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Body-Weight Changes during Growth in Puppies of Different Breeds

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... Indeed, the canine species presents a unique challenge when attempting to develop such standards, because of the diversity of breeds with vastly different shapes and sizes, ranging from the 1 kg Chihuahua to the 115 kg St Bernard [9]. These breeds have considerably different growth patterns with very small dogs reaching maturity at between 8 and 12 months of age and larger breeds requiring up to 24 months to reach adult body weight [10]. Therefore, unlike the WHO growth standards, it is unlikely that a single growth standard could be created that could be applied to all dogs. ...
... Therefore, unlike the WHO growth standards, it is unlikely that a single growth standard could be created that could be applied to all dogs. Furthermore, whilst previous studies have reported how bodyweight changes during the growth phase for a small number of breeds [10,11,12,13,14], such data are not sufficient for creation of growth curves for all breeds and sizes. ...
... The dog breeds eligible for inclusion are given in Table 1. As a starting point for creating size categories, eligible breeds were initially classified into 5 size classes (toy, small, medium, large and giant) based on a size grouping used in a previously published study [10]. Breeds were assigned to these size classes according to the mean weight across all adult individuals (>2 years old) for that breed in the database. ...
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Limited information is available on what constitutes optimal growth in dogs. The primary aim of this study was to develop evidence-based growth standards for dogs, using retrospective analysis of bodyweight and age data from >6 million young dogs attending a large corporate network of primary care veterinary hospitals across the USA. Electronic medical records were used to generate bodyweight data from immature client-owned dogs, that were healthy and had remained in ideal body condition throughout the first 3 years of life. Growth centile curves were constructed using Generalised Additive Models for Location, Shape and Scale. Curves were displayed graphically as centile charts covering the age range 12 weeks to 2 years. Over 100 growth charts were modelled, specific to different combinations of breed, sex and neuter status. Neutering before 37 weeks was associated with a slight upward shift in growth trajectory, whilst neutering after 37 weeks was associated with a slight downward shift in growth trajectory. However, these shifts were small in comparison to inter-individual variability amongst dogs, suggesting that separate curves for neutered dogs were not needed. Five bodyweight categories were created to cover breeds up to 40kg, using both visual assessment and hierarchical cluster analysis of breed-specific growth curves. For 20/24 of the individual breed centile curves, agreement with curves for the corresponding bodyweight categories was good. For the remaining 4 breed curves, occasional deviation across centile lines was observed, but overall agreement was acceptable. This suggested that growth could be described using size categories rather than requiring curves for specific breeds. In the current study, a series of evidence-based growth standards have been developed to facilitate charting of bodyweight in healthy dogs. Additional studies are required to validate these standards and create a clinical tool for growth monitoring in pet dogs.
... Growth rates are directly related to energy requirements and should be affected by body size (Hawthorne et al. 2004 others (Hawthorne et al. 2004;Fiszdon and Kowalczyk 2009;Helmsmüller et al. 2013;Posada et al. 2014, Jimenez 2016. Smaller breeds tend to reach 99% of their adult body mass in about 10 months, whereas larger breeds continue growing until 11-15 months of age (Hawthorne et al. 2004;Helmsmüller et al. 2013;Posada et al. 2014). ...
... Growth rates are directly related to energy requirements and should be affected by body size (Hawthorne et al. 2004 others (Hawthorne et al. 2004;Fiszdon and Kowalczyk 2009;Helmsmüller et al. 2013;Posada et al. 2014, Jimenez 2016. Smaller breeds tend to reach 99% of their adult body mass in about 10 months, whereas larger breeds continue growing until 11-15 months of age (Hawthorne et al. 2004;Helmsmüller et al. 2013;Posada et al. 2014). ...
... Growth rates are directly related to energy requirements and should be affected by body size (Hawthorne et al. 2004 others (Hawthorne et al. 2004;Fiszdon and Kowalczyk 2009;Helmsmüller et al. 2013;Posada et al. 2014, Jimenez 2016. Smaller breeds tend to reach 99% of their adult body mass in about 10 months, whereas larger breeds continue growing until 11-15 months of age (Hawthorne et al. 2004;Helmsmüller et al. 2013;Posada et al. 2014). Thus, large breed dogs do not demonstrate higher growth rates, as previously speculated in the literature (Galis et al. 2007); but they do tend to be in a growing phase for a longer period of time compared with small breed dogs (Jimenez 2016). ...
Article
Synopsis Across Mammalia, body size and lifespan are positively correlated. However, in domestic dogs, the opposite is true: small dogs have longer lives compared with large dogs. Here, I present literature-based data on life-history traits that may affect dog lifespan, including adaptations at the whole-organism, and organ-level. Then, I compare those same traits to wild canids. Because oxidative stress is a byproduct of aerobic metabolism, I also present data on oxidative stress in dogs that suggests that small breed dogs accumulate significantly more circulating lipid peroxidation damage compared with large breed dogs, in opposition to lifespan predictions. Further, wild canids have increased antioxidant concentrations compared with domestic dogs, which may aid in explaining why wild canids have longer lifespans than similar-sized domestic dogs. At the cellular level, I describe mechanisms that differ across size classes of dogs, including increases in aerobic metabolism with age, and increases in glycolytic metabolic rates in large breed dogs across their lifespan. To address potential interventions to extend lifespan in domestic dogs, I describe experimental alterations to cellular architecture to test the “membrane pacemaker” hypotheses of metabolism and aging. This hypothesis suggests that increased lipid unsaturation and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes can increase cellular metabolic rates and oxidative damage, leading to potential decreased longevity. I also discuss cellular metabolic changes of primary fibroblast cells isolated from domestic dogs as they are treated with commercially available drugs that are linked to lifespan and health span expansion.
... Sixty-nine healthy, viable [21,22,40], and normal-weighted [23,49,50] puppies were born. In order to ensure the collection of both amniotic and allantoic fluids from the same puppy, and to reduce to the minimum the possibility of mistakes between fetal fluids collection/identification and newborn records, it was chosen not to sample entire litters, but around half of the total number of puppies from each litter. ...
... At this time, fetuses are mature enough to adapt to extra-uterine life and to survive after birth. In fact, apart from viability assessment by the Apgar score, all the puppies were completely developed [44], healthy [22], and normal-weighted [23,49,50], and showed a subsequent normal growth for the respective breeds [22,49], with no deaths reported in the first year of life. ...
... At this time, fetuses are mature enough to adapt to extra-uterine life and to survive after birth. In fact, apart from viability assessment by the Apgar score, all the puppies were completely developed [44], healthy [22], and normal-weighted [23,49,50], and showed a subsequent normal growth for the respective breeds [22,49], with no deaths reported in the first year of life. ...
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Attention must be paid to C-section anesthesia effects on mother and offspring. Alfaxalone induction results in improved puppy viability when compared to propofol. The present study aims to evaluate effects of alfaxalone or propofol induction for elective C-section on newborns, expressed as Apgar score and fetal fluids cortisol concentration. Anesthesia was induced with alfaxalone 3 mg/kg iv in 5 bitches (group A), and propofol 4 mg/kg iv in another 5 (group P), maintained with isoflurane. Amniotic and allantoic fluids were collected to determine cortisol concentration. Apgar score, litter size, newborn gender, birth-weight, maternal age, and parity were recorded. ANOVA, U Mann-Whitney test and ANCOVA assessed the effects of drugs on the Apgar score and fetal fluids cortisol. Thirty-six puppies were randomly selected for the study: 16 from group A and 20 from group P. Only the Apgar score significantly differed between groups. ANCOVA confirmed a significantly higher Apgar score in group A underlining the influence of fetal fluids cortisol concentrations, both resulting in covariates. Present results confirm the effect of anesthesia on the Apgar score of newborns, which is significantly higher for alfaxalone than propofol, suggesting the use of fetal fluids cortisol as a covariate. These findings could be a starting point for further investigations when less viable puppies are detected or expected, such as during an emergency C-section.
... The skeletal development of a puppy entails deep changes in body size and shape and several factors can affect the modalities and timelines of post-natal growth and proportioning [1]. In the dog the wide variation in body size among breeds could be responsible for breedspecific differences in growth patterns [2,3]. Currently, radiographic evaluation of the appearance and development of ossification centers (OCs) of limb bones is the most reliable method to estimate skeletal maturity in the dog [4][5][6]. ...
... Os tarsi centrale OCT-3 (2) repeatability of three times measurement was assessed by a non-parametric Friedman test and median value of all parameters were used for correlation assessment by a Spearman bivariate test. The following correlations were assessed: 1) between all the radiographic measurement and all the other radiographic measurements, the increasing of age and weight of the subjects; 2) between anatomic lengths of humerus, radius, tibia and os femoris measured before and after skeletonization of the limbs; 3) between all the anatomic measurements and all the other measurements, the increasing of age and weight of the subjects; 4) between radiographic HL, RL, UL, FL, TL, SL and NW, and the corresponding gross anatomic measurements; 5) between BMD and radiographic and anatomic radius lengths, and increasing of age and body weight of the subjects. ...
... All the 27 puppies resulted of normal body weight in relation to the breed and the age at the time of death [2]. No physical abnormalities were detected. ...
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Background Very little is known about neonatal skeletal development in small-sized purebred dogs. In order to improve this knowledge, 27 spontaneously dead puppies belonging to small-sized breeds were enrolled in this study for radiologic, histological and morphometric investigations. Results The appearance of the limb secondary ossification centers and the onset of their formation were clearly observed by x rays and confirmed by histological evidences. Radiographic and anatomic measurements of limb bones length and skull length and width were positively correlated with body weight and age of the subjects and the body weight was positively correlated with radius bone mineral density, as demonstrated by dual-energy x-rays absorptiometry. Conclusions These data provided original information on the growth of newborn small-sized breed dogs, and suggest that cadavers may be useful to study skeletal development. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12917-017-1092-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Smaller dogs live longer on average than larger dogs, at least among the modern breeds tested (Egenvall et al., 2000;Li et al., 1996;Miller, 1999). Further, breeds of smaller dogs appear to reach near-complete adult body size a few months earlier in life than larger breeds (Hawthorne et al., 2004;Helmsmüller et al., 2013;von Pfeil and DeCamp, 2009). Greater longevity might be advantageous if the reproductive period was extended, which would allow individuals with desired traits to sire more offspring. ...
... Dogs develop adult dentition around six months of age, but their postcranial skeletons are not fully fused until around one year of age, by which time most dogs are sexually mature (Geiger et al., 2016). Among modern breeds, small and medium-sized dogs (Beagle-sized and smaller in the study) reach 99% of their adult weight around 9e10 months of age, while larger animals (Labrador Retriever and larger) reach this point at 11e15 months (Hawthorne et al., 2004). As such, some analyzed individuals potentially had not reached adulthood by the time of death (they were 6e11 months of age). ...
... Dog age at death also results in some variability. The average body mass of the dogs in our sample is 16.4 kg (SD ¼ 4.64), and dogs of this size reach 99% of their adult body masses at 39e52 weeks of age (~9e12 months) (Hawthorne et al., 2004). Given that this study included all individuals with fully adult dentition, which is present in dogs around six months of age (Geiger et al., 2016), some individuals could have been three to six months from reaching nearadult body size at the time of death. ...
... Whist breeders take care of the first two periods, owners are responsible for post-weaning growth, which is considered the most critical phase for the correct development of the muscle-skeletal system (Case et al. 2011). The fastest growth occurs during the first 3 months of life and small dog breeds reach adult weight between 6 and 12 months (Hawthorne et al. 2004;Case et al. 2011). Postnatal physical development leads to intense changes in the weight and size of puppies and this process takes place before and after their purchase. ...
... Despite the topicality of the theme, little information is available on growth curves, optimal growth and centile curves of dog breeds (Hawthorne et al. 2004;Ardelean and Suteu 2005;Posada et al. 2014;Salt et al. 2017). Growth curves are a useful tool to not only describe the changes in BW over time but also to predict the expected weight at specific ages, to evaluate responses to feeding regimes or to select dogs for reproduction (Fitzhugh 1976). ...
... y ¼ body weight reached to age x: A ¼ adult body weight (g); x 0 ¼ time needed for reaching 50% of adult weight (weeks); B ¼ proportion of the asymptotic mature weight to be gained after birth; k ¼ mature growth rate (calculated as (1/d) by the Hawthorne model). a Logistic equation used by Hawthorne et al. (2004). b Gompertz (1825) as modified by Rogers et al. (1987). ...
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Limited information is available to evaluate optimal growth in Toy Poodles. This work aimed at comparing three growth curves, proposing centile charts and developing a model to estimate the adult body weight (BW) in Toy Poodles. A total of 65 puppies (male = 30, female = 35) born in the same breeding centre were used. BW at birth and, weekly BW, for 53 weeks, BW of parents, litter size, type of management, daily activity and neutering were recorded. Forty-six puppies were sold, and their data were reported by the new owners. Three growth curves (i.e. Hawthorne, Brody and Gompertz) were constructed and compared; Linear Mixed Models including demographic characteristics and management habits were built. The BW at birth was 154 ± 35 g and adult BW was 3208 ± 860 g. Based on the goodness-of-fit and accuracy indices, Gompertz was the best growth model and was selected to plot centile curves based on sex. Toy Poodles achieved 50% of their adult weight at 11–12 weeks, with an overall growth rate of 11.8%. Adult BW was affected by birth BW (p
... The growth pattern of body weight observed in this study was similar to that which had been reported by others (32) , in which male Beagle puppies were shown to approach their mature body weights at about 28-31 weeks (approximately 7-8 months) of age. Similarly in our study, Beagle puppies were reaching a plateau of body weights between 24 and 36 weeks of age. ...
... Similarly in our study, Beagle puppies were reaching a plateau of body weights between 24 and 36 weeks of age. All puppies grew and gained weight at rates that fell within the margin of error of previously established puppy growth curves (32) . The impacts of birth weight and litter size were not measured in this study. ...
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Nutritional factors can dramatically affect development of young animals during the early stage of life. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of a neuroactive nutritional supplement (NNS) containing DHA, taurine, carotenoids and vitamins on the body weight and body composition of growing puppies. A total of twenty-four 2-month-old Beagles were fed a nutritionally complete and balanced base diet and a control supplement daily during an initial 1-month baseline assessment, after which they were divided into control and treatment groups. They were fed daily either control or treatment supplements in addition to the base diet from 3 to 12 months of age. Lean body mass and fat mass were assessed using quantitative magnetic resonance scans at 0 (baseline), 3, 6 and 9 months of treatment. Total body weight and lean body mass did not differ between groups over time. The puppies in the treatment group showed a trend of reduced fat gain compared with those in the control group, and with a marginally significant difference at 6 months ( P = 0·05). At 3 months, insulin-like growth factor 1 was higher ( P = 0·02) in the treatment group compared with the control group. At 9 months, fasting lipid levels were lower ( P < 0·05) and fat-oxidation metabolite 3-hydroxybutyrate was higher ( P < 0·05) in the treatment group compared with the control group. These results may indicate that NNS has an impact on puppy growth and development, possibly by promoting fat metabolism; further investigation would be necessary to determine the full impact of this supplement on growth and development.
... 4,22 The determination of growth curves for a particular species or breed allows monitoring the development of growing animals. 2,[23][24][25] Growth is influenced by intrinsic characteristics, such as mother's weight, litter size, and birth weight, and environmental factors, such as nutrition, neutering, physical activity, and birth season. 19,[22][23][24] Growth data can be fitted to linear or nonlinear equations. ...
... The fastest growth rate occurs during the 3rd to 6th month of life in male and female cats. 2,24,25 Similarly, in this study, cats had faster growth rate until the 7th month of life, when they achieved 75% of the adult BW. After this period, growth rate decreased linearly (y = À1.1575x ...
Article
The aim of this study were (i) to characterize the growth curve in male and female cats, (ii) to associate the growth and metabolizable energy intake (MEI) as an indirect measurement of the energy requirements, and (iii) to determine the short-term effects of neutering on energy intake to maintain the bodyweight in young adult cats. Eighteen 5-months-old mixed breed cats were used in this study (males, n = 7 and BW = 2.2 ± 0.21 kg; females, n = 11 and BW = 2.0 ± 0.16 kg). The cats were fed to supply their metabolizable energy requirement for growth, adjusting the amounts to maintain an ideal body condition score. The animals were weighed every 15 days for 10 months (from five to 15 months-old). At 12 months-old, the cats were gonadectomized and the MEI was recorded for 3 months, up to 15 months old. Second-order, Gaussian, and spherical models were fitted to growth data. Male cats had higher energy intake for growth (MEI = 176.27−0.037t, R² = 0.79) than females (MEI = 166.86−0.044t, R² = 0.62), where t is the age in months. Male cats also reached mature weight later than female cats (16 and 13 months old, respectively). Neutering reduced the energy requirements of male (intact – 116.43 kcal/kg0.67; gonadectomized – 98.65 kcal/kg0.67; p < 0.01) and female cats (intact – 98.65 kcal/kg0.67; gonadectomized – 76.16 kcal/kg0.67; p < 0.01) on average 17.6%. This study suggests that in cats, males and females present different energy requirements since the early growth phases and, this difference remains after neutering in young adults. Female cats reach adult weight earlier than males.
... Due to a very fast-paced growth and development of the Perro de Presa Canario, one should bear in mind a suitable balanced diet to meet all nutritional needs. This was confirmed by the studies carried out on puppies of various breeds by Sawosz [2001] and Hawthorne et al. [2004], Ochota et al. [2014], while the study carried out on the Siberian Husky puppies by Horoszewicz et al. [2015] reported that their body weight was greater in their first week of age. While analysing the German Shepherd litters, Wilsson and Sundgren [1998a] obtained the results which were in line with those of their own research. ...
... These values have been slightly above those obtained by Fiszdon and Kowalczyk [2009]. While analysing the changes in the body weight in various breeds puppies, Hawthorne et al. [2004] indicated that greater daily gains can be observed in large -sized breeds during the period of growth. They also emphasise that not only genetic factors related to a particular breed, but also gender affect daily gains. ...
Article
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The Perro de Presa Canario is still an unexplored and underrated breed of dogs. The breed had been used in dog fighting and to protect human dwellings for ages. An analysis of biometric traits conducted between the birth and the age of 6 months has shown a harmonious and rapid puppy growth. Zoometric measurements and conformation indices in both dogs and bitches were found to be comparable. At age one week the reported body weight of the bitches was 498 g, and the dogs were heavier by 57 g. At six months of age, the bitches weighed approximately 16.35 kg, whereas the dogs were on average 2.15 kg heavier. Gender has been found to affect weight gains (P ≤ 0.01) and the development of pectoral girdle (P ≤ 0.05). The PAT and the Campbell tests results have clearly shown that the Perro de Presa Canario breed is very dominant. Besides, it appears to be stubborn, intelligent and committed.
... 13 kg and 7-15 months old). Both dogs are therefore of a medium or medium-small morphotype, similar to the English Springer Spaniel (Hawthorne et al. 2004). The adult size of immature Individual 3 (ca. ...
... 9 kg. and aged 3-7 months), can also be projected to a similar range based on existing breeds (Hawthorne et al. 2004); this puts it in the same size range as the previous individuals. The phenotype recorded for these dogs is similar to that described by the chronicler Jerónimo de Vivar (1979 [1558]) in the Limarí valley of the Semi-arid North in 1558. ...
Article
Download: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1fYX0,rVDBbxFR The article presents an analysis of four canid skeletons recovered at the El Olivar archaeological site (Semi-arid North of Chile). The aims of the study were to determine their taxonomy and chronology, characterise their morphotypes and investigate their social status and possible functions. Osteological and dental features allowed us to identify them as dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). Three radiocarbon dates gave pre-Inca ages (801 ± 19, 932 ± 21 and 789 ± 20 years ¹⁴C BP), associated with contexts of the Late Intermediate or Diaguita Period. These new records expand the pre-Hispanic distribution of the species, previously limited to the Arid North and the extreme south of the country. They were medium or medium-small in size, their approximate body weight and height at the withers were 13–14 kg and 48 cm respectively, and they were probably mesocephalic. At least three of the dogs were buried individually in a sector devoted to human burials, one with funerary offerings similar to those found with humans. These characteristics suggest that the dogs buried here were companion animals, with clear social recognition. Evidence was also recorded suggesting that one might have been killed intentionally.
... Body condition scoring as a tool to assess growth should be used with caution, however, as puppies can have a normal BCS but weigh too much for their age. A more appropriate assessment is to use a growth curve (32,33). Growth curves are useful tools for determining if a puppy is following an expected pattern of growth; dog standards charts have been developed for dogs of different sizes (33). ...
... 40 kg. A study in 2004 investigated growth curves for 12 different sized dog breeds, including Great Danes, and it was determined that their average mature weight was 51.1 kg (32). The sample size for this study was small (11 Great Danes; 6 males and 5 females) and the averages were not reported for each sex. ...
Article
A 6-month-old, intact male Great Dane dog fed a veterinary therapeutic liver diet was evaluated after diagnosis of an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and hind limb angular limb deformity to determine appropriateness of diet. Evaluation of the current diet revealed it to be inadequate to meet the nutrient requirements of a large breed puppy. The dog clinically improved following a change in diet. There was no longer any angular limb deformity and no reported neurological signs. This report highlights the importance of appropriate feeding management during growth and demonstrates that although veterinary therapeutic diets may appear to be an appropriate choice initially, they may not be ideal for growing puppies as a long-term feeding option. Key clinical message: An individual approach is key for nutritional management of complicated canine veterinary medical cases and includes consideration of the patient's life stage requirements when modifying nutrient intake to manage clinical disease.
... Breed-specific differences in growth patterns have been observed, with toy, small and medium-sized dog breeds reaching their adult weight at around 9-10 months of age, whereas large-sized dog breeds reach their adult weight at around 15 months. Furthermore, additional differences in growth patterns appear to exist in breeds of similar size [1]. Knowledge of normal bone development processes is essential in the clinical setting to distinguish normal from pathological conditions and to estimate the age of growing dogs. ...
... Moreover, the width of these time ranges, which in most cases extends to 4-8 weeks, makes their usefulness rather limited, especially for age estimation purposes. Other studies showed that even breeds of the same size and weight can differ significantly in their growth patterns, therefore putting into question the transferability of data from one breed to another and highlighting the need of further growth studies on a larger number of dogs [1,29,30]. For these reasons, in selecting the breeds to be investigated in this study, an attempt was made to include dogs with different morphotypes, i.e., Lupoid (Saarloos Wolfdog, German Shepherd, White Swiss Shepherd Dog), Molossoid (Boxer) and Braccoid (Labrador Retriever) [31]. ...
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Despite the extreme morphological variability of the canine species, data on limb development are limited and the time windows for the appearance of the limb ossification centres (OCs) reported in veterinary textbooks, considered universally valid for all dogs, are based on dated studies. The aim of this study was to acquire up-to-date information regarding the arm, forearm and leg bone development in skeletally-immature large-sized dogs from 6 weeks to 16 weeks of age. Nine litters of 5 large-sized breeds (Boxer, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Saarloos Wolfdog, White Swiss Shepherd Dog) were included, for a total of 54 dogs, which were subject to radiographic examination on a bi-weekly basis. The appearance of 18 limb OCs was recorded and 14 radiographic measurements were performed; their relationship with age and body weight was investigated and any breed differences were analysed using different statistical non-parametric tests. The number of OCs present was significantly different at 6 and 8 weeks of age between the investigated breeds. The appearance of the OCs occurred earlier in the Saarloos Wolfdog, while the Labrador Retriever was the later breed. In Boxers and Labrador Retrievers, various OCs showed a delayed appearance compared to the data reported in the literature. The number of OCs was strongly and positively correlated to body weight. Breed differences were also observed in the relative increase of the measured OCs and were not limited to dogs of different morphotypes. Statistically significant differences were most frequently observed between Saarloos Wolfdogs and the other breeds. The OCs that showed a greater variability in their development were the olecranon tuber, the patella and the tibial tuberosity. Their increase was more strongly correlated with the dog’s age and body weight. Our data strongly suggest that differences in limb development exist in dog breeds of similar size and morphotype.
... The energy requirements of toy breed puppies have not been reported and it is unclear whether feeding guidelines for these dogs should differ from those determined for larger breeds. Breed-specific differences in growth patterns have been noted previously (3)(4)(5) and therefore differences in energy requirements might be expected due to differences in adult body shape, size, temperament and coat type. Dobenecker et al. (5) reported consistently higher energy intake in foxhound-boxer-Ingelheim Labrador mixed breed puppies than Beagle puppies up to 28 weeks of age. ...
... The energy intakes of the miniature Schnauzer puppies were very similar to those of the Yorkshire terriers until 16 weeks of age when they diverged, possibly due to a longer rapid growth phase in the miniature Schnauzers. Such breed-specific variance in growth pattern has been noted previously (3)(4)(5) and might be expected due to differences in adult body weight, size, composition, temperament and coat type, all of which have to affect energy requirements. Although in the present study body composition was not determined, breed differences in lean and fat mass have previously been reported which could affect energy requirements during growth (15) . ...
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The 2006 National Research Council (NRC) equation calculating puppy energy requirements does not account for reported breed differences in growth pattern. Energy requirements of toy breed puppies are unknown and it is unclear whether feeding guidelines should differ between breeds. Energy requirements of Yorkshire terrier (YT) puppies were observed over their first year of life and compared with those predicted by the NRC and those previously observed in large (Labrador retriever) and medium (miniature Schnauzer; MS) breed puppies. Twenty-two puppies (from eight litters) were offered complete and balanced diets to maintain ideal body condition score (BCS). Energy intake, body weight and BCS were recorded from 10 to 52 weeks of age. Every 12 weeks, health was monitored by veterinary examination, routine haematology and plasma biochemistry. Puppies remained clinically healthy with normal skeletal development throughout. After analysis by linear mixed models it was observed that the NRC equation overestimates YT energy requirements between 10 and 20 weeks of age by up to 324·3 (95 % CI 390·4, 258·2) kJ/kg 0·75 . Energy intake was lower ( P < 0·05) in YT than Labradors until 29 weeks by up to 376·6 (95 % CI 477·4, 275·3) kJ/kg 0·75 and lower than MS between 16 and 25 weeks by up to 216·3 (95 % CI 313·0, 119·7) kJ/kg 0·75 ( P < 0·05). Data indicate differences in toy, medium and large breed energy requirements for growth. The NRC equation for puppy energy requirements overestimated the requirements of this YT population, suggesting the need for breed-specific feeding guides for growth to avoid overfeeding.
... The size was determined by two methods: the bodyweight and the back length. To further highlight the diference in position of the CM depending on body size and to give the reader the expected/most frequent position of CM and DS for a dog of a speciic size, the authors split dogs into bodyweight categories of less than 5 kg, between 5 kg and 10 kg, between 10 and 25 kg, between 25 and 40 kg, and greater than 40 kg; these categories were chosen according to Hawthorne et al. 15 In the less than 5 kg group the most commonly observed termination points for the CM were the cranial and caudal halves of the seventh lumbar vertebra found in 33.3 per cent and 44.4 per cent of dogs, respectively. In the 5-10 kg group, the most commonly observed CM termination point was the cranial half of the seventh lumbar vertebrae found in 40.0 per cent of dogs. ...
... One study showed that toy, small and medium breed dogs reached 99 per cent of their adult weight at approximately 9 months or 10 months of age, whereas large and giant breed dogs reached this point at approximately 11-15 months of age. 15 In the present study population there were only four dogs, which were between 12 months and 24 months of age; these were all small breed dogs weighing between 4.1 kg and 9.8 kg; consequently the age at MRI, and potential for further growth are unlikely to have afected the results. ...
Article
Although it has long been stated that the level of spinal cord termination varies depending on the size of the dog, the evidence for this remains limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the position of the conus medullaris (CM) and dural sac (DS) in a population of dogs of varying size. MRIs of the thoracolumbosacral spine of 101 dogs were included. The location of CM and DS was determined on sagittal T2-weighted images and T1-weighted images, respectively, by three independent observers. The bodyweight and the back length were used as markers of size. Regression analysis showed that the termination point of the CM had a statistically significant relationship with bodyweight (R ² =0.23, P<0.05). Although not statistically significant (P=0.058), a similar relationship was found between CM and back length (R ² =0.21). No statistically significant relationship was found between the termination point of the DS and bodyweight (P=0.24) or back length (P=0.19). The study confirms the terminal position of the CM is dependent on size, with a more cranial position with increasing size; however, the termination point of DS remains constant irrespective of dog size.
... Once the dog has reached its full size, growth will cease and the cartilage in the growth plate is replaced by bone, creating a total and bony skeleton ( Figure 2). Depending on bone type and region within the body, growth plates will close at different times ( (Hawthorne et al., 2004) FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH Aside from the size of the dog, there are a number of factors that can contribute to their growth and development. Depending on the size of specific breeds, puppies have exponential growth until they reach certain ages (See Table 1). ...
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Dogs are one of the most morphologically diverse species as they can range from a 1kg Chihuahua to a 100kg English Mastiff. With gestation ranging from 58 to 68 days all puppies begin life at a similar size, with no teeth and their eyes closed. There is little difference between gestation timescales, however growth and size post-partum varies greatly, depending on the breed (Table 1). Although there is such a variation in size, nutritional and exercise advice for the first twelve months of life scarcely differs. This can have an impact on the growth of a puppy and result in a number of pathological and skeletal conditions.
... This study highlights the importance of breed-specific analysis because birth weight was significantly different between puppies from different breeds inside the same breed size. For example, the German Shepherd, the Boxer and the Golden Retriever are in the large size category with adult body weight ranging from about 25 to 30 kg (Helmink et al., 2000;Hawthorne et al., 2004;Trangerud et al., 2007;Posada et al., 2014). However, even though they are in the same size category, their average birth weights were significantly different (506, 464 and 395 g for respectively German Shepherd, Boxer and Golden Retriever; Table 2). ...
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In numerous species, low birth weight is a risk factor for neonatal mortality. In the canine species, definition of a low birth weight is complex due to the huge interbreed variability in size. To identify puppies at higher risk of neonatal death, data from 6,694 puppies were analysed. The data were collected from 75 French breeding kennels, examining 27 breeds and totaling 1,202 litters of puppies. Generalised linear mixed models allowed to identify birth weight, birth weight heterogeneity within the litter, and size of the breeding kennel as significant risk factors for neonatal mortality. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were combined to define breed specific thresholds for birth weight allowing the identification of puppies at higher risk of neonatal mortality. Due to differences in birth weights between breeds, including when belonging to the same breed size, analyses were conducted at the breed level. First, ROC analysis thresholds were successfully established for 12 breeds (area under the ROC ≥ 0.70; sensitivity ≥ 75%; specificity: 45-68%) and they ranged from 162 g in the Maltese to 480 g in the Bernese Mountain dog. Secondly, CART analysis thresholds from 22 breeds ranged from 105 g in the Maltese and 436 g in the Boxer. Puppies were grouped into three categories according to birth weight: low, moderate and high risk of neonatal mortality (higher than the ROC threshold, between ROC and CART thresholds, and lower than the CART threshold respectively). In the current study, 44% of the puppies were classified as at moderate risk and 5.3% for a high risk of neonatal mortality. Thresholds defined by CART analysis (and not ROC analysis) were used to define low birth weight puppies and were sometimes quite different between breeds with similar birth weight distributions suggesting a variable relationship between birth weight reduction and neonatal death. These results allow the identification of puppies at an increased risk of neonatal death, thus requiring specific nursing to improve their chances of survival. With these high risk puppies identified, both animal welfare and kennel productivity is predicted to improve.
... The majority of dogs (54%) assessed in this study were small (<10 kg), which included pups and subadults, 42% were medium (10-25 kg), and 4% were large (>25 kg; size classes based on Hawthorne et al. 2004). The maximum estimated body mass of the dogs assessed in the villages surrounding Liziping Nature Reserve was 40 kg. ...
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The potential threat of domestic dogs to wildlife habitat in China is not widely recognized, despite their large population, lack of regulations regarding their control, and threat they pose to native species. In a case study, we surveyed villages surrounding Liziping Nature Reserve, the primary site for the release of captive‐born giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) into the wild. We conducted surveys of dog owners to assess the population size, demographics, free‐roaming status, and vaccination and sterilization history of their dogs. We collected blood and fecal samples to assess the prevalence of viral and parasite disease threats. At least 370 owned dogs lived near the core giant panda habitat; 64% were free‐roaming, 21% had positive antibody titers for ≥1 of the 4 viruses we tested (canine distemper, parvovirus, rotavirus, rabies), and 67% were positive for gastrointestinal parasites. The high proportion of free‐roaming dogs, uninhibited access to the reserve, and high prevalence of infectious diseases indicate that dogs pose a serious threat to wildlife within Liziping. The extent of this threat throughout the giant panda nature reserve network is unknown and should be assessed. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Wildlife Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Wildlife Society. Numerous free‐ranging domestic dogs were located close to Liziping National Nature Reserve, a primary location of giant panda reintroductions and conservation. Viral and parasitic disease threats to giant pandas and other wildlife were present in the population, indicating a need for immediate management action.
... Although Labradors at this age are nearly adult and very close to adult size, there is a possibility that their relative youth influenced minimal and maximal musculotendon lengths. Previous research has shown that Labradors reach around 87 and 96% of their adult body mass by respectively 8 and 10 months of age (Hawthorne et al. 2004). ...
Article
Although the form‐function relation of muscles and tendons has been studied extensively, little in vivo data exist on the musculotendon properties of the gastrocnemius complex in dogs. Using a combination of ultrasound and 3D motion tracking, musculotendon parameters were obtained in vivo from the lateral gastrocnemius muscle and the gastrocnemius tendon in nine healthy Labrador Retrievers. These parameters include musculotendon length and excursion potential, tendon slack length, muscle belly length, muscle fibre length, pennation angle and architectural index. This study also examined the variation of muscle and tendon length contributions to musculotendon length, as well as the relation between musculotendon excursion potential and muscle fibre length or tendon length. To facilitate comparison between dog breeds, the femur length as a potential scaling parameter was examined. In the Labrador gastrocnemius musculotendon complex, the tendon contributes 41% (± 9%) of musculotendon length. In longer musculotendon complexes, the contribution of the muscle belly increases while the tendon contribution decreases. Longer muscle belly and musculotendon complexes were, however, associated with shorter muscle fibres. No significant relations were found between musculotendon excursion potential and muscle fibre length or tendon slack length, and femur length did not prove to be a reliable scale factor for the length‐related musculotendon parameters examined in this study. Longer musculotendon complexes exhibit relatively longer muscle bellies, which are in turn associated with shorter muscle fibre lengths. This trade‐off between gastrocnemius muscle belly length and muscle fibre length might have the advantage that muscle volume stays constant regardless of the length of the limbs.
... We then matched the dog to the most relevant size category (toy, small, medium, large, and giant) as defined previously. 30,31 Control dogs for these mixed-breed cases were utilized from the same size categories (eg, toy, small, medium, large, or giant) as the TCC cases. ...
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Introduction Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in humans is associated with environmental exposures and variants in glutathione S‐transferase (GST) genes. Scottish Terriers have a high breed risk for TCC, but the relationship between genetic and environmental risk in dogs is not fully understood. Hypotheses Scottish Terriers have a higher frequency of GST‐theta variants compared to lower risk breeds. Dogs with TCC of any breed have a higher frequency of GST‐theta variants along with higher environmental exposures, compared to controls. Animals One hundred and five Scottish Terriers and 68 controls from lower risk breeds; 69 dogs of various breeds with TCC, and 72 breed‐ and sex‐matched unaffected geriatric dogs. Methods In this prospective case‐control study, dogs were genotyped for 3 canine GST‐theta variants: GSTT1 I2+28 G>A, a GSTT1 3′UTR haplotype, and GSTT5 Asp129_Gln130del. Owners of dogs with TCC and unaffected geriatric controls completed a household environmental questionnaire. Results The GSTT1 3′UTR haplotype and GSTT5 Asp129_Gln130del variants were significantly underrepresented in Scottish Terriers (minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.000 for both), compared to dogs from lower risk breeds (MAF = 0.108 and 0.100; P ≤ .0002). Dogs with TCC did not differ from unaffected geriatric controls across the 3 investigated loci. Transitional cell carcinoma was associated with household insecticide use (odds ratio [OR] = 4.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44‐12.33, P = .02), and was negatively associated with proximity to a farm (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25‐0.99, P = .04). Conclusions and Clinical Importance Low‐activity GST‐theta loci are unlikely contributors to TCC risk in dogs. Increased risk is associated with household insecticide use, and possibly with less rural households.
... Notwithstanding the reduced capacity of bitches to reproduce and contribute genetics towards future generations, if differences in size, and therefore the latency to maturation [15], are taken into consideration, the generation interval is also shorter in larger breeds of dogs (especially giant breeds) when compared with toy breeds. Assessment of body size relative to lifespan demonstrated that larger breeds of dogs have a reduced lifespan due to the accelerated rate at which they age after reaching maturity [16]. ...
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Much of the research on pedigree dog breeding has been directed towards understanding the implications of reduced genetic diversity and the prevalence of inherited disorders. An example is the potential role of the popular sire effect in perpetuating genetic defects. If male dogs are more likely than bitches to be identified as examples of members of a breed that align with breed standard, they may be selected for breeding earlier. This may contribute to the influence of individual males and contribute to popular sire effect. Conversely, if breed standards are written in a sex-neutral fashion, and if dogs are entered, exhibited, and judged in a sex-neutral fashion, then we would expect the success of female dogs in the show ring to be equal to that of their male counterparts. With a focus on toy and giant breeds, the current pilot study collated samples of dog show results to explore relationships between sex and the likelihood of success in the show ring. It focused on toy and giant breeds to explore any differences in equity, if it existed, at either end of the size and concomitant age-at-maturation spectrum. For the purpose of this study, toy breeds were those that weigh < 10 kg at maturity while giant breed dogs were those that exceed 45 kg. Within these two clusters, the least (n = 3) and most popular (n = 3) breeds were then selected to explore any potential role of sex on success in the show ring. The popularity of breeds was determined using the numbers of dogs registered with the Australian National Kennel Council. Using results from dog shows (n = 18) from 2015 to 2016, data on 1,080 dogs were obtained. Within these 12 breeds for the 18 shows, there were 137 Best of Breed (BOB) titles awarded: Pug (n = 18), Toy Poodle (n = 18), Bullmastiff (n = 14), Rottweiler (n = 17), Fox Terrier (Smooth) (n = 18), Bloodhound (n = 3), Schnauzer (miniature) (n = 15), Great Dane (n = 17), Norfolk Terrier (n = 10), Norwich Terrier (n = 5), Central Asian Shepherd Dog (n = 2). Despite the near parity of male and female dogs being exhibited, of these 137 titles, 86 (62.8%) were awarded to male dogs (at least 41 individuals) and 51 (37.2%) to female dogs (at least 32 individuals) showing that male dogs are more likely to win BOB titles (χ 2 = 9.4455, df = 1, p-value = 0.002117). Among the toy subset of breeds, this effect was higher (χ 2 = 6.798, df = 1, p-value = 0.009126) than among the giant breed subset, for whom the advantage to male dogs did not reach statistical significance versus χ 2 = 3.0967, df = 1, p-value = 0.07845). This suggests that judges find the male dogs more appealing, presumably because they are more aligned with breed standards.
... Our study highlights not only the importance of breed size-specific study, but also breed-specific, as birth weight was demonstrated significantly different within the same breed-size puppies. For example, adult body weights of the German Shepherd Dog, Boxer and Golden Retriever are similar, ranging from about 25 to 30 kg (Helmink et al., 2000;Hawthorne et al., 2004;Trangerud et al., 2007;Posada et al., 2014), whereas their average birth weights are quite different (506 g, 464 g and 395 g, respectively). ...
... Indeed, growth rates in large breeds during the first year are very high. Great Danes increase in weight 100-fold from birth in the first year, compared to 60-fold in wolves in captivity, 20-fold in poodles and 3-fold in humans (Mech, '70;Hawthorne et al., 2004). The proposal that a high free-radical production is involved in the early mortality is in agreement with extremely high rates of bone cancer in large breeds, 60-100-fold that of smaller breeds (Tjalma,'66;Withrow et al.,'91). ...
... However, there is considerable variability in the growth of different dogs, depending on breed and other factors, which may affect cardiac development and susceptibility to PV myocarditis. 2,9 We also identified dogs with severe myocardial fibrosis and both viable virus (by detection of viral mRNA) and rare parvoviral DNA detectable by ISH, suggesting myocardial damage and replacement fibrosis related to previous PV infection. This association between PV detection and severe fibrotic cardiac disease adds to our current understanding of CPV pathogenesis. ...
Article
Perinatal parvoviral infection causes necrotizing myocarditis in puppies, which results in acute high mortality or progressive cardiac injury. While widespread vaccination has dramatically curtailed the epidemic of canine parvoviral myocarditis, we hypothesized that canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) myocardial infection is an underrecognized cause of myocarditis, cardiac damage, and/or repair by fibrosis in young dogs. In this retrospective study, DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 40 cases and 41 control dogs under 2 years of age from 2007 to 2015. Cases had a diagnosis of myocardial necrosis, inflammation, or fibrosis, while age-matched controls lacked myocardial lesions. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing targeting the VP1 to VP2 region detected CPV-2 in 12 of 40 cases (30%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18%–45%) and 2 of 41 controls (5%; 95% CI, 0.1%–16%). Detection of CPV-2 DNA in the myocardium was significantly associated with myocardial lesions (P = .003). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR amplifying VP2 identified viral messenger RNA in 12 of 12 PCR-positive cases and 2 of 2 controls. PCR results were confirmed by in situ hybridization, which identified parvoviral DNA in cardiomyocytes and occasionally macrophages of juvenile and young adult dogs (median age 61 days). Myocardial CPV-2 was identified in juveniles with minimal myocarditis and CPV-2 enteritis, which may indicate a longer window of cardiac susceptibility to myocarditis than previously reported. CPV-2 was also detected in dogs with severe myocardial fibrosis with in situ hybridization signal localized to cardiomyocytes, suggesting prior myocardial damage by CPV-2. Despite the frequency of vaccination, these findings suggest that CPV-2 remains an important cause of myocardial damage in dogs.
... One member of the Fused pack was measured in 2008, although she had been a member of the Corridoio pack in 2006. Since at that time she was already 2 years old, and since dogs reach full body size well before that age (Hawthorne et al. 2004), we used her measurements in tests referring to both packs. To test whether the effect of age on dominance rank depended on body size we used partial rank correlation (Conover 1999), when possible. ...
Article
It is believed that domestic dogs rarely form packs with age-graded hierarchical structures similar to those found in wolves. Dog-wolf comparisons in captivity suggest that human control has reduced dog dependency on cooperation with conspecifics, resulting in a more despotic dominance order. However, free-ranging dogs are under stronger natural selection than purebred dogs. They are dependent on companions’ social support but usually exhibit lower reproductive skew than wolves, possibly because access to easily available human-derived food may have relaxed within-group competition. We investigated social dominance in 5 packs of mongrel dogs living in a free-ranging or semifree-ranging state. We aimed at replicating the findings of the few studies that detected a dominance hierarchy in dogs using a larger sample of packs. Additionally, we provided behavioral measures of social tolerance. We found that a linear hierarchy existed in all packs studied and that the rank order was positively related to age in all packs but one. In 2 packs in which testing was possible, age was a better predictor of dominance than body size. Potentially injurious aggression was very rare. Hierarchy steepness in dogs was similar to that found in wolves and in tolerant primates. Submissive reversals were more common in dogs than in wolves. These results suggest that age-graded hierarchies in dogs are more common than previously thought, that rank is not usually acquired through fighting because subordinates rely on the guidance of elders, and contradict the view that domestication has increased despotism in dogs.
... Sign on this case was 1 year 10 months old male Schnauzer dog with with 6.5 kg body weight and 48 cm height. According to Hawthorne et al. (2004), Schnauzer dog with height 43.1-50.8 cm will have ideal weight 12.3-16.8 ...
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The aim of this study was to describe the role of diagnostic imaging and endoscopy to define the diagnose of the upper gastrointestinal tract disorder of the Schnauzer. The information from the owner stated that the dog has been vomiting for a year, sometimes containing blood. There might also be a possibility that it had eaten a corpus alienum. This case study covered physical examination, hematology and blood chemical analysis, diagnostic imaging radiography and ultrasonography as well as endoscopy performed. Physical examination showed weight loss and anorexia. Hematology and blood chemical analysis showed an increase in hemoglobin, hematocrit, lymphocyte, ureum, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values. Abdominal radiograph showed no abnormality in the abdominal organs. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a hiperechoic elongated mass attached on the stomach mucosal surface which forms an acoustic shadowing at the ventral. Endoscopy showed pathological lesions that is inconsistency of stomach mucosa surface, foamy fluid in the stomach, ulcers and erosion of the stomach mucosal surface. Based on the diagnostic imaging and endoscopy performed, the animal was clearly diagnosed with chronic gastritis accompanied by stomach ulcer and erosion.
... The neonatal dog is rather immature and does not open its eyes until around 10 days of age, but calculating the proportional size of puppies relative to the adult body weight is complicated by the extreme variation in size represented by different breeds of dogs. For example, puppies of giant breeds such as the English Mastiff may represent <1% of adult BW, whereas puppies of toy breeds such as Papillon may be >5% of adult BW at birth [44][45][46]. Using Oftedal and Gittlemen's data for dogs [43], a medium size dog has a neonatal weight representing 1.67% of maternal weight, aligning with our hypothesis that OS:lactose is lower in species having higher proportional mass at birth. ...
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The milk oligosaccharides were studied for two species of the Carnivora: the American black bear (Ursus americanus, family Ursidae, Caniformia), and the cheetah, (Acinonyx jubatus, family Felidae, Feliformia). Lactose was the most dominant saccharide in cheetah milk, while this was a minor saccharide and milk oligosaccharides predominated over lactose in American black bear milk. The structures of 8 neutral saccharides from American black bear milk were found to be Gal(β1–4)Glc (lactose), Fuc(α1–2)Gal(β1–4)Glc (2′-fucosyllactose), Gal(α1–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (isoglobotriose), Gal(α1–3)[Fuc(α1–2)]Gal(β1–4)Glc (B-tetrasaccharide), Gal(α1–3)[Fuc(α1–2)]Gal(β1–4)[Fuc(α1–3)]Glc (B-pentasaccharide), Fuc(α1–2)Gal(β1–4)[Fuc(α1–3)]GlcNAc(β1–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (difucosyl lacto-N-neotetraose), Gal(α1–3)Gal(β1–4)[Fuc(α1–3)]GlcNAc(β1–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (monogalactosyl monofucosyl lacto-N-neotetraose) and Gal(α1–3)Gal(β1–4)GlcNAc(β1–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (Galili pentasaccharide). Structures of 5 acidic saccharides were also identified in black bear milk: Neu5Ac(α2–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (3′-sialyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2–6)Gal(β1–4)GlcNAc(β1–3)[Fuc(α1–2)Gal(β1–4)GlcNAc(β1–6)]Gal(β1–4)Glc (monosialyl monofucosyl lacto-N-neohexaose), Neu5Ac(α2–6)Gal(β1–4)GlcNAc(β1–3)[Gal(α1–3)Gal(β1–4)GlcNAc(β1–6)]Gal(β1–4)Glc (monosialyl monogalactosyl lacto-N-neohexaose), Neu5Ac(α2–6)Gal(β1–4)GlcNAc(β1–3){Gal(α1–3)Gal(β1–4)[Fuc(α1–3)]GlcNAc(β1–6)}Gal(β1–4)Glc (monosialyl monogalactosyl monofucosyl lacto-N-neohexaose), and Neu5Ac(α2–6)Gal(β1–4)GlcNAc(β1–3){Gal(α1–3)[Fuc(α1–2)]Gal(β1–4)[Fuc(α1–3)]GlcNAc(β1–6)}Gal(β1–4)Glc (monosialyl monogalactosyl difucosyl lacto-N-neohexaose). A notable feature of some of these milk oligosaccharides is the presence of B-antigen (Gal(α1–3)[Fuc(α1–2)]Gal), α-Gal epitope (Gal(α1–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc(NAc)) and Lewis x (Gal(β1–4)[Fuc(α1–3)]GlcNAc) structures within oligosaccharides. By comparison to American black bear milk, cheetah milk had a much smaller array of oligosaccharides. Two cheetah milks contained Gal(α1–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (isoglobotriose), while another cheetah milk did not, but contained Gal(β1–6)Gal(β1–4)Glc (6′-galactosyllactose) and Gal(β1–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (3′-galactosyllactose). Two cheetah milks contained Gal(β1–4)GlcNAc(β1–3)[Gal(β1–4)GlcNAc(β1–6)]Gal(β1–4)Glc (lacto-N-neohexaose), and one cheetah milk contained Gal(β1–4)Glc-3’-O-sulfate. Neu5Ac(α2–8)Neu5Ac(α2–3)Gal(β1–4)Glc (disialyllactose) was the only sialyl oligosaccharide identified in cheetah milk. The heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides was found between both species with respect of the presence/absence of B-antigen and Lewis x. The variety of milk oligosaccharides was much greater in the American black bear than in the cheetah. The ratio of milk oligosaccharides-to-lactose was lower in cheetah (1:1–1:2) than American black bear (21:1) which is likely a reflection of the requirement for a dietary supply of N-acetyl neuraminic acid (sialic acid), in altricial ursids compared to more precocial felids, given the role of these oligosaccharides in the synthesis of brain gangliosides and the polysialic chains on neural cell adhesion.
... A hospital control population was similarly selected comprising dogs also presenting to UCDVH for a variety of reasons providing they had not received prior glucocorticoid therapy and in which naturally occurring HAC was not being considered for specific investigation. To avoid any effect of growth on PTH concentrations, young dogs were not included (<9 months for small dogs and <18 months for large/giant dogs) (28). Control dogs and those with HAC were excluded if they had an illness likely to affect calcium and phosphate homeostasis such as kidney disease or malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. ...
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Reports on the effects of hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) on bone turnover in dogs are largely confined to radiographic studies. The aim of this study was to more accurately assess bone turnover in dogs with HAC by measuring circulating total and ionized calcium and phosphate concentrations, both intact and whole parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations and markers of both osteoblastic (osteocalcin) and osteoclastic [carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (ICTP) and urine aminoterminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX) activity]. Dogs with HAC and a control group were prospectively enrolled for comparison. Results from 49 dogs with HAC were compared with 39 dogs from a hospital control population. Plasma intact and whole PTH concentrations were determined using a human immunoradiometric assay. Serum osteocalcin and NTX concentrations were measured using human enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Serum ICTP concentration was measured using a human radioimmunoassay. Total calcium concentrations in dogs with HAC (2.67 ± 0.25 mmol/L) were not significantly different than in the control group (2.67 ± 0.14 mmol/L). By contrast, phosphate concentrations were significantly (P = 0.0143) higher in dogs with HAC (1.46 ± 0.30 mmol/L) compared to the control group (1.28 ± 0.33 mmol/L). The median intact PTH concentration in HAC dogs was 9.25 (range, 1.34–95.45) pmol/L, which was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher than in the control group [median, 3.88 (range, 2.01–10.31) pmol/L]. Whole PTH concentrations were also significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in the HAC group [median, 4.61 (range, 0.56–125.16) pmol/L] compared to the control group [median, 1.83 (range, 0.88–6.81) pmol/L]. Serum osteocalcin and urine NTX concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups of dogs. The median ICTP concentration in dogs with HAC was 2.98 (range, 1.15–6.62) ng/mL which was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower than in the control dogs [median, 7.30 (range, 3.68–21.25) ng/mL]. Both whole and intact PTH concentrations are increased in dogs with HAC compared to a hospital control population. This does not however appear to be associated with a decrease in bone formation (as assessed by osteocalcin) or an increase in bone resorption (as assessed by ICTP and urine NTX).
... Only specimens with a reported individual age of less than 14 months were used since domestic dogs and wolves are generally fully grown towards the end of their first year [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. In the case of the domestic dogs and captive wolves, the age data were sourced from databases provided by the corresponding pet owners and zoological gardens. ...
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Background It has been hypothesised that domestication altered the sequence of dental, skeletal, and sexual maturity of dogs when compared to their wolf ancestor. To test this we investigated a comprehensive sample of domestic dogs. Methods We documented the timing of completed eruption of permanent dentition into occlusion (dental maturity) and the timing of growth plate closure at the proximal humerus (skeletal maturity) in ontogenetic series of wolves and 15 domestic dog breeds. Data for 137 domestic dog and 64 wolf individuals were collected based on radiographs and examination of macerated bones. ResultsOur analyses show that domestic dogs exhibit a similar sequence of dental and skeletal maturity as the ancestral wolf. Although the absolute change of the age at attainment of sexual maturity is great in domestic dogs as compared to the wolf, the sequence of dental, skeletal, and sexual maturity is not altered as extensively, contradicting one previous hypothesis. Moreover, our data suggest that the chondrodystrophic dachshund attains skeletal maturity earlier than the non-chondrodystrophic breeds examined here. Conclusions Domestic dogs are more wolf-like in terms of the sequence of dental, skeletal, and sexual maturation than previously hypothesised. This implies that the domestication process and/or breed formation did not have a major impact on this sequence, although the absolute values of life history variables do have a greater range of variation than in the wild wolf.
... Missing values of body weight at 6, 9, 13, 16 and 20 weeks (which were fewer than 30% of measured values at each time point, with the exception of 20 weeks where 46% of values were missing) were imputed using multiple imputation based on litter, sex and previous measured weights, when available [25]. Given the linear growth rate between 6 and 20 weeks observed in dog breeds of similar adult size to our study population [26], we used linear interpolation to estimate body weights at relevant points between measurement times. Inverse probability of censoring weights were calculated using the 'ipw' package [27]. ...
Article
Non-live rabies vaccines have been associated with both beneficial and detrimental effects on host population morbidity and mortality rates to unrelated infections in people and animals, and these non-specific effects may differ by sex. Previous animal studies may have been affected by bias, including selection bias due to loss to follow up in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We previously reported results of an RCT in dogs on the effect of primary rabies vaccine administered at 6 weeks of age on all-cause mortality over a 7-week follow-up period, in a high-mortality population of owned dogs. Here, we report the results from the same trial of a second vaccination at 13 weeks of age, compared to a primary vaccination. Because a relatively high proportion of study subjects (30%) were lost to follow-up in the RCT, we also conducted an analysis to control for possible selection bias over both periods (6 to 13 weeks and 13 to 20 weeks of age). We found that primary rabies vaccination at 6 weeks of age substantially increased the hazard of death from all causes over the next 7 weeks among females (hazard ratio [HR] 2.69, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.27-5.69), but not among males (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.32-2.59). Among survivors, administration of a second dose of rabies vaccine at 13 weeks of age was associated with a decreased hazard of death among males (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.10-1.02) but not females (HR 1.64, 95% CI 0.59-4.58), when compared to the group receiving their first dose at this age. Based on our causal assumptions, we show that these results were not affected by selection bias. In this high-mortality dog population, receipt of a non-live rabies vaccine substantially affected all-cause mortality rates, with this effect being strongly modified by sex.
... The breeds were assigned to different classes, based on weight and skull type. Subdivision into weight classes was based on the average adult weight of each breed, derived from FCI standards, as defined in existing literature (Hawthorne et al., 2004;Salt et al., 2017): small ...
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This study investigated the influence of several covariates on the time and sequence of deciduous dentition emergence in puppies. Data were obtained in a longitudinal study, with some cross‐sectional observations, of 1001 puppies of 53 dog breeds. A parametric proportional hazards survival model was used to estimate median emergence time and evaluate the effect of the covariates. No significant differences were found between the left and right sides of a puppy's dentition, but differences were statistically significant for the earlier appearance of maxillary incisors and canines and later appearance of maxillary premolars compared with their mandibular counterparts. The tendency for delayed onset and completion of emergence in female compared to male puppies was statistically but not clinically significant. The differences between puppies of breeds of different size or skull type were both statistically and clinically significant, with small and brachycephalic breeds showing later emergence times, longer clinical eruption times and more individual variation. Per quadrant, regardless of dog breed, canines or incisors were usually the first teeth to emerge and fully erupt, followed by premolars in the order Pd3 > 4 > 2. The maxillary canines and incisors usually emerged earlier than mandibular canines. Age estimation standards for breed size groups are presented based on the number of emerged teeth per quadrant. To assess whether a puppy has reached the legally required minimum age of 8 weeks to leave the litter, the best predictive capability using the data from this study is obtained when assessing the emergence status of the deciduous third premolars.
... Ten heads belonged to the brachycephalic, 58 to the mesaticephalic and 16 to the dolichocephalic skull type, based on the division according to Evans and de Lahunta (2013). Nine dogs belonged to small (1-10 kg), 31 to medium (11-25 kg), 34 to large (25-44 kg) and 10 to giant (≥45 kg) dog breeds, based on the average adult whole bodyweight of each breed derived from FCI standards (Hawthorne et al., 2004). A list of the dog heads included in the study can be found in Appendix 1. ...
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Age estimation in adult dogs can be performed by the radiographic measurement of the tooth pulp cavity, but the technique has hardly been described. In this study, the application of measuring pulp/tooth width ratios (P/T ratios) of the maxillary canine teeth was investigated. Pulp and tooth widths were measured at two locations on 166 maxillary canine teeth of the heads of 84 dog cadavers, using digital extraoral lateral oblique open mouth radiographs. The dogs belonged to different breeds and sexes and had a known age between 194 and 1907 days (approximately 6 months ‐ 5 years). Both at the cemento‐enamel junction (CE) and the half‐height of the tooth, a comparable non‐linear regression with age was demonstrated. Measuring at the CE location was less hindered by wear or superimposition. No statistically significant difference according to sex and breed size and no clinically significant difference according to skull type was found. The highest predictable capacity was found in the youngest dogs until the age of 448 days, of which 84.4% of the canine teeth had a P/T ratio above 0.39. Our results demonstrate that measuring P/T ratios of canine teeth can be used in practice to assign dogs to age categories, with the highest accuracy in young adult dogs.
... The morphologic examination of 111 Mannara dogs showed that, on average, the indications of the provisional breed standard are satisfied (ENCI 2013): the dogs can be classified as large/giant (mean weight was 41 kg for males and 32 kg for females), with a meso-dolichomorphic body (mean body index was 85 for males and 90 for females) and a mesocephalic head (mean cephalic index was 53 for both the sexes). A certain degree of variability was observed, particularly in the Thoracic index, probably due to the different age of animals (1-5 years old) and therefore their development: due to the diversity of breeds with very different shapes and sizes, growth patterns are also noticeably different, with very small dog breeds reaching maturity between 8 and 12 months of age and larger breeds taking up to 24 months to reach the adult body weight and conformation (Hawthorne et al. 2004;Lewis 2019). The average birth weights measured on 50 puppies, equal to 720 g for males and 580 g for females, are in accordance with published data referred to large/giant dog breeds (Groppetti et al. 2017;Schrank et al. 2019). ...
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Mannara dogs have long been bred in Sicily (Italy) to work alongside shepherds as flock guardians. This study provides a morphologic, genealogic, and genomic characterisation of the Mannara dog, useful in light of its recognition process and to improve the breed standard. Morphologic measurements of body, head, and chest were taken on 111 adult Mannara dogs. The whole population pedigree was used to calculate the inbreeding coefficient (F) and five effective population size (N e) parameters. Twelve Mannara dogs were genotyped using the Canine 230 K SNP BeadChips and compared with Maremma sheepdog, Caucasian shepherd dog, Cane Corso Italiano, and Neapolitan mastiff for population structure, heterozygosity, and runs of homozygosity. The morphometric evaluation showed that Mannara dogs generally accords with the provisional standard and can be classified as a large/giant, meso-dolicomorphic, and meso-cephalic breed. The population consists of 375 individuals, one third of which are founders and the remaining belong to 58 litters; presenting low inbreeding (F = 0.7%) and balanced sires and dams. The N e estimates range widely: two (N eN =159 and N eFi =50) exceed the FCI limit for breed recognition and one (N eCi =25) did not. Genetically, all the included populations are well distinct, with the Maremma sheepdog being the nearest to the Mannara dog. Five Mannara have a single ancestral component, while the others show higher admixed proportions. The genomic inbreeding and heterozygosity confirm the good management of the breed. Our analyses suggest that the Mannara breed should continue the recognition process, pivotal to preserving an invaluable canine resource for the Sicilian agriculture.
... Similarly, the average MER of pet dogs was demonstrated to be 519 ± 159 kJ/kg 0·75 per day [65]. Importantly, the data presented here are consistent with studies that demonstrate collectively that the NRC recommendation overestimates the amount of energy required for healthy growth across multiple breeds [27,39,40,66,67]. Indeed, breed specific differences in energy requirements, especially between different sized breeds, have been documented, with Alexander et al. (2017) showing differences between the energy requirements of Yorkshire terriers, miniature schnauzers and Labrador retrievers. ...
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An appropriate energy intake for healthy growth can reduce the risk of obesity and co-morbidities, such as orthopaedic diseases. The 2006 National Research Council (NRC) universal equation calculates the energy requirement of growing dogs based on predicted adult body weight, but evidence suggests a revision may be required. This study investigates the energy requirements of seventeen Norfolk terrier puppies over their first year (10 to 52 weeks). Puppies were individually fed complete and balanced diets in amounts to maintain an optimal body condition score (BCS), recording intake daily and body weight and BCS weekly. To monitor health a veterinary examination, haematology and plasma biochemistry and serum measures of bone turnover were undertaken every 12 weeks. Skeletal development was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (26 and 52 weeks). Puppies were clinically healthy with normal skeletal development and healthy growth throughout. The energy intake to achieve this was significantly lower than that predicted by the NRC (2006) equation at all time points, with largest mean difference of 285 kJ/kg0·75 per day at 10 weeks. If fed according to the NRC 2006 equation, dogs would have been in positive energy balance, possibly leading to obesity. These data support a revision to the NRC (2006) equation.
... The dogs were considered adult in the radiographic study when they were at least 8 months old and demonstrated a closed distal growth plate of the radius; in the dissection study, they were considered adult when they had reached breed-specific FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale)-standards for adult weight and withers height. All dogs were allocated to one of four size groups as defined in existing literature (Hawthorne, Booles, Nugent, Gettinby, & Wilkinson, 2004;Salt et al., 2017), based on the average adult weight of their breed, derived from FCI-standards: small (1-10 kg), medium (11-25 kg), large (25-44 kg) and giant (> 45 kg) dog breeds. Miniature dogs were assigned to the small breed group, chondrodystrophic breeds to the corresponding size group. ...
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The sesamoid bone in the tendon of the m. abductor digiti primi longus is considered present in most dog breeds and is described to be radiologically detectable at the level of the carpus from the age of four months. However, an extensive investigation of this sesamoid bone has not been conducted before. The aim of this study was therefore to determine its prevalence in different dog breeds, to describe its histological development, and to determine the age at which it becomes radiologically visible. The prevalence of the sesamoid bone was assessed on radiographic images of the carpus or by dissection of the carpal region in 743 adult dogs of 115 breeds. Its development was studied by dissection and histological analysis in 45 puppies and its timing of radiological appearance was evaluated in 209 puppies. At least one sesamoid bone was present in all adult dogs, except for 14 dogs of six breeds of predominantly the small breed‐category. The lowest prevalence rate of 38.46% was exhibited in the French bulldog. The histological development could be divided in five stages. The first radiographic appearance corresponded to the coalescence of smaller ossification centers into one big nucleus (stage 4). The mean time of radiographic appearance was 108.4 days. This study provides extensive data on the prevalence and timing of radiographic appearance of a sesamoid at the carpus of the dog. The data on radiographic appearance may be helpful in age estimation of puppies.
... Small breeds can be advantageous when assessing adult food preferences, because they reach adulthood sooner (Hawthorne et al., 2004). On the other hand, small breeds are puppies for less time than other breed sizes, which could be a disadvantage for assessing puppy food preferences long-term. ...
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Balanced diets that meet nutritional requirements for various life stages of animals are important to sustain health as dietary needs change with development. Dog owners want to offer a tasty and nutritionally balanced diet to their dogs. Dog food product developers strive to formulate such diets in a timely manner and that meet a dog's specific nutritional requirements in various life stages. Palatability assessments during product development can be expensive and time-consuming when evaluating specially designed foods for multiple breed types, dog sizes, and ages of dogs. Assessments of puppy food by puppies is especially expensive because a narrow window for food trials exists before they reach adulthood. Moreover, it is not practical or ideal for palatability assessment centers to continually acquire puppies when the dogs can only test as puppies for a fraction of their lifetime. Thus, we evaluated if preference trials of diets formulated specifically for small breed puppies could be assessed by small breed adults and yield similar results. We ran seven paired preference trials over 14 days with twenty dogs at ages 5-8 months old (i.e., puppyhood) and again at 14-17 months old (i.e., adulthood). In six of seven trials, dogs were consistent in their preference as adults and as puppies. While it is not recommended that dog owners feed their adult dog puppy food on a regular basis, the results suggest that pet food developers do not need to have constant access to puppy panels to evaluate palatability of puppy foods. Rather, adult dog panels could be a quicker, more practical, and more economical option to aid pet food developers in getting a product to market that puppies would likely enjoy.
... To our knowledge, it has not yet been established how long the isotopic signature for lactation lasts in canids, but in the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) it has been seen to fade away once individuals reach a size equivalent to 35% of the adult size (Pérez-Rama et al. 2011). In dogs, even those belonging to large breeds, this size would be reached at an age of less than six months (Hawthorne et al. 2004). In other carnivores, such as the brown bear or the striped skunk, it has been observed that individuals that are actively growing display decreasing δ 15 N values as the protein of the diet is routed to somatic growth, whereas in adults the protein ingested follows various metabolic pathways involving extra fractionation (Hobson and Quirk 2014;García-Vázquez et al. 2018). ...
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We studied 36 dogs (Canis familiaris) from the Can Roqueta site in the Catalan pre-littoral depression (Barcelona), dated between the Late Bronze Age and the First Iron Age (1300 and 550 cal BC). We used a sample of 27 specimens to analyse the evolution of the dogs’ diet based on the carbon δ13C and nitrogen δ15N isotope composition. The results show a marked human influence in that these natural carnivores display a highly plant-based diet. The offset between canids and herbivorous ungulates does not reach the minimum established for a trophic level, which implies an input of C3 and C4 (millet) cultivated plants. Moreover, the homogeneity in the values indicates that humans prepared their dogs’ food.
... In the research [2]. Which is done by Amanda J. Hawthorne, Derek Booles, Pat A. Nugent, George Gettinby and Joy Wilkinson. ...
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Regardless of the mobile applications available in smartphones, the veterinary hospitals in Sri Lanka still use the manual books to fill the vaccination schedule and keep track of pet care. This research is an attempt to change this tradition by introducing a smart system for dogs. The system can be used both by dog lovers and veterinary doctors. In this study, new proposed application plan is to replace the traditional method with a method that can store the information into a system and make it available for the users to take care of the dog. Since the dog's birth, the information can be stored and it will assist the pet owners. Unlike other applications available, the advantage of this application is that the user can choose applications to be used individually or integrated according to their choice.
... During the course of the study, the average body weight increased from 22.1 kg to 23.4 kg. Hawthorne et al. published data on dogs in similar expected weight classes in adulthood (Labrador Retrievers) describing that these dogs gained body weight more slowly in advanced adolescence and had reached 99% of expected adult weight by 52 (SD ± 0.79) weeks of age [11]. It is concluded that the body weight gain of the dogs observed in the present study is only, to a small extent, due to age-related body growth, but rather to other influences, such as adaptive responses to physical activity. ...
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Many factors have specific effects, in varying degrees of intensity, on the metabolic energy requirements of working dogs. Appropriate energy supply adjusted to the requirements of military working dogs at pre-training is a basic prerequisite for working dogs, so they are fully able to exercise. Therefore, more knowledge obtained under standardized conditions would be advantageous. Twenty intact Belgian Shepherds var. Malinois at the age of 12 months were accompanied for four weeks during pre-training (odour detection, obedience training, and protection work) as military working dogs (MWDs) in Germany (ambient temperature about 7.8 °C), and the amount of energy intake was evaluated. To assess changes in body constitution, body weight and shoulder height were measured, and the thickness of subcutaneous fat tissue (SCF), and of Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis (MSCDL), were recorded via ultrasound. Energy intake amounted to, on average, 244 ± 34 kcal/kg body weight (BW)0.75 daily. Increases in body weight, shoulder height, and thickness of the MSCDL, as well as a reduction of SCF thickness lying on the MSCDL, were observed. Changes of body constitution might be attributed to training-induced muscle growth and physiological growth in size. In addition to training intensity, influences of ambient temperature and physiological body growth seemed to be important contributing factors in the supply of energy for MWDs during pre-training.
... Culling dogs prior to puberty would ensure they are never able to reproduce. Modern toy dogs reach near adult body mass when around nine months old, while giant breeds attain this size between eleven and fifteen months of age (Hawthorne et al., 2004). The most efficient time to slaughter dogs raised for food would be at these points in their lives-maintaining them past this age would result in little additional gain in edible body mass. ...
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This study describes a non-destructive method that can be used to estimate the age of archaeological dog remains involving tooth pulp cavity closure ratios. This technique was first developed in wildlife management and zoology for wild carnivores. For the first time, we develop this technique for dogs by utilizing a modern sample of 751 teeth roots from 106 animals with known life histories. The method involves measuring widths of teeth roots and their pulp cavities by means of X-ray images, and then calculating the ratios of pulp cavity infilling for each tooth. The method is developed for upper and lower canines and the distal and mesial roots of the mandibular M1. Our assessments demonstrate that upper and lower canines are most strongly correlated with age, followed by the mesial and distal roots of the mandibular M1. The method is useful for assigning specimens to relative age categories, and proved most reliable with younger individuals. We illustrate the applicability of the method by analyzing 369 teeth roots from 77 archaeological dogs from the Iron Age Ust'-Polui site in Arctic Siberia. Previously , ageing of the dog remains at this site involved only assessments of dental eruption patterns and long bone epiphysis fusion. The overall age estimation results from Ust'-Polui produced a mortuary profile dominated by juveniles and prime age adults, suggesting a regional preference for dogs of these age groups in sacrifices.
... A single insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) haplotype seems to substantially con-tribute to size variation in dogs (42), and serum IGF-1 is reduced in small dogs relative to concentrations in large breeds, providing a potential link to their longer lives (12). The small dog phenotype is, however, also associated with significantly higher mass-specific metabolic rates and significantly faster relative growth rates compared with large dog breeds (20,21,23,36). It is perhaps surprising that small-breed dogs have longer life spans than large-breed dogs. ...
Article
Canids are a morphological and physiological diverse group of animals, with the most diversity found within one species, the domestic dog. Underlying the observed morphological differences must be cellular-level differences that could lead to elucidating aging rates and lifespan disparities between wild and domestic canids. Furthermore, small breed dogs live significantly longer lives than large breed dogs while having higher mass-specific metabolic rates and faster growth rates. At the cell level, a clear mechanism underlying whole-animal traits has not been fully elucidated, though, oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential culprit of the disparate lifespans of domestic dogs. We used separated blood from known age domestic dogs and wild canids, and measured several oxidative stress variables: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid damage, and enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We used phylogenetically corrected analysis and non-phylogenetically corrected analysis. We found that lipid damage increases with age in domestic dogs; whereas TAC increases with age and TAC and GPx activity increase as a function of age/Maximum lifespan (MLSP) in wild canids, which may partly explain longer potential lifespans in wolves. As body mass increases TAC and GPx activity increases in wild canids, but not domestic dogs, highlighting that artificial selection may have decreased antioxidant capacity in domestic dogs. We found that small breed dogs have significantly higher circulating lipid damage compared with large breed dogs, concomitant to their high mass-specific metabolism and higher growth rates, but in opposition to their long lifespans.
... Table 4). The final body weight of the dogs was close to the body weight of beagles observed at this growth stage in other studies (Hawthorne et al. 2004;Dobenecker et al. 2013). No significant difference in body weight was observed between the groups (P>0.05; ...
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the hematology, serum biochemistry, immune responses and oxidative damage of growing beagles fed a diet supplemented with housefly ( Musca domestica ) maggot meal (MM). Weaning beagles (initial body weight 2.69 ± 0.17 kg) were fed a control diet (0% MM) or experimental diet (5% MM) for 42 days. The results indicated that the diet supplemented with 5% MM had no significant effects on the hematology and serum biochemistry of growing beagles ( P> 0.05). Meanwhile, neither the serum concentrations of lysozyme and C-reactive protein nor the serum antibody responses to canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were influenced by dietary MM supplementation ( P > 0.05). However, dogs in the experimental group had lower serum levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl than those in the control group ( P< 0.05). These findings demonstrated that MM could be used as an alternative protein source in growing beagles without any adverse effects on hematology, serum biochemistry and immune responses. Furthermore, dietary MM could alleviate oxidative damage in growing beagles.
... Basic signalment information including age, breed, and sex were extracted from the last available visit with age recalculated to the survey date. Breeds were recoded into size categories toy, small, medium, large, and giant based on the breed's average adult body weight 18 . Age-based life stage coding into the categories youth, midlife, and senior used breakpoints at 7 and 11 years for toy and small dogs, and breakpoints at 6 and 10 years for medium, large and giant dogs. ...
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The increasing attention for the dog-owner relationship combined with advances in nutrition and veterinary care have made wellbeing a focal point for dog owners, veterinarians, and dog product and service providers. While canine wellbeing can be quantified by survey-based quality of life instruments like those used in human healthcare, there are currently few instruments available that can do this reliably and at scale. Here we report the development and initial validation of a canine quality of life instrument specifically designed to quantify wellbeing in the general dog population. The instrument is based on a simple 32-question survey and includes 5 daytime domains (energetic, mobile, relaxed, happy, sociable) and 3 mealtime domains (relaxed, interested and satisfied). It captures specific health-related aspects as well as more general wellbeing aspects and, in an initial sample of 2813 dogs, already provides useful insights on canine wellbeing. We believe that data collection at scale with this instrument will help bring optimal wellbeing to the dogs we care for.
Chapter
Mammalian milk and colostrum usually contain lactose as a predominant saccharide as well as lower concentrations of a variety of milk oligosaccharides. However, in the milk of monotremes and marsupials, oligosaccharides predominate over lactose. Among eutherians, many species of the order Carnivora are also exceptional in that they contain substantial amounts of oligosaccharides in addition to lactose. With the exception of the domestic dog, milk oligosaccharides predominate over lactose in the milk of Caniformia, including mink, striped skunk, raccoon, many bears and seals, whereas lactose is the dominant saccharide in the milk of some species of Feliformia, such as spotted hyena, African lion, clouded leopard and cheetah. A significant feature of the milk oligosaccharides of Carnivora is the presence of A (GalNAcα1-3(Fuc(α1-2)Gal), B (Galα1-3(Fucα1-2)Gal) or H (Fucα1-2Gal) units as well as α-Gal (Galα1-3Gal) unit, attached to the core structures of lactose, lacto-N-neotetraose (Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc), lacto-N-neohexaose (Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3(Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-6)Galβ1-4Glc) or para lacto-N-neohexaose (Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc). The presence of A, B, H antigens, and α-Gal varies depending on each species of Carnivora. In contrast to the milk of Carnivora, that of Artiodactyla including such diverse species as giraffe, sitatunga, deer and water buffalo, contains lactose as the predominant saccharide, although small amounts of oligosaccharides are present as well. In most of these oligosaccharides, the core structure is lactose and they all contain isoglobotriose (Galα1-3Galβ1-4Glc), but are heterogeneous with respect to the presence of a few saccharides such as GM2 tetrasaccharide (Neu5Acα2-3(GalNAcβ1-4)Galβ1-4Glc) and globotriose (Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc). None of these milks include oligosaccharides containing A, B or H antigens. In addition, milk or colostrum of other Artiodactyla such as cow, sheep, goat, camel and pig contain very low concentrations of oligosaccharides whose core structures are lacto-N-neotetraose, lacto-N-neohexaose, lacto-N-novopentaose I (Galβ1-3(Galβ1-4GlcNAc(β1-6)Galβ1-4Glc) or GlcNAcβ1-3 (Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-6)Galβ1-4Glc. In this chapter, we hypothesize on the evolution of milk oligosaccharides in Carnivora and Artiodactyla, as well as on the potential significance of the ratio of oligosaccharides to lactose in these milks.
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Archaeological sites of Baikal region have rich collections of canid remains. By the Iron Age dogs become abundant in some Transbaikalia archaeological sites, especially in Xiongnu complexes. Ivolginsk Fortress is one of Transbaikalia's most important Xiongnu sites, where a dog is the first (in faunal collections of 1955-1974 excavations) and the fourth (in faunal collection of 2017 excavation) numerous among domestic animals. However, the dog remains from the site are not extensively studied. To address parts of this lacuna, this paper describes ten dog skulls from Ivol-ginsk Fortress. The purpose of study is to determine the morphological type of dogs living in the fortress during the Iron Age. Their skulls are similar in size and shape to those of East Siberian Laikas. For this reason, we made a comparison of skulls from Ivolginsk Fortress to those of East Siberian Laika of the early twentieth century, which showed the general similarity in morphological characteristics of these skulls. Therefore, all dogs from Ivolginsk Fortress were identified as northern (Laika-like) type of dogs. Also, as a result of the morphological description of the Ivolginsk skulls, two size groups of Ivolginsk dogs were identified. However, a comparison of the size of the skulls to body mass made it possible to divide the Ivolginsk dogs into three size groups: small-, medium-and large-sized individuals. The Ivolginsk dog population consisted primarily of medium-sized dogs, small and large dogs were not abundant. Moreover, Ivolginsk dogs differed by some morphological characteristics: relative snout length (dogs with short and medium-length snouts) and relative skull width (dogs with narrow and wide skulls). The comparison of skulls from Ivolginsk Fortress to Holocene skulls from Far East and Baikal regions showed the similarity of Ivolginsk skulls to Early Holocene skulls from Cis-Baikal archaeological sites (Pad Kalashnikova, Ust-Belaia) and Early Medieval skulls from Amur archaeological sites. It could indicate that dogs of northern type were relatively widespread during most of the Holocene in the Baikal and Amur regions.
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In growing dogs, overweight is assimilated and attributed to a fast growth rate. Proper nutrition plays a very important role during growth as mistakes in feeding may lead to severe disease. This case report is an example for excessive weight gain during growth that, particularly in large breed dogs, may lead to skeletal disorders such as improper alignments of the limbs. If body weight gain exceeds the ideal range of the individual growth curve (by initially 4 kg in this case), fast growth may lead to growth disturbances and associated chronic diseases. These cases require a dietary adaption. However, the success in the nutritional management of the body weight relies largely on the owner's compliance.
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The body condition score (BCS) is a popular method used to assess the body condition of dogs. However, owner-misperception of canine body condition has shown to persist even after being guided by a BCS chart. We compared the BCS assessments performed by the owners of 95 large-sized, purebred dogs without and with the guidance of a five-point BCS chart. Initially, only 23/95 dog owners accurately assessed the BCS of their dogs and the correct assessments significantly increased after being guided by a BCS chart (50/95, p < 0.001). In addition, initially there was only a poor agreement between the owners and the primary investigator (κ = 0.14) that improved significantly after the owners were guided by a BCS chart (κ = 0.6). The present findings suggest that BCS charts are useful for reducing owner-misperception on canine body condition in large-sized, purebred dogs.
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Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001) and litter size (p < 0.05) increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and the lightest pups, respectively (p < 0.001). Birth weight decreased with litter size (p < 0.001), and male pups were heavier than females (p < 0.001). These results suggest that canine morphotype, not only maternal size and body weight, can affect birth weight and litter size with possible practical implications in neonatal assistance.
Article
OBJECTIVE To collect kinetic gait reference data of dogs of 2 breeds in their growth period during walking and trotting gait, to describe their development, and to investigate the weight support pattern over time. ANIMALS 8 Foxhound-Boxer-Ingelheim Labrador Retriever mixed breeds and 4 Beagles. PROCEDURES Ground reaction force variables (GRFs), peak vertical force and vertical impulse, and temporal variables (TVs) derived therefrom; time of occurrence; and stance times were collected. Body weight distribution (BWD) was evaluated. Six measurements, each containing 1 trial in walking and 1 trial in trotting gait, were taken at age 10, 17, 26, 34, 52, and 78 weeks. The study period started July 17, 2013 and lasted until October 7, 2015. Area under the curve with respect to increase was applied. The difference of area under the curve with respect to increase values between breeds and gaits was analyzed using either the t test or the Mann-Whitney test. Generalized mixed linear models were applied. RESULTS Significant differences in gait and breed comparisons were found. Growing dogs showed a forelimb-dominated gait. The development of GRF and TV values over the study period were described. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Reference values for GRFs, TVs, and BWDs in growing dogs were given. A cranial shift in weight support over time was found during trotting gait. Smaller, younger dogs walked and trotted more inconsistently.
Article
Anamnesis: A litter of Bernese Mountain Dog-puppies (6 weeks of age) was meant to be fed a "BARF" (bones and raw food) diet. The breeder asked for advice regarding the nutritional adequacy of the feeding plans that she had compiled for the different growth stages. The anamnesis showed the puppies to be underweight for their age and expected adult body mass at the time of request for a ration check. The bitch had almost stopped lactating. Ration check: The review of the feeding plans for the different growth stages revealed a deficient energy supply for all stages and at times an inadequate protein supply. A highly inappropriate supply with calcium and phosphorus was found in almost all feeding plans. Sodium and potassium as well as the trace elements copper, zinc, manganese and iodine and several vitamins were deficient in some if not all of the feeding plans. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Inadequate supply with such nutrients during the growth phase can lead to severe developmental disorders, especially in large breed puppies. Therefore, a thorough review of self-made rations for puppies carried out by specialised veterinarians appears to be of utmost importance to avoid permanent damage during growth.
Article
Four puppies of Estrela mountain dog breed, out of a litter of nine, eight weeks of age, and with poor body condition, poor appetite, pica (geophagia) and stunted growth from the fifth week of age, were attended at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. On physical examination, it was concluded that the puppies were severely underweight. Rectal examination showed dark faeces. Nevertheless, the puppies were alert, responsive and interested in wet food. Haematological, biochemical, faecal, radiographic, ultrasonographic and CT studies were performed. The main abnormalities detected were mild anaemia and intestinal parasitism caused by Giardia species and coccidia. The puppies started to be fed with wet food and were treated with metronidazole, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim for intestinal parasitism. The puppies regained their appetite and growth, and their body condition gradually improved. At 12 weeks of age the puppies were completely healthy, without evidence of sequela, and living with their new owners.
Article
The practical formulation of a diet for puppies requires an estimate of the energy requirements of growth. Historically, it was estimated stage by stage, based on the percentage of growth. As it is possible ro predict the adult weight of ii dog knowing juri the weight and age of a puppy, the authors present a new approach which allows the energy requirement of the puppy to calculated: ERgrowth (kcal ME/day)= C x MER (kcal ME/day); where MER is the puppy maintenance energy requirement at its actual weight and C is a multiplier: C=3.2. [exp (-0.87 P)- 0.1], where P is the actual puppy weight (kg)/estimated adult body weight (kg); with 0 < P < 1. The protein-calorie ratio (g protein/Mcal ME) of the diet is also presented, depending upon the growth stage and the breed size. A dietary plan for any puppy can then be easily established.
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The nutritional programme followed during the growth and development of the German shepherd puppy may have a significant influence on the dog's value as a potential working or breeding animal. Limited research has been undertaken on the nutrition of the dog from birth until four to five weeks of age. The objective of this study was to establish a baseline in terms of food intake and growth, which can be used in a nutritional and managerial programme in a commercial breeding unit. The food intake and growth of 10 German shepherd dog litters, with an average of six puppies per litter, were monitored from birth to 12 weeks of age. Both food intake and growth was described by regression equations. A commercially available diet was fed throughout the study. Performance criteria, namely food intake and bodyweight, were established which could be used in a commercial German shepherd dog breeding unit.
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27 Great Danes (from 3 litters) were fed ad lib. (n = 9) or with an energy intake (n = 18) restricted to 80 and 70% of the paired ad lib. group, respectively, and a nearly equalized protein and nutrient supply meeting the current recommendations (8 dogs of the restricted groups were bearing weight loaded [15% of own BW] belts in the scapular region). Dogs were weighed weekly, shoulder height, approximate length of the forearm and foot were recorded in certain intervals. In plasma protein, urea, Ca, P, Cu, Zn, and alkaline phosphatase were determined. Intake of digestible energy (according to the results of digestive trials) was recorded daily.
Article
The pathogenesis of the osteochondrosis syndrome was studied in large and giant breeds of dogs. Spontaneous cases of osteochondrosis were examined in large breed dogs, and experimental disease was investigated in Great Dane puppies fed ad libitum or restricted diets until 6 mo of age. This investigation concluded that the primary lesion occurring in osteochondrosis of dogs from the large and giant breeds is an acquired pattern of osteopenic and biomechanically weak subchondral spongiosa that cannot provide adequate bony support for the articular cartilage of joints. Excessive biomechanical loading of the inadequately supported epiphyseal articular cartilage leads to secondary disturbances in the nutrition, metabolism, function and viability of the chondrocytes in the developing joint surface. The primary lesion in the subchondral spongiosa develops when overnutrition (ad libitum feeding) overstimulates skeletal growth and cancellous bone remodelling mechanisms in those breeds of dogs who already have an inherent capacity for rapid skeletal growth. The epiphyseal spongiosa of rapidly growing dogs of the larger breeds is inherently less dense and less strong per unit area than epiphyseal spongiosa of dogs from the smaller breeds. Overnutrition in dogs from the larger breeds exaggerates this tendency to create osteopenia by increasing the rates of skeletal growth and remodeling of the newly formed cancellous bone. Accelerated rates of bone growth and bone remodeling act in concert to product a pattern of epiphyseal spongiosa that is composed of fine trabecular systems that are spaced relatively far apart and that are ultimately less strong per unit area than in small breeds of dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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An animal's primary demand from its diet is for energy. Unlike an individual nutrient, there is no range of acceptable intakes, but rather a specific energy requirement for a given set of conditions. Accurate assessments of both food energy density and the energy needs of the animal are implicit in providing reliable feeding recommendations. The metabolizable energy content of a food is best measured using in vivo testing in the target species. However, the demands of biological testing mean that a set of factors is desirable to provide reasonable estimates. Assessment of energy requirement in dogs is confounded by their wide range of body weights. It should be expressed on an allometric basis, but the precise value for the exponent is still a matter of some debate. For cats recent studies suggest there may be an allometric relationship over a weight range of 2.5-6.5 kg. Energy requirement is dependent on a number of other factors, in particular, activity, environmental temperature and life stage. Demand increases most in lactation (four times) and growth (up to three times). Old animals show a decline in energy requirement, but this may reflect principally a decrease in activity, rather than any underlying change in metabolism.
Article
A desirable dog guide weighs 18 to 32 kg as an adult. Male and female German shepherd dogs and male and female Labrador retrievers were weighed between birth and 18 mo of age, with at least one weight recorded after 290 d of age. Growth curves were constructed from 10,484 observations on 880 dogs using the Gompertz function in the form Wt = W(max)exp(-e[-(t-c)/b]), where Wt is weight at time t, Wmax is mature body weight, b is proportional to duration of growth, c is age at point of inflection, and t is age in days. Estimates for mature body weight were 2.4 +/- .3 kg higher for Labrador retrievers than for German shepherd dogs and 4.7 +/- .2 kg higher for males than for females. Male Labrador retrievers were closest to the upper limit for desirable weight, with an average estimated mature weight of 31.4 +/- .3 kg. Duration of growth, 4b + c, was not different between the breeds; however, the estimate for males was 8 +/- 5d longer than for females. Female Labrador retrievers had the shortest estimate for growth of 319 +/- 6 d. The estimate for age at the point of inflection was 3.6 +/- 1.2 d greater for males than for females, but not different between breeds. A better understanding of growth curves for dog guides may aid in estimating mature weight at a young age, thus allowing earlier breeding and training decisions to be made and increasing genetic change per year.
The influence of various levels of energy intake on the body weight and skeletal development of growing Great Danes. 1. Body weight development and energy requirement [in German]
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Meyer, H. & Zentek, J. (1992) The influence of various levels of energy intake on the body weight and skeletal development of growing Great Danes. 1. Body weight development and energy requirement [in German].
Ernaehrung des Hunde (Nutrition of the dog)
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Meyer, H. & Zentek, J. (2001) Ernaehrung des Hunde (Nutrition of the dog), 4th ed. Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin.
Untersuchungen zum Energiebedarf des Hundes in Abhaengigkeit von Rassezugehoerigkeit und Alter (Investigations on the energy requirements of dogs in relation to breed and age)
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Rainbird, A. & Kienzle, E. (1990) Untersuchungen zum Energiebedarf des Hundes in Abhaengigkeit von Rassezugehoerigkeit und Alter (Investigations on the energy requirements of dogs in relation to breed and age). Kleintierpraxis 4: 145-158.
The effects of breed and sex on dog growth
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Allard, R. L., Douglass, G. M. & Kerr, W. W. (1988) The effects of breed and sex on dog growth. Comp. Anim. Pract. 2: 15-19.
The effects of breed and sex on dog growth
  • Allard