficiency are preliminary in nature. Some studies have demonstrated that direct application of certain growth factors/cytokines can facilitate wound healing in diabetic models. It is possible that refractory diabetic wounds are the result of deficiencies in growth factors/cytokines important for the normal wound healing process. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) levels were examined by radioimmunoassay in wound tissue of normal and diabetic rats (streptozotocin-induced diabetes). Immunohistochemical analysis was utilized to localize and characterize PDGF immunopositive cells at the wound site of normal and diabetic animals. At the wound site, normal animals demonstrated significantly elevated PDGF levels compared to diabetic animals at 5 days post-wounding (no differences were observed in the spleen or contralateral control tissue). There appeared to be a visible increase in PDGF immunopositive cells at the wound site in both experimental and control groups. By day 10 post-wounding, PDGF levels at the wound site in normal animals were reduced becoming similar to PDGF levels in diabetic animals. This corresponded to an apparent reduction of PDGF immunopositive cells in both groups (similar to baseline levels). PDGF levels in both groups remained stable until day 20 post-wounding when a significant elevation of wound site PDGF levels occurred in the diabetic group. The findings suggest that absence of an initial increase in PDGF may play an important role in poor wound healing observed in diabetic animals. The reduction in PDGF may be related to decreased cellular PDGF production rather than a lack of PDGF-producing cells. Perhaps the diabetic state inhibits cellular PDGF gene expression signaled by wounding or interferes with normal PDGF expression at the wound site.
Article
The development of recombinant growth factors for the treatment of nonhealing or badly healing wounds has reached the clinical-trial phase. These first studies in humans are yielding valuable information on the physiological role of growth factors in different types of wounds, their mode of action and their stability under in vivo conditions. Data from these early trials in humans can be interpreted in the light of the continuing scientific progress being made in wound-healing research, and thus lead to an improvement in the design of future studies. Growth-factor-based therapeutics are expected to enter the marketplace in the middle of this decade, and to become a highly profitable sector of the health-care industry by the turn of the century.
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The late complications of diabetes represent in large part microvascular dysfunction. The development of techniques to measure microvascular function has resulted in a clearer picture of the stages of development of microangiopathy and the key pathophysiological processes involved. Considerable evidence supports the hemodynamic hypothesis of pathogenesis, which argues that early insulin-dependent diabetes is characterized by increased microvascular pressure and flow. Resultant injury to the microvascular endothelium causes adaptive microvascular sclerosis contributing to a loss of vasodilatory reserve and autoregulatory capacity with increasing disease duration. High susceptibility to microangiopathy appears to be characterized by both high capillary pressure and increased permeability, although the interrelationship between these variables needs to be better defined. In normotensive non-insulin-dependent diabetes subjects, a different pattern of microvascular functional abnormalities is apparent; it is hypothesized that these differences represent the impact of a prediabetic insulin-resistant phase on microvascular behavior and may in part explain the differential expression of vascular pathology in the two major types of diabetes. The physiological framework that has been defined reveals those pivotal processes upon which scientific attention should be centered and facilitates the generation of plausible molecular and cellular mechanisms that fit the physiological facts.
Article
This project compared the effects of hydrocolloid (HC) and hydrogel (HG) occlusive dressings and a polyethylene (PE) semi-occlusive dressing on the healing of acute full-thickness skin wounds on the forelimbs of 10 dogs. All treatments resulted in a similar degree of healing at postoperative days 4 and 7. No significant differences existed in the number of wounds that were more than 90% healed at postoperative day 28 between the group treated with the HG dressing and the group treated with the PE dressing. There were significantly fewer wounds more than 90% healed at postoperative day 28 in the group treated with the HC dressing. Wounds under the HG dressing had the largest mean percentage of contraction at postoperative days 21 and 28. Wounds under the HG dressing also had the largest contraction/re-epithelialization ratio (postoperative days 21 and 28) compared with wounds under the PE and HC dressings. Wounds under the PE dressing had a significantly higher mean percentage of re-epithelialization than wounds under both occlusive dressings on postoperative days 14, 21, and 28. Wounds under the two occlusive dressings had exuberant granulation tissue present more often than wounds under the PE dressing. The two occlusive dressings had significantly higher bacterial counts on wounds compared with wounds under the PE dressing; analysis of variance (ANOVA), P = .0008. Wounds under the HC dressing showed the poorest healing in all parameters.
Article
Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome initially characterized by a loss of glucose homeostasis. The disease is progressive and is associated with high risk of atherosclerosis, kidney and nerve damage as well as blindness. Abnormalities in the regulation of peroxide and transition metal metabolism are postulated to result in establishment of the disease as well as its longer term complications. Diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative reactions, particularly those which are catalyzed by decompartmentalized transition metals, but their causative significance in diabetic tissue damage remains to be established.
Article
Growth factors have been shown to improve healing in impaired models but not after malnutrition. The effects of growth factors on altered tissue repair caused by malnutrition were examined. Nondiabetic and diabetic mice fed a 1% protein diet received full-thickness skin wounds. Wounds were treated topically with vehicle, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, 10 micrograms) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, 1 microgram), for 5 days. Malnourished animals developed significantly impaired wound closure. PDGF or bFGF did not enhance closure in nondiabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/m mice, whether fed normal or restricted diets. The same treatment regimen was effective in reversing the delayed wound closure in their genetically diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db littermates. The growth factors significantly enhanced tissue repair in diabetic mice fed a 1% protein diet starting as early as day 15 and continuing until day 21. Protein-depleted diabetic wounds had significantly decreased cellularity and granulation tissue formation. These deficiencies were reversed with growth factor treatment. Despite the lack of effects in nondiabetic animals, growth factors improve healing in diabetic mice with restricted protein intake. The differential effects may result from different healing mechanisms: nondiabetic animals heal mainly by contraction; diabetic animals require granulation tissue formation and reepithelialization.
Article
Cutaneous wound repair consists of multiple integrated networks of cell-matrix-cytokine interactions. It is generally believed that a better understanding of these networks will lead to improved care of cutaneous wounds, whether freshly made by the surgeon's scalpel or previously existing and not healing secondary to underlying abnormalities. This review is intended to update the readership in some of the salient aspects of wound repair networks. To facilitate the review of multiple integrated networks, cutaneous wound repair was arbitrarily divided into three phases: inflammation, tissue regeneration including re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation, and tissue reorganization. Throughout the entire process of wound repair it is clear that cells produce or alter various cytokines and extracellular matrix. The cytokines and matrix in turn alter the behavior of the producer cells (autocrine response) or neighbor cells (paracrine response). The dynamic reciprocity among cells, cytokines, and matrix material helps explain how integrated wound healing networks are sequential as well as tightly controlled.
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Reepithelialization is an important component of wound healing. In the first 48 hours keratinocyte migration and proliferation are important events in this process. Although the literature agrees that the risk/benefit of antiseptics has not been established, hydrogen peroxide is still commonly used in the management of acute and chronic wounds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide on human keratinocyte migration and proliferative potential. The viability and proliferative potential of human keratinocytes in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was assessed by trypan blue exclusion, cell morphology, substratum attachment, and thymidine incorporation. Using concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that do not affect keratinocyte viability, keratinocyte migration was evaluated by a standard motility assay. Hydrogen peroxide in concentrations < or = 700 microM was found to have no effect on keratinocyte viability. At these low concentrations, however, hydrogen peroxide had a profound inhibitory effect upon keratinocyte migration on extracellular matrix and decreased the proliferative potential of the cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. Hydrogen peroxide, in very low concentrations (1000-fold less than the "everyday use" dilution) inhibits keratinocyte migration and proliferation.
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This study was undertaken to examine the healing of molar tooth extraction sockets in the streptozotocin-treated, diabetic rat. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was induced in a group of mature Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting streptozotocin. Control animals were injected with citrate buffer only. A third group of rats were also injected with streptozotocin, but the diabetes was controlled by daily injections of insulin. After 2 weeks, all of the rats underwent extraction of the right maxillary molar teeth under general anesthesia. The rats were killed at varying intervals and the maxilla and calvaria recovered in continuity. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), the latter to identify diabetic microangiopathy. At 10 days after tooth extraction in the control and insulin-streptozotocin-treated rats, thick collagen fibers formed a pretrabecular scaffold that dictated the direction of the forming trabeculae. The collagen fibers in the diabetic socket were thin and scanty, and formed a narrow layer in the apical part. There was no evidence of diabetic microangiopathy in the extraction sockets of diabetic, insulin-treated diabetic, or normal rats. These histologic observations suggest that in uncontrolled, insulin-dependent diabetes, the formation of the collagenous framework in the tooth extraction socket is inhibited, resulting in delayed healing and increased alveolar destruction.
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In the present investigation the involvement of free radicals in a self-healing cutaneous wound has been demonstrated. The levels of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants have been studied in 2,4,7 and 14 days old wounds and compared with normal skin. Except for glutathione reductase (GR), all other enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were found to decrease following wounding. The decrease was 60-70% in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) at 2, 4 and 7 days, while in the case of catalase (CAT) the decrease was 40-60% during this period. Although a complete recovery in the activity of CAT was observed, SOD and GPx did not recover completely and GST was found to be slightly elevated on 14th day post wounding. Non-enzymatic antioxidants viz, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and glutathione were also found to decrease to about 60-70% and except glutathione none of them was found to recover completely at 14th day postwounding. Interestingly thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalent, a marker of lipid peroxidation, decreased following wounding which could be because of meagre availability of lipid substrate and/or of ascorbic acid. The results indicate that wounding results in loss of different free radical scavengers both enzymatic and non-enzymatic which either partially or completely recover following healing.
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