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Antioxidant and angiotension-converting enzyme inhibition capacities of various parts of Benincasa hispida (wax gourd)

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Abstract

Vegetables and fruits have been shown to be good sources of antioxidants. Benincasa hispida (wax gourd) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat hypertension and inflammation. The aims of this study were to investigate the abilities of antioxidation and inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity of wax gourd pulp, core, seed, and peel prepared by different extraction methods. The fresh weights required to reach 50% inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were higher in fresh extracts, compared to other extraction methods. Fresh weights required to reach 50% inhibition were the lowest in seed. The seed had the lowest Cu2+ -induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation percentage and inhibition level of ACE activity among all parts. The higher antioxidant capacity of the seed may result from the higher total phenolics contents and superoxide dismutase activity. The abilities of antioxidation and ACE activity inhibition may provide protective effects against cardiovascular diseases and cancers.

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... The therapeutic effects of several plants and vegetables, being used in traditional medicine, are usually attributed to their antioxidant compounds (Oluwaseun & Ganiyu, 2008). Antioxidants have been suggested to reduce oxidative damage including damage from lipid peroxidation, and therefore prevent various diseases such as diabetic complications (Lim, 2007), atherosclerosis, cancer, aging, and inflammation (Huang, Huang, Tso, Tsai, & Chang, 2004). Some in vitro and in vivo studies conducted on Kundur fruit revealed that its juice and extract has antioxidant activity especially on human tissues like liver and brain Roy, Ghosh, & Guha, 2007). ...
... A study by Huang et al. (2004), on the in vitro antioxidant activity of Kundur fruit demonstrated that the seed has the highest capacity for inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals compared to the peel, pulp and core of the fruit. This may be due to higher total phenolic contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the seeds. ...
... Du, Zhang, and Ito (2005) using high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) reported the identification of three phenolic compounds (astilbin, catechin and naringenin) in Kundur (Fig. 5), however more studies should be done on isolation and identification of potential antioxidants in this medicinally and nutritionally important fruit. Huang et al. (2004) examined that Kundur fruit pulp, peel, seed and core exhibited angiotension-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity in vitro. Angiotensin-1 is converted to angiotensin-2 in the presence of ACE. ...
Article
Kundur [Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.], a member of the family Cucurbitaceae, is one of the famous crops that are grown primarily for its fruits and usually recognized with its nutritional and medicinal properties especially in Asian countries. Kundur fruit has been valued as a nutritious vegetable as it provides a good source for natural sugars, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of medicinal properties such as anti-diarrheal, anti-obesity, anti-ulcer, and antioxidant and diuretic have been ascribed to this fruit of high economic value. As a rich source of functionally important bioactives and therapeutics such as triterpenes, phenolics, sterols, and glycosides, the fruit has been widely used for the treatment of epilepsy, ulcer, and other nervous disorders in the native medicine system of Asia. This review focuses on the cultivation, nutritional and chemical composition, as well as medicinal and therapeutic properties of this multipurpose fruit, as one of the potential sources of bioactives for functional food and nutraceutical applications.
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... Studies on the juice of B. hispida revealed its stability over time and its high concentration of nutritional compounds, low sugar and low sulfides content [23]. The in vitro antioxidant activity of B. hispida fruit revealed that its seeds could be good sources of antioxidants, due to their high capacity for the inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation [24]. This fruit can reduce the gross intake of food and it can therefore be useful as one of the potential anti-obesity agents [25]. ...
... Molecules 2020, 25, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 17 concentration of nutritional compounds, low sugar and low sulfides content [23]. The in vitro antioxidant activity of B. hispida fruit revealed that its seeds could be good sources of antioxidants, due to their high capacity for the inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation [24]. This fruit can reduce the gross intake of food and it can therefore be useful as one of the potential anti-obesity agents [25]. ...
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Cucurbitaceae is a family of health-promoting plants due to their compounds with beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to analyze, for the first time, the chemical composition, the antioxidant activity and the metal chelating properties of fruit juices obtained from four different species of the Cucurbitaceae family cultivated in Romania, namely Momordica charantia, Cucumis metuliferus, Benincasa hispida and Trichosanthes cucumerina. The samples of juice were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and all the four species displayed high levels of the two triterpenes, oleanolic and ursolic acids, and also in phenolic compounds, including catechin, (−)-epicatechin and gallic acid. The juices demonstrated significant antioxidant activity against the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (ranging from 20 to 95%,), a good iron binding ability (ranging from 7.45 ± 0.28% to 86.95 ± 0.97%) and also promising antioxidant potential against the ABTS radical (ranging from 4.97 to 32.60 μETx/mL juice). Our findings raise interesting questions for further research on Cucurbitaceae fruit juices and, consequently, their very good antioxidant potential suggests these fruits should be further explored for their protective effect against oxidative damage. This is the first time the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of fruit juices from these four Romanian Cucurbitaceae varieties have been investigated.
... B. hispida is widely used as medicine and has nutritional, pharmacological and medicinal properties some of which include antioxidant activity (Mingyu et al., 1995;Yoshizumi et al., 1998;Huang et al., 2004;Du et al., 2005), anti-compulsive effect (Girdhar et al., 2010), angiotensionconverting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity in vitro (Huang et al., 2004;Bhalodia et al., 2009), Alzheimer disease treatment (Cantuti et al., 2000;Maciuk et al., 2002;Roy et al., 2008), anti-ulcer (Grover et al., 2001;Shetty et al., 2008;Rachchh and Jain, 2009), anti-inflammatory (Cuzzocrea et al., 2001;Chandrababu and Umamaheshwari, 2002;Shetty Proximate and phytochemical studies The leaves of these plant species were detached washed with distilled water, air-dried, ground into powder using and electronic blender, sieved with 80 micron mesh and 200g of each sample stored in glass bottles. The samples were analysed for crude protein, ash and crude fibre according to the AOAC Official Method (AOAC, 2000), 920.152, 930.05, 948.22 and 935.53 respectively. ...
... B. hispida is widely used as medicine and has nutritional, pharmacological and medicinal properties some of which include antioxidant activity (Mingyu et al., 1995;Yoshizumi et al., 1998;Huang et al., 2004;Du et al., 2005), anti-compulsive effect (Girdhar et al., 2010), angiotensionconverting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity in vitro (Huang et al., 2004;Bhalodia et al., 2009), Alzheimer disease treatment (Cantuti et al., 2000;Maciuk et al., 2002;Roy et al., 2008), anti-ulcer (Grover et al., 2001;Shetty et al., 2008;Rachchh and Jain, 2009), anti-inflammatory (Cuzzocrea et al., 2001;Chandrababu and Umamaheshwari, 2002;Shetty Proximate and phytochemical studies The leaves of these plant species were detached washed with distilled water, air-dried, ground into powder using and electronic blender, sieved with 80 micron mesh and 200g of each sample stored in glass bottles. The samples were analysed for crude protein, ash and crude fibre according to the AOAC Official Method (AOAC, 2000), 920.152, 930.05, 948.22 and 935.53 respectively. ...
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The morphological and anatomical studies of Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. from Nigeria was carried out with the view to reporting morphological and anatomical characteristics for the first time. Physical and microscopic (microtomy) observations were used. B. hispida is a monoecious climbing or trailing herb, stem hairy, 5-angled, with suborbicular stipuliform bract at the petiole-base; leaves simple, very hairy on both surface, alternate, blade palmately or ovate in young plant, base cordate. Flowering occurs between April and May. Female flowers solitary, male flowers solitary or in a slender-pedunculate racemes, petals-5, cream, yellow or pale yellow, ovary ellipsoid, ovules many, stigma 3-lobed and stamen 3. Fruits are large, weighs 8.5 - 9.0 kg, succulent, densely hairy when young, with a thick waxy deposit when mature, cylindrical to oblong with hairy stalk. Seeds are ovate-obovate, cream. Leaves and petals of male flower are amphistomatic with anomocytic, tetracytic and anisocytic stomata while petals of the female flower are hypostomatic with anomocytic stomata only on the abaxial surface. It has glandular and non-glandular trichomes with uniseriate stalk, clavate and multicellular gland heads. The midrib, petiole, stem, tendril, male and female flower stalks and tendril have hollow pith with 3, 9, 6-7, 16, 14 and 10 bicollateral vascular bundles respectively. The percentage crude protein, ash, carbohydrate, lipid, crude fibre, alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin and phytate could account for the numerous medicinal properties.
... Rasayana Dravyas (rejuvenating drugs) in general enrich the nutritional quality of the Rasa (tissue), improves the digestion and metabolism (Agni) and promotes the competency of the channels. Antioxidant [33] Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity [33] Hypolipidaemic [34] 8 Vacha [15] (Acorus calamus Linn.) ...
... Rasayana Dravyas (rejuvenating drugs) in general enrich the nutritional quality of the Rasa (tissue), improves the digestion and metabolism (Agni) and promotes the competency of the channels. Antioxidant [33] Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity [33] Hypolipidaemic [34] 8 Vacha [15] (Acorus calamus Linn.) ...
... Hence in the proposed study, we have selected different plants, which are already reported to possess hypotensive or anti-hypertensive effect individually and act through a different mechanism. [4][5][6][7][8][9][10] The summary of ABSTRACT Background: Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. ...
... Total phenolic contents of B. hispida might be responsible for this action. [5] Mineralocorticoids cause retention of sodium and water in the body until escape dieresis occurs due to increased pressure on the kidneys. No further retention of sodium and water occurs, but the general level of body sodium and water is slightly raised. ...
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Article
Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. However, therapeutic interventions using herbal drugs for hypertension have gained considerable attention worldwide. To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03). The polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) comprises of leaves of Aegle marmelos L., fruits of Benincasa hispida Thunb., Garcinia indica Thouars, and flowers of Musa paradiasica L., Rosa indica L., Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Selected plants as mentioned above were collected, dried and extracted with different solvents. Formulation SJT-HT-03 (250 mg/kg, p.o.), was evaluated using two kidney one clip (2K1C) model and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension model using the enalapril (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard drug in respective models. SJT-HT-03 significantly reduced (P < 0.001, one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey's multiple comparison tests) systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (BP) in 2K1C and DOCA-salt model. Further, SJT-HT-03 has shown a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum, clipped kidney as well as in lungs in 2K1C model, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum Na(+) and increase in serum K(+) level in DOCA model. Polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possess significant anti-hypertensive activity by producing direct depressant effect on heart, inhibition of ACE, aldosterone antagonistic as well as diuretic effect and thereby act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effect.
... It is also used as vegetable in many countries for the treatment of many diseases such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, diabetes mellitus, heart, and urinary diseases (Arora & Kaushik, 2016;Lim, 2012). Benincasa hispida (wax gourd) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammation and hypertension (Huang et al., 2004). Furthermore, it also increases blood flow to the skin to release heat, and therefore it has the ability to open cutaneous arteries (Charkoudian, 2003). ...
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Article
Salt‐induced hypertension is one of the major issues worldwide and one of the main factors involved in heart and kidney failure. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of Benincasa hispida extracts on high salt‐induced hypertension in Dahl‐salt sensitive (D‐SS) rats and to find out the metabolic and biochemical pattern involved in the reduction of hypertension. Twenty‐six Dahl salt‐sensitive (D‐SS) rats were selected and divided into four groups. The metabolic strategy was applied to test the extracts on salt‐sensitive hypertension in kidney. Gas Chromatography–Mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to identify the potent biochemical profile in renal medulla and cortex of rat kidneys. The differential metabolites of cortex and medulla, enrichment analysis and pathway analysis were performed using metabolomics data. The GC–MS data revealed that 24 different antihypertensive metabolites was detected in renal cortex, while 16 were detected in renal medulla between different groups. The significantly metabolic pathways namely citrate cycle, glutathione metabolism, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, glycerolipid metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism in renal cortex and glycerolipid metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway, citrate cycle, glycolysis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis in renal medulla were involved in the process of Hypertension. The results suggest that the extract mainly alter the metabolic pathways of amino acid in Dahl salt‐sensitive rats and its antioxidant potential reduced the hypertension patterns of Salt‐sensitive rat. The antihypertensive components malic acid, aspartic acid, and glycine of extract can be used as therapeutic drugs to protect kidneys from salt‐induced hypertension. Practical applications Hypertension is a multifactorial disease and one of the risk factors for heart and kidney failure. Benincasa hispida is a widely used vegetable in China, which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Benincasa hispida (wax gourd) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammation and hypertension. The Benincasa hispida contains many compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, volatile compounds, vitamins, and minerals. The amino acid present in the pulp of Benincasa hispida are ornithine, threonine, aspartate, glutamate, serine, glycine, proline, alanine, valine, cysteine, isoleucine, tyrosine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine, arginine, and γ‐aminobutyric acid. Our results showed that Benincasa hispida is one of the potent natural antioxidants and can maintain normal blood pressure in Dahl salt‐sensitive rats (D‐SS). In conclusion, the current results provide good theoretical basis for the development and research using Benincasa hispida as an effective natural antioxidant for hypertension.
... Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition: A study was carried to investigate inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity of wax gourd pulp, core, seed and peel prepared by different extraction methods. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity may provide protective effects against cardiovascular diseases and cancers (Huang et al., 2004). ...
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Chapter
Cucurbit plants were used actively as traditional herbal remedies for various diseases. The medicinal importance of plants lies in some chemical substances or secondary metabolites that produce a specific physiological action on the human body. Secondary metabolites are non nutritive chemical constituents of plants which are restricted in distribution in the particular plant species. The scarcity of scientific reports of vegetable gourds compared to the traditional usage and folkloric beliefs has further limited us in proper inclusion of cucurbits in our diet and versatile utility. The versatile utility of gourd vegetables as folk medicine and functional food ingredient provoked a compilation of a comprehensive review of these vegetables about their traditional usage and nutritional and medicinal properties together with their phytochemicals. Understanding the nutritional potential of gourd vegetables from scientific reports may influence both the work areas and consumers in the appropriate direction. In this sense, the present chapter aims to provide compilation of references and a detailed overview to the folk medicinal uses of Cucurbita plants. Brief discussion of phytochemicals and its activities are given in the text and for further details, cited references in the text and tables can be consulted.
... An anti-ageing cream prepared from B. hispida fruit extract was found effective in retarding the symptoms of ageing (Sabale et al., 2011). Huang et al. (2004) had undertaken a study to investigate the abilities of anti-oxidation and inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity of B. hispida core, seed and peel prepared by different extraction methods. The seed had the lowest Cu 2+ induced low-density lipoprotein (LIDL) oxidation percentage and inhibition level of ACE activity among all parts. ...
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Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. (Cucurbitaceae) is commonly called as winter melon or ash melon. It is a popular vegetable crop, especially among Asian communities both for nutritional and medicinal purposes. It has been used as a medicinal plant by Ayurvedic and Sri Lankan traditional physicians since antiquity. It is used singly or in various formulations in combination with different medicaments in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. The literature for the present review was gathered from Ayurvedic texts, traditional medical texts, books on plant science, modern medicinal texts, journals and online scientific tools. The fruits, pericarp, seeds, stems, roots and leaves of this plant are used in various preparations. It is used in internal treatment for urinary disorders including calculi, dysuria, pain in pelvis and genitals,
... In vitro and in vivo studies indicated ash gourd fruit juice and extract have antioxidant activity, especially in the human liver and brain (Huang et al., 2004;Rao et al., 2007). Ash gourd tends to reduce renal damage after ischemia or reperfusion injury of the kidney in albino rat (Bhalodia et al., 2009). ...
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Article
Ash gourd [Benincasa hispida (Thunb.)] is a vegetable used in many countries. More frequently vegetables are being sought to be more than just a source of nourishment; consumers are looking for functional and nutritionally active foods. Normally the entire ash gourd plant, including fruit peel, flower, seed, and leaves are used. Biochemical activity of the fruit includes anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, detoxificant, and curvative effects in treating various ailments. The essential minerals Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se are present. The review examines the use of ash gourd as a food and for medicinal uses.
... B. hispida pulp, core, seed, and peel prepared by different extraction methods showed higher antioxidant capacity and angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibition (ACE) activity. 97 ...
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Article
Aim: To review the vegetables mentioned as pathya for metabolic diseases like prameha/madhumeha, hṛdroga, and sthaulya from 15 different classical texts and to analyze the available data critically with the help of reported research activities to establish their role in the prevention and management of metabolic disorders. Background: Metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial disorder, which can be prevented by changes in lifestyle and dietary habits. Among the preventive measures given for various disorders, the classical texts of Āyurveda describe all the vegetables along with their guṇa (properties), karma (action), and prayoga (indication) in different disease conditions under śākavarga. As diet is considered as the best preventive medicine, vegetables are indicated as pathya (wholesome diet) for metabolic diseases like prameha/madhumeha, hṛdroga, and sthoulya, and can be used in the prevention and management of metabolic disorders.
... Natural products from plants are often multifunctional, including photoprotective, moisturizing, and anti-aging effects. In particular, herbal extracts are added to cosmetic preparations for their antioxidant properties [4]. Skin exposure to sunlight and other environmental conditions leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species, which can react with proteins, fatty acids, and DNA, resulting in an impairment of the antioxidant system and oxidative damage [5]. ...
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Cosmeceutical formulations of Ocimum basilicum are designed in an effective base to medicate topical acne-causing inflammation using an advanced drug delivery system. Acne vulgaris is a common disease found not only in young people but also in adults. The present study suggests the use of O. basilicum as a cream for the treatment of acne. Anti-acne creams formulated from crude herbal extracts have long been used for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities to prevent the inflammation that causes acneiform eruption. This study proposes that, along with the formulation of a micro-emulsion, the use of invasomes will offer an effective advanced drug delivery system that promises improved efficacy and stability in treating acne with O. basilicum.
... Natural products from plants are often multifunctional, including photoprotection, moisturiser, and antiaging. Above all, herbal extracts are added to the cosmetic preparations predominantly for their antioxidant properties (Huang, Huang, Tsai, & Chang, 2004). Skin exposure to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can react with proteins, fatty acids, and DNA, resulting in an impairment of antioxidant system and oxidative damage (Chanchal & Swarnlata, 2008). ...
Preprint
Cosmeceuticals formulations of Ocimum Basilicum are designed in an effective base for topical acne-causing inflammation medication using advanced drug delivery system. Acne vulgaris is a common disease found not only among the youth but also among adults. The present study suggests the use of Ocimum Basilicum as a cream for acne treatment. The anti-acne cream is formulated from herbal crude extracts for the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the formulation to prevent inflammation which causes acneiform eruption. The study proposes that, along with the formulation of micro-emulsion, the use of invasome will be an effective advanced drug delivery system which can promise a great efficacy and stability performance, while simultaneously ensuring the anti-acne effect by Ocimum Basilicum.
... 26,27 In East Asia, the seed of Benincasae cerifera is used to treat inflammation and hypertension. 28 It can serve as an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiogenesis, and as an antioxidative, antipyretic, analgesic, and antimicrobial agent. [29][30][31] Anhydrous mirabilitum acts as a stool softener and enhances the purgative effect of Rhei Rhizoma. ...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety of daiobotampito in the treatment of acute diverticulitis of the colon. Methods: We conducted a single-center, open-label, prospective study. Ten patients who suffered from diverticulitis of the colon were recruited. The patients were treated with fasting, antibacterial agents, and daiobotampito extract for 10 days in or out of hospital. The patients individually recorded their body temperature, grade of abdominal pain, number of times that analgesics were used, and number of stools daily. We checked whether the patients had adverse reactions such as abdominal pain or diarrhea. Results: No patients experienced serious adverse reactions. One patient had moderate abdominal pain and diarrhea soon after daiobotampito intake. This patient discontinued daiobotampito on day 4, and the pain and diarrhea quickly resolved. The abdominal pain of this patient was worse 6 days before treatment, and the pain was almost relieved with initial daiobotampito treatment. Conclusions: Daiobotampito is a safe treatment option for early stage, acute diverticulitis.
... B. hispida fruit is a good source of valuable nutrients including organic acids, natural sugars, amino acids, vitamins and mineral elements (Wills, 1984;Mingyu et al., 1995;Zaini et al., 2011). A number of biological and medicinal properties such as anti-obesity (Kumar & Vimalavathini, 2004), anti-inflammatory (Huang et al., 2004), anti-diarrhoeal (Mathad et al., 2005), anti-pyretic (Qadrie et al., 2009), anti-compulsive (Girdhar et al., 2010, antioxidant (Gill et al., 2010), anti-ulcer and diuretic (Grover et al., 2001;Rachchh & Jain, 2008) have been ascribed to B.hispida (Zaini et al., 2011). As a potential source of wide array of functional bioactives and therapeutics viz., phenolics, triterpenes, glycosides and sterols, the fruit has been widely used for the treatment of ulcer, epilepsy, diabetic complications, hypertension, nervous disorders and Alzheimer disease in the traditional medicine system of Asian communities (Mingyu et al., 1995;Yoshizumi et al., 1998;Choi et al., 2001;Kumar & Vimalavathini, 2004;Lee et al., 2005, Moon et al., 2008Gill et al., 2010). ...
Article
Winter melon (Benincasa hispida), locally known as Kundur, is a vegetable crop, popular, especially among Asian communities both for nutritional and medicinal attributes. In the present work, physicochemical properties of seeds and the extracted seed oils were examined and compared among three cultivars namely round, oval and hybrid of winter melon. The seeds from round, oval and hybrid fruits, exhibited protein, fiber and ash contents 28.18-42.03, 19.36-26.21 and 5.02-11.81%, respectively. The oils were extracted based on Soxhlet method by petroleum ether, whilst yields ranged from 17.78-32.53% (wt/wt). The extracted oils were analyzed for physicochemical parameters, and fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols profiles. The results for specific gravity (25°C), refractive index (nD 25°C), iodine value (IV), saponification value (SV), peroxide value (PV), and free fatty acid (% as oleic acid) were 0.89-0.91 g/mL, 1.4627-1.4646, 119.9-125.1 g I/100 g oil, 182.3-194.1 mg KOH/ g oil, 1.13-1.33 mequiv.O2/kg, 1.57-2.10%, respectively. The oil color intensity in terms of yellow and red units was 6.9Y + 1.0 R to 8.9Y + 1.9R. The amounts of oil tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied widely among the cultivars tested showing α-tocopherol 31.1-207.6 mg/kg and δ-tocopherol 60.4-146.0 mg/kg. According to the GLC analysis linoleic acid (C18:2) was established to be the principal fatty acid (63.10-70.64%) followed by C16:0 (12.45-17.59), C18:1 (8.46-12.87%) and C18:0 (5.13-7.48%). Analysis of oil sterol fractions, using GC and GC-MS, revealed the presence of β-sitosterol (54.62-60.50%), campesterol (15.10-18.50%), stigmasterol (11.00-14.30% and Δ 5-avenasterol (6.40-8.14 %) as the four main components. Most of the properties of the seed oils analyzed varied significantly among fruit cultivars tested. Overall, we concluded that the seeds, which are under-utilized and often discarded as an agrowate, from winter melonshould be explored for extraction of high-linoleic oil with additional tocopherols and phytosterol benefits.
... B. hispida seeds have long been used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to reduce fevers, eliminate phlegm, discharge pus, and expel dampness, and it has been used in China for the treatment of conditions such as cough accompanied by phlegm and fever, pulmonary abscesses, periappendicular abscesses, gonorrhea, spermatorrhea, and edema [1,2]. Modern studies have demonstrated that many pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiangiogenic, and antidiabetic activities, have been associated with B. hispida seeds [3][4][5][6][7][8]. ...
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The Benincasa hispida seed is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, there is still a lack of medicinal quality control of B. hispida seeds. The seeds may contain isovanillin, but this finding remains to be confirmed and quantified. The current study aimed to confirm the existence of isovanillin and then preliminarily establish medicinal quality standards for B. hispida seeds. Fourteen batches of unilateral and bilateral B. hispida seeds were purchased from 7 different producers in China. Semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to isolate and purify the isovanillin from B. hispida seeds. Its chemical structure was elucidated by UV, 1H-NMR, IR spectroscopy, and GC-MS. The B. hispida seed fingerprint and isovanillin determination were performed on an HPLC instrument. Data obtained from the unilateral and bilateral specimens were analyzed with a similarity evaluation system. The HPLC fingerprint showed 19 characteristic peaks with high similarity between the unilateral and bilateral B. hispida seeds. The isovanillin content among the fourteen batches ranged from 13.46 to 46.80 μg/g. The results of this study may provide a preliminary reference for the quality control of B. hispida seeds.
... Vegetable gourds Table IV. References Antioxidant activity Some in vitro and in vivo studies conducted on ash gourd fruit revealed that its juice and extract has antioxidant activity, especially on human tissues like liver and brain Huang et al., 2004;Rao, 2007 Animals Allergic inflammation Ash gourd shown to contain certain active principles like terpenes, flavonoid C-glycosides and sterols which have antioxidant effects, which in turn inhibited gastric mucosal injury by scavenging the free radicals and repress production of Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and vitamin C in rats Shetty et al., 2008 Effects of an extract of ash gourd on allergic inflammation were examined in mice, and the extract was found to be effective against allergic inflammation Park et al., 2009 Antiulcerogenic Ash gourd extract in rats showed that the fresh juice, supernatant and alcohol extract considerably lowered the mean ulcer size as compared to control Kumar and Ramu, 2004;Grover et al., 2001;Rachchh and Jain, 2009 General health A supplementation study carried out by Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) and Desert Medicine Research Laboratory (DMRC) on adult population of desert area of Rajasthan revealed that supplementation of ash gourd juice declined gastritis significantly from 50 to 29.7% (p Ͻ 0.05), urinary tract infection from 34.7 to 16%, over breathing from 25 to 5% and thirstiness from 97 to 81% after the supplementation (p Ͻ 0.05) Premavalli and Madhubala Singh, 2008 Antidiabetic An oral administration of alcoholic extract of ash gourd at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight produced a significant blood glucose reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The alcoholic extract of ash gourd at dose of 200 mg/kg body weight for 45 days significantly reduced the blood glucose levels (from 195 to 118 mg/dl) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats than in normal rats Battu et al., 2007 Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic Supplementation of ash gourd extract showed 60% reduction in blood glucose, plasma TGs and free fatty acids in rats Lim, 2007 Antioxidant activity Recent findings by showed that ash gourd fruit has a potent antioxidant activity on the kidney. ...
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Purpose – The purpose of the paper was to assess the functional properties vegetable gourds & the validated health claims so as to help the future researchers to locate the gaps. However, emphasizing on the scientifically available reports was required to make information available in a nutshell to the health-conscious consumers, as well as the researcher from the area of functional foods and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is a mini-review of scientific findings in different studies on gourd vegetables. The approach to information collection was finding the research gaps and potential areas for future work with a nutritional perspective. Findings – Ash gourd, bitter gourd and bottle gourd have been extensively studied, and several health benefits and functional components have been reported, while ridge gourd, snake gourd and pointed gourd have been sparsely studied for their therapeutic benefits and the validation thereof; hence, there lies a scope for researchers. Research limitations/implications – The scarcity of scientific reports compared to the traditional usage and folkloric beliefs was a limitation. Originality/value – Understanding the nutritional potential of gourd vegetables from scientific reports may influence both the work areas and consumers in the appropriate direction.
... Ash gourd is reported to possess gastro protective effects (Rachchh & Jain, 2009). It is also known to possess anti-nociceptive (Hemamalini & Varma, 2007), anti-inflammatory (Babu & Umamageshwari, 2002;Moon, Kang, Lee, Kim, & Lee, 2009), antiangiogenic (Lee, Choi, & Kim, 2005), antioxidant and angiotensionconverting enzyme inhibition capacities (Huang, Huang, Tso, Tsai, & Chang, 2004), anti-ulcer (Kumar & Rama, 2002), and anorectic effects (Kumar & Vimalavathi, 2004). ...
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Ash gourd (Benincasa hispida) is a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian subcontinent. Cut ash gourd pieces undergo severe decay within two days probably due to physical, biochemical and microbiological activities. Ash gourd pieces were chemically pretreated with sodium salt of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (sodium EDTA), calcium chloride (CaCl2), citric acid and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) and dehydrated up to 30 percent moisture with an aim to extend its shelf life. Storage study of these samples was done with respect to texture, colour, bacterial content and water holding capacity. Shelf life was extended from two days to one month. Pretreatment using a combination of 1 mM EDTA, 2.5 percent KMS, 0.5 percent citric acid and 2.5 percent CaCl2 and partial dehydration to 30 percent moisture found to be a good method in preservation of cut ash gourd pieces.
... The seed extracts of Benincasa hispida inhibits the histamine secretion and show antitumor effects by enhancing immunoreactions [57]. Different parts of the wax gourd such as the peel, core and pulp as well as fresh seeds have antioxidant capacity [58]. Water extract from dry seeds of Benincasa hispida showed strong antioxidant activity by scavenged DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical in a dose-dependent manner [59]. ...
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Accumulating epidemiological and clinical study indicates that inflammation is a significant risk factor to develop various human diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and psoriasis. Suppressing inflammation is therefore important to control or prevent various diseases. Among them, IBD is one of the major problems affecting people worldwide. IBD affects at least one in a thousand persons in many Western countries. Various natural products have been shown to safely suppress pro-inflammatory pathway and control IBD. In vivo and/or in vitro studies indicate that anti-IBD effects of natural products occur by inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), master transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by improving the antioxidant activity. In this review, we summarize recent research focused on IBD and the effects that natural products have on IBD factors.
... Amaranthus tricolor was reported to have cyclooxygenase and human tumour cell growth inhibitory activities [5] . Benincasa hispida was found to have antiulcerogenic activity, bronchospasm inhibition activity, antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition capacity, hypoglycemic and antihyperglecemic activity [6][7][8][9][10] , Corchorus olitorius was found to have antibacterial activity, antioxidant and antidiabetic effects, anti-angiogenic effects, anorectic activity, glucose and lipid lowering activity [10][11][12][13][14] . anticonvulsion and antisteroidogenic activity , cytotoxic and antimalarial activity [15][16][17][18] for the source of histamine release inhibitors and phenolic antioxidants [19,20] . ...
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To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with "Finney Programme". All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL. The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents.
... The anti-angiogenic effect of seed extracts has also been reported (Lee et al., 2005). The antioxidative and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition capacities of various parts of the fruits from this plant, including pulp, core, seed, and peel has been reported, suggesting that the various parts may provide protective effects against cardiovascular diseases and cancer (Huang et al., 2004). The plant has been shown to offer protective effects against various stress conditions-induced ulceration in rats and mice (Grover et al., 2001). ...
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Desmodium gangeticum Duchesne (Fabaceae, local name: shalpani) is commonly found in the wild areas of Bangladesh. The leaves of the plant are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of toothache, chest pains, and fungal infections. Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. (Cucurbitaceae, local name: chal kumra) is cultivated for its edible fruits, which are cooked and consumed as vegetable. The fruits are used by the folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of tumor, gonorrhea, and helminthiasis. The leaves are used by the folk medicinal practitioners for relief from stomach pain. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive potential of stems of D. gangeticum and leaves of B. hispida in acetic acid-induced gastric pain with consequent abdominal constrictions in Swiss albino mice. Administration of methanol extract of stems of D. gangeticum was observed to cause dose-dependent and significant reduction of acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in mice. At the highest dose tested of the extract, namely 400 mg/kg body weight, the extract caused 52.6% inhibition of abdominal constrictions, when compared to control mice. In contrast, the standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, caused 38.6% and 49.2% inhibitions of abdominal constrictions, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The results demonstrated that the methanol extract of stems of D. gangeticum was highly effective in the reduction of acetic acid-induced gastric pain, and as such validate the use of the plant in folk medicine for treatment of pain. The methanol extract of leaves of B. hispida also caused significant reductions in acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions. However, the number of constrictions was lowest at the lowest dose tested of 50 mg/kg body weight, where it caused 48.1% inhibition in the number of abdominal constrictions (writhings). At higher doses, the percent inhibition of constrictions decreased progressively, and was 31.4% at the highest dose tested (400 mg/kg body weight). The results with B. hispida, although validating the use of the plant for pain, also suggest that any treatment with leaves of the plant for pain reduction purposes must be done with low doses. The progressive dose-dependent decrease of inhibitory activities is suggestive of presence of other constituents in the leaves, which may play an antagonistic role to constituents that modulate its antinociceptive effects.
... Finally, it appears that the inhibitory effect of a food substance can be significantly influenced by the type and amount of agonist used to stimulate platelet aggregation, and thus affects the outcomes of studies (40) . ...
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Epidemiological evidence suggests that polyphenols may, in part, explain the cardioprotective properties of fruits. This review aims to summarise the evidence for the effects of fruit polyphenols on four risk factors of CVD: platelet function, blood pressure, vascular function and blood lipids. This review includes human dietary intervention studies investigating fruits and their polyphenols. There was some evidence to suggest that fruits containing relatively high concentrations of flavonols, anthocyanins and procyanindins, such as pomegranate, purple grapes and berries, were effective at reducing CVD risk factors, particularly with respect to anti-hypertensive effects, inhibition of platelet aggregation and increasing endothelial-dependent vasodilation than other fruits investigated. Flavanone-rich fruits, such as oranges and grapefruits, were reported to have hypocholesterolaemic effects, with little impact on other risk factors being examined. However, the evidence was limited, inconsistent and often inconclusive. This is in part due to the heterogeneity in the design of studies, the lack of controls, the relatively short intervention periods and low power in several studies. Details of the polyphenol content of the fruits investigated were also omitted in some studies, negating comparison of data. It is recommended that large, well-powered, long-term human dietary intervention studies investigating a wider range of fruits are required to confirm these observations. Investigations into the potential synergistic effects of polyphenols on a combination of CVD risk markers, dose-response relationships and standardisation in methodology would facilitate the comparison of studies and also provide valuable information on the types of fruits which could confer protection against CVD.
Conference Paper
“Wax gourd” [Benincasa hispida (Thun.) Cogn.] known as Wax gourd, Blonceng, Bligo or Kundur (Indonesia) is a member of the pumpkin tribe or Cucurbitaceae. This fruit is known to be very useful as a food ingredient, often used for vegetables or made sweets. One thing that is not widely known about wax gourd is the seed oil, because generally only the flesh is used. In order to find the squalene compounds from Cucurbitaceae seeds, a study on wax gourd seed oil was conducted. Wax gourd seed oil was obtained by extracting the seeds using the Soxhlet method with hexane solvent, while physicochemical analysis using the American Oil Chemist Society (AOCS) and Indonesian National Standard (SNI) methods for vegetable oils, as well as gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis were used to determine the constituent components seed oil. The results showed the crude oil yield of wax gourd seeds was 21.1% w/w brown color or 14.62% pale yellow color after purification, a characteristic pumpkin seed aroma. The results of the physicochemical analysis of wax gourd seed oil include oil moisture content of 0.02±0.0167% density (25 C) 0.92 g/ml, free fatty acid number (14.25±0.4915% eq. oleic acid), acid number (28.36 ±0.9781 mg/g), peroxide value (8.58 mg±0.2200 eq/kg) and saponification number (164.53± 0.26973 mg KOH/g). The results of GCMS analysis showed that wax gourd seed oil was composed of 11 components with 3 main components including 75.30% linoleic acid, 15.25% palmitic acid, 5.04% stearic acid and did not contain squalene.
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Wax gourd, which belongs to Cucurbitaceae, is an excellent plant resource with the concomitant function of both medicine and foodstuff. Its unique taste and rich nutrition are deeply accepted by consumers. However, the main flavor and nutrients are still unclear, which restricts the quality breeding process of wax gourd. Here, we discovered that monosaccharides, malic acid and citrulline affect the flavor and nutrition of wax gourd and clarified the dynamic accumulation process of these metabolites. To gain insights into the underlying predominant genes regulating accumulation of these metabolites, we performed a time-course transcriptome analysis using RNA-sequencing analysis and compared the expression of screened genes among twenty-four germplasms with different metabolites levels. In addition, the expression abundance among the homologous genes were also analyzed. Finally, a total of 8 genes related to sugar [AGA2 (Bhi03G001926), SUS (Bhi12G001032)], malic acid [MDH (Bhi12G001426, Bhi01G000427), PEPC (Bhi12G000721, Bhi09G002867), ME (Bhi01G002616)] and citrulline [ASS (Bhi02G000401)], respectively were determined. In summary, understanding the core genes influencing taste or nutrition will provide a theoretical basis for fruit quality improvement in wax gourd.
Chapter
Extensive research has provided much scientific evidence on the nutrient compositions and beneficial medicinal effects of the ash gourd, bottle gourd, and bitter gourd and to a lesser extent the snake gourd, ivy gourd, pointed gourd, and ridge gourd. These gourds have been found to possess several functional components that provide beneficial effects on health. Unfortunately, research on the ridge gourd, snake gourd, ivy gourd, and pointed gourd is limited. Therefore further research is needed to validate the beneficial effects of these gourds’ functional components on our health. The fat content is low in gourds, contributing less than 0.3% by weight of edible portion. Along with macronutrients, proteins, carbohydrates, and fibers, gourds also contain vitamins and minerals, which are the essential nutrients found in all the gourds. Flavonoids and polyphenolics are also protective phytochemicals that are present in all the gourds. These phytochemicals in plants are generated to fight environmental factors including insects and infecting agents: bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Recently, these agents have been found to be protective because their phytochemicals can inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation, which appear to be much more pronounced in bitter gourd. Randomized, controlled trials have indicated that consumption of gourd vegetables can decrease blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and body weight and can inhibit cancer growth. Gourd vegetables, in particular bitter gourd and bottle gourd, have also been found to be protective against gastric ulcer, bacterial and viral infections, arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases. Bitter gourd has been studied by various researchers widely, showing potential antidiabetic, antiulcerogenic, antimutagenic, antioxidant, antitumor, antilipolytic, analgesic, abortifacient, antiviral, hypoglycemic, and immunomodulatory effects. Flavonoids and polyphenolics and fiber can interact with the vitamins and minerals and the gut microbiome that are required by the body to normalize physiological functions. This review describes the nutritional benefits, composition, and medicinal effects of three selected gourds, namely, ash, bottle, and bitter gourds, in health and diseases with particular reference to the treatment of non-communicable diseases.
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Introduction: Protein-derived biogenic syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles have gained immense attention because of their broad spectrum of applications. Proteins offer a reducing environment to enable the synthesis of nanoparticles and encapsulate synthesized nanopar-ticles and provide them temporal stability in addition to biocompatibility. Methods: In the present study, Benincasa hispida fruit proteins were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 37 °C over five days of incubation. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, zeta potential, and DLS analyses. Further, these NPs depicted antibacterial and antibiofilm effects. Additionally, the anticancer activities of nanoparticles were also tested against the lung cancer cell line (A549) with respect to the normal cell line (NRK) using MTT assay. Further, the estimation of ROS generation through DCFH-DA staining along with a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential by Mito Tracker Red CMX staining was carried out. Moreover, nuclear degradation in the AgNPs treated cells was cross-checked by DAPI staining. Results: The average size of AgNPs was detected to be 27 ±1 nm by TEM analysis, whereas surface encapsulation by protein was determined by FTIR spectroscopy. These NPs were effective against bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteric, and Staphylococcus epidermis with MICs of 148.12 µg/mL, 165.63 µg/mL, 162.77 µg/mL, and 124.88 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, these nanoparticles inhibit the formation of biofilms of E. coli, S. aureus, S. enteric, and S. epidermis by 71.14%, 73.89%, 66.66%, and 64.81%, respectively. Similarly, these nanoparticles were also found to inhibit (IC50 = 57.11 µM) the lung cancer cell line (A549). At the same time, they were non-toxic against NRK cells up to a concentration of 200 µM. Discussion: We successfully synthesized potentially potent antibacterial, antibiofilm and anticancer biogenic AgNPs.
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety of standardized 70% ethanolic extract of Benincasa hispida fruit pulp (HABH) in rodents. Chemical characterization of HABH has been done by GC-MS and dimethylsulfoxonium formyl methylide, l-(+)-ascorbic acid and 2,6-dihexadecanoate were identified as major compounds in the extract. Acute oral toxicity study of HABH was done according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline, by ‘up and down’ method, using the limit test at 2000 mg/kg, body weight in mice and were observed up to 14 days. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, HABH was administered to Wistar rats at doses of 1000, 200 and 40 mg/kg b. w. per day for 90 days. In acute toxicity study, there was no mortality and no behavioural signs of toxicity at the limit test dose level (2000 mg/kg b. w.). In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, there was no significant difference observed in the consumption of food and water, body weight and relative organ weights. Haematological, serum biochemical and urine analysis revealed the non-adverse effects of prolonged oral consumption of HABH. The histopathologic examination did not show any differences in vital organs. Based on our findings, HABH, at dosage levels up to 1000 mg/kg b. w., is non-toxic and safe for long term oral consumption.
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Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are enzymes that deadenylate nucleic acids and are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Many plants that contain RIPs are listed in the pharmacopoeias of folk medicine all over the world, mostly because of their toxicity. This review analyses the position occupied in traditional medicine by plants from which RIPs have been isolated. The overview starts from the antique age of the Mediterranean area with ancient Egypt, followed by the Greek and Roman classic period. Then, the ancient oriental civilizations of China and India are evaluated. More recently, Unani medicine and European folk medicine are examined. Finally, the African and American folk medicines are taken into consideration. In conclusion, a list of RIP-expressing plants, which have been used in folk medicine, is provided with the geographical distribution and the prescriptions that are recommended by traditional healers. Some final considerations are provided on the present utilization of such herbal treatments, both in developing and developed countries, often in the absence of scientific validation. The most promising prospect for the medicinal use of RIP-expressing plants is the conjugation of purified RIPs to antibodies that recognise tumour antigens for cancer therapy.
Chapter
Origin of this wax gourd is uncertain but Indo China and India are deemed to be the centres of greatest diversity. Wax gourd is not known in the wild and is usually cultivated. It is extensively cultivated in Southern China and southeast Asia.
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Aims and Objectives: To test anticonvulsant properties of three medicinal plants with pentylenetetrazole induced seizure test in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Herbs selected for the work (leaves of Aegle marmelos, seed of Nigella sativa, and fruit of Benincasa hispida) were collected locally from Mangalore, India and were authenticated by a Taxonomist. Aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos leaves (AmAE) and Ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds (NsEE) were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and separated from solvent using a water bath. Benincasa hispidafruit juice (BhE) was filtered and dried on a water bath. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the test extracts were done with Preliminary chemical reaction tests, and Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Male Swiss albino mice, 3-4 months of age, weighing 25-30g were used in the study. Extracts and vehicle were administered orally 1 hour prior to inducing convulsions. Test employed for screening anticonvulsant properties was Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizure test [60mg/kg/i.p]. Animals were treated with extracts at a dose of 900mg/kg orally. The results were compared with control group and test for analysis of variance and significance were done (ANOVA, Dunnett’s test). Results: Aqueousextract of Aeglemarmelos leaves and Ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possess anticonvulsant property in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizure model, Crude extract of Benincasahispida fruits did not show statistically signifi cant anticonvulsant property. Conclusions: Aeglemarmelos leaf and Nigella sativa seed possess anticonvulsant propertiesin pentylenetetrazole induced seizures, this is in accordance with many other publishedreports on the same herbs with different animal models and indicates effectiveness in human absence seizure patients.
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Wide range of genetic diversity was observed among twenty three germplasm lines of ash gourd collected from different parts of U.P. and Uttarakhand. Genotypes PAG-50, Pant Petha-1, PAG-64, PAG-12, PAG-14 and PAG-09 were high yielding lines while considering both the seasons summer and kharif 2006. Based on Mahalanobis' D2 analysis all germplasm lines were grouped into 5 clusters. The clustering pattern indicated that geographical distribution need not necessarily be related to the genetic diversity. Cluster I was very large containing 14 genotypes (summer) and 10 genotypes (kharif) season. The commercially released cultivar Pant Petha-1 was grouped in cluster II along with other genotypes in both the seasons. The inter-cluster distance was found maximum between cluster III and cluster IV (summer) and cluster II and cluster V in (kharif) seasons. The genotypes in these clusters may possibly be utilized in hybrid breeding programme for successful exploitation of hybrid vigour in ash gourd.
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Ashgourd-Mint leaves juice was formulated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the storage stability of the juice was investigated. The juice was aseptically processed, sterilized at 95°C for 30 second and packed in 6 layer laminated packet under sterilized environment. The physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the juice was evaluated during 8 months storage at room temperature (28oC + 2oC).The changes in pH, total soluble solids, total acidity (as citric acid) and sensory score of the juice were not remarkable during storage. Loss of vitamin C and β-carotene in the juice samples were 70.2% and 59.1% respectively after 8 months of storage. The result indicated that the juice was acceptable upto 8 months of storage under ambient temperature (280C + 2oC).
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Benincasa hispida (wax gourd), a fruit that consumed by many Asians, belongs to the family curcubitaceae. The present study was under taken to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the pulp, peel and seed extracts of wax gourd. The various parts of wax gourd were extracted with water. Antioxidant estimation of the extracts were analysed for the total phenolic content (TPC) measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay. The antioxidant activity (AO) of various parts of wax gourd were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching assays. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against six Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast and two mold using the disc diffusion method. The seed extract of wax gourd showed the highest TPC (207.9 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract weight) while AO of peel, pulp and seed of wax gourd were 21.73, 26.71 and 35.06 mM Trolox equivalent (TE)/g extract weight, respectively as determined by FRAP assay. As for EC50 values of DPPH assay were 165.42 (seed), 195.17 (pulp) and 392.21 μg/ml (peel). AO based on β-carotene bleaching assay were 34.39% (peel), 76.27% (pulp) and 90.22% (seed). The various parts of wax gourd extracts as determined by all AO assays were correlated with TPC and the value varies from -0.999 ≤ r2≤ 0.874. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts showed an inhibition towards Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia liquefaciens, Cronobacter muytjensii, Shigella boydii and Serratia marcescens) compared to Gram-positive bacteria, however, there are no inhibition towards yeast and mold for all extracts. Results may suggested that seed extract of wax gourd possesed strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Hence, they had the potential as natural preservatives in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for applications.
Article
The physicochemical and in vitro physiological properties of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from wax gourd (Benincasa hispida) pulp and peel were investigated. The pulp was composed of 11.4% SDF and 24.3% insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), while the peel contained 3.2% SDF and 43.3% IDF. The predominant sugar in the SDF of the wax gourd pulp and peel was uronic acid, followed by galactose and rhamnose. The SDFs from the wax gourd pulp and peel gave similar elution patterns, with 4 main neutral sugar and uronic acid peaks eluted by 0.4, 0.5, 1, and 2 M ammonium acetate buffer. The pulp SDF had a much higher glucose retardation index (GRI) than the peel SDF for all measurement times. The pulp SDF showed strong growth-inhibiting activity against Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens, whereas the peel SDF produced strong growth-promoting activity against Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Lactobacillus brevis when compared to glucose.
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Fruit seeds are usually thrown out as waste during processing or after human consumption. Over the years, researchers have dedicated their effort to assess the food and nutritional values of many different fruit seeds. In this review, the research findings releated to the food values of ten different fruit seeds namely, guava, pumpkin, papaya, honeydew, mangosteen, rambutan, water melon, mango, durian were discussed. For several fruit seeds, the macro nutrient components such as oil, protein, and carbohydrate of are found to vary due to either varietal defferences or geographical variations. Among the seeds discussed, the range of oil content was from 1.8% to 49.0% while the range of protein content was from 6% to 40.0%. While the high oil bearing fruit seeds are potential new sources of oil, those with high protein content can be used for recovery of protein. As some of fruit seeds are edible and found to possess a host of phytonutrients, they can be harnessed for medicinal purposes.This review concludes that utiliztion of fruit seeds could not only bring health and wealth but also help to minimize the waste disposal problem of agro-based industries.
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Liver is the most important organ playing a major role in the metabolism and excretion in the body. Liver diseases are one of the major threats to public health and are mainly caused by exposure to toxic chemicals, microbes and excessive alcohol consumption. Despite advances in modern medicine, there is need for effective drug that stimulates liver function. Herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of diseases for many years and plant kingdom is undoubtedly valuable source of various therapeutic components. This work intends to give information regarding 26 ethno medicinal plants of Manipur with a special note on their hepatoprotective activity. INTRODUCTION Manipur is a beautiful land-lock with valley in the centre surrounded by many hill ranges. It is covered by various types of forest and blessed with varied flora and fauna 1. The state has diversity of medicinal plants. Plants and plant derived product are part of health care since time immemorial. In treatment of various ailments including hepatopathy, herbal drugs play an important role. Effective therapeutic agents with a low incidence of side-effects are in need by physicians and patients and plants potentially constitute such a group. A variety of plants have been studied which support liver functions and are used to treat diseases of the liver, but still there is a need to explore more hepatoprotective plants. Studies on ethno-medicinal plants are of great advantage for producing herbal drugs. The local people possess good knowledge of herbal medicines regarding its preparation and use. Hence it is important to study and record their use of medicinal plants.
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ABSTRACT Hypertension is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), kidney disease and stroke. Interest in medicinal or nutraceutical plant bioactives to reduce hypertension has increased dramatically. The main biological regulation of mammalian blood pressure is via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The key enzyme is angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) that converts angiotensin I into the powerful vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II. Angiotensin II binds to its receptors (AT1) on smooth muscle cells of the arteriole vasculature causing vasoconstriction and elevation of blood pressure. This review focuses on the in vitro and in vivo reports of plant-derived extracts that inhibit ACE activity, block angiotensin II receptor binding and demonstrate hypotensive activity in animal or human studies. We describe 74 families of plants that exhibited significant ACE inhibitory activity and 16 plant families with potential AT1 receptor blocking activity, according to in vitro studies. From 43 plant families including some of those with in vitro bioactivity, the extracts from 73 plant species lowered blood pressure in various normotensive or hypertensive models by the oral route. Of these, 19 species from 15 families lowered human BP when administered orally. Some of the active plant extracts, isolated bioactives and BP-lowering mechanisms are discussed.
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Antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities, and total phenolic contents (TPC) in sequential extracts of dried pulps from seven cucurbit fruit vegetables were determined for the first time. The highest TPC and metal chelating activity were obtained from the chloroform extracts of Luffa acutangula (28.04 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g extract) and Benincasa hispida (EC50= 0.44 ± 0.03 mg/mL), respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of Sechium edule showed the highest 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging activity (951.73 ± 29.14 mM TE/g extract). The highest reducing and anti-α-glucosidase activities were shown by the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia (692.56 ± 43.38 mM AscAE/g extract; 66.64 ± 2.94%, respectively). The highest correlation (r= 0.99) was observed between the TPC and DPPH values of S. edule. Although caffeic acid was quantified as the major constituent in the methanol extract of Lagenaria siceraria, isoquercetin was found to be the main contributor to the activities. Gallic acid was identified as both the main and most active antioxidant constituent in the ethyl acetate extract of S. edule.
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The use of food and food products as medicine has been in practice over centuries in many civilizations. The extracts from the family Cucurbitaceae have been used in the preparation of medicines for a variety of diseases in Ayurveda and ancient Chinese medicine. The article focuses on medicinal properties of extracts derived from different vegetative parts of three Cucurbitaceae species viz. ash gourd (Benincasa hispida), bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). The competency of extracts derived from these plants using different extraction solutions and techniques were tested against various diseases. These plants were found to possess antioxidant activity, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, central nervous system activity, antihyperglycemic and antidiabetics, anti-hyperlipidemic activity, antimicrobial activity and anthelmintic activity, cytotoxic and anticancer activity, immunomodulatory effect, cardioprotective effects, hepatoprotective activity, bronchospasm protective activity, antidiarrheal activity, and diuretic activity.
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Oxidative stress induced by free radicals is the main cause of many human diseases. Plant-derived antioxidant supplements can counter oxidative damage in cells. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of water extracts from dried seeds of Benincasa hispida (B. hispida) on antioxidant activity and how this related to total contents of phenolics and flavonoids in vitro. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 81.3 ± 1.4 µg gallic acid /g and 486.8 ± 4.1 µg catechin/g dry mass, respectively. B. hispida showed DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate), ABTS (1, 2,2′-azinobis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum inhibition of 79.8 ± 0.2%, 82.3 ± 1.9% and 95.5 ± 0.8%, respectively. Inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and nitrite scavenging activity were maximum 73.2 ± 1.0% and 73.6 ± 1.3% at 6 days and 1-h incubation time, respectively. Our data suggest that the dried seeds from B. hispida could be used as a source of natural antioxidants in the food industry.
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The antioxidative effects of honey species and their related products were evaluated using a lipid peroxidation model system. The antioxidant activities of honey species gradually decreased with passage of time. Buckwheat honey was as effective as 1 mM α-tocopherol. Superoxide-scavenging activities of propolis and royal jelly were strongest among the honey species tested. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability of sample species were lower than those of 1 mM ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was very high in all honeys (over 77% inhibition). From the results of the bacterial test on storage of meat and muscle, each honey exhibited the inhibition of bacterial growth. In particular, propolis and royal jelly exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects against bacterial growth. This suggests that honey species from different floral sources possess strong antioxidative and antibacterial activities and are scavengers of active oxygen species.
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Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a herbal plant, belonging to the family Apiceae, is valued for its culinary and medicinal uses. All parts of this herb are in use as flavoring agent and/or as traditional remedies for the treatment of different disorders in the folk medicine systems of different civilizations. The plant is a potential source of lipids (rich in petroselinic acid) and an essential oil (high in linalool) isolated from the seeds and the aerial parts. Due to the presence of a multitude of bioactives, a wide array of pharmacological activities have been ascribed to different parts of this herb, which include anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anxiolytic, anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hypertensive, neuro-protective and diuretic. Interestingly, coriander also possessed lead-detoxifying potential. This review focuses on the medicinal uses, detailed phytochemistry, and the biological activities of this valuable herb to explore its potential uses as a functional food for the nutraceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Ash gourd (Benincasa hispida Cogn.) is a vegetable used in the Asian subcontinent, and believed to have medicinal value. Cut ash gourd pieces undergo severe decay within 3 days probably due to the enzymes xylanase, pectinase, amylase, and cellulase, which break the cell wall polysaccharides. Ash gourd pieces were screened for these enzymes. Though amylase and cellulase were absent, xylanase and pectinase were present. The enzymes were characterized for temperature and pH optimum, kinetic constants, and various inhibitors. The optimum temperature and pH for xylanase and pectinase were 50 and 60°C, and pH 5.0 and 4.0, respectively. One millimole of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with 10 mM NaCl mix completely inhibited xylanase and pectinase. Pretreatment using a combination of 1 mM EDTA and 10 mM CaCl2 is recommended as a first step in preservation of cut ash gourd.
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Lupin protein isolate was extracted following the procedure in European Patent (EP 1024 706 B1) in order to use lupin protein for food and pharmaceutical applications. The acid insoluble/neutral pH soluble protein isolate was pasteurized at 65–125 °C for 10–1000 s. The objective of this study is finding out reasonable pasteurization condition for food use, or for good bioactivities like radical scavenging, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, and bile acid binding activity. Pasteurization at 65 °C for 10 s did not reduce the microbial count of the protein sufficiently for use in foods. The chemical composition of lupin protein isolates had no change by various pasteurization. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition decreased and the DPPH radical scavenging capacity increased after high temperature treatment at 125 °C. The sodium cholate binding capacity was not affected by tested conditions. Pasteurization at higher temperature is useful for producing selective bioactive fractions with suitable microbiological properties.
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Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.
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The wax gourd (Benincasa hispida (Thunb) Cong.) is a long-season vegetable that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat high blood pressure. However, precise details of its effect and the mechanism of action involved are still lacking. Ten-fold-condensed wax gourd juice was used for the experiments. We measured (1) blood pressure of anesthetized normal Wistar rats in vivo, (2) isolated rat aortic contraction and relaxation, and (3) nitric oxide production from cultured porcine endothelial cells. The rats mentioned had not been treated with the investigational medicine. Intravenous injection of the juice produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure. Treatment with the juice induced concentration-dependent relaxation of isolated rat aortic rings that had been precontracted with noradrenaline. The relaxation induced by the juice was strongly inhibited by treatment with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) or endothelial denudation. Treatment with the juice produced NO from cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells. This NO production was significantly inhibited by l-NAME. The present findings suggest that wax gourd juice exerts a hypotensive effect via endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The main endothelium-derived relaxing factor involved might be NO.
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To investigate the role of the methanolic fruit extract of Benincasa cerifera on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and renal pathology in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R).In experimental methodology, both renal pedicles were occluded for 60 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. B . cerifera (500 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 5 days prior to induction of renal ischemia and was continued for 1 day after ischemia. At the end of the reperfusion period, rats were sacrificed. Sham-operated rats followed same procedure except renal arteries occlusion. LPO and histopathological analysis were done in renal tissue. Serum creatinine and urea levels were measured for the evaluation of renal function. In ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rats, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased significantly when compared with sham-control rats. Histological changes showed tubular cell swelling, interstitial oedema, tubular dilation and moderate-to-severe necrosis in epithelium of I/R rat as compared to sham control. The methanolic fruit extract of B . cerifera could attenuate the heightened MDA levels. I/R-induced renal injury was markedly diminished by administration of B . cerifera These results indicate that the methanolic fruit extract of B . cerifera attenuate renal damage after I/R injury of the kidney by potent antioxidant or free radical scavenging activity.
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The antioxidant activities and total phenolics of 28 plant products, including sunflower seeds, flaxseeds, wheat germ, buckwheat, and several fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants were determined. The total phenolic content, determined according to the Folin−Ciocalteu method, varied from 169 to 10548 mg/100 g of dry product. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract evaluated according to the β-carotene bleaching method expressed as AOX (Δ log A470/min), AA (percent inhibition relative to control), ORR (oxidation rate ratio), and AAC (antioxidant activity coefficient) ranged from 0.05, 53.7, 0.009, and 51.7 to 0.26, 99.1, 0.46, and 969.3, respectively. The correlation coefficient between total phenolics and antioxidative activities was statistically significant. Keywords: Antioxidant activity; phenolics; medicinal plants; oilseeds; buckwheat; vegetables; fruits; wheat products
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Approximately 200 studies that examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cancers of the lung, colon, breast, cervix, esophagus, oral cavity, stomach, bladder, pancreas, and ovary are reviewed. A statistically significant protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was found in 128 of 156 dietary studies in which results were expressed in terms of relative risk. For most cancer sites, persons with low fruit and vegetable intake (at least the lower one-fourth of the population) experience about twice the risk of cancer compared with those with high intake, even after control for potentially confounding factors. For lung cancer, significant protection was found in 24 of 25 studies after control for smoking in most instances. Fruits, in particular, were significantly protective in cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, and larynx, for which 28 of 29 studies were significant. Strong evidence of a protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was seen in cancers of the pancreas and stomach (26 of 30 studies), as well as in colorectal and bladder cancers (23 of 38 studies). For cancers of the cervix, ovary, and endometrium, a significant protective effect was shown in 11 of 13 studies, and for breast cancer a protective effect was found to be strong and consistent in a meta analysis. It would appear that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of these foods.
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We quantified the public health benefit of fruits and vegetables on the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), using currently available human data. We reviewed over 250 observational studies on cancer and CVD. Relative risks (RRs) for high versus low intake of fruits and vegetables were obtained. The preventable proportion of chronic diseases, i.e. the per cent of cases attributable to low consumption of fruits and vegetables, was estimated using three scenarios: best guess, optimistic (using stronger RRs) and conservative (using weaker RRs and eliminating the contribution of smoking and/or drinking). The preventable proportion was calculated for increasing average intake from the current 250 g day(-1) to the recommended 400 g day(-1) among the general Dutch population. It is estimated that in the Netherlands cancer incidence could be reduced by 19% (12,000 cases annually, best guess), ranging from 6% (conservative) to 28% (optimistic). Cardiovascular deaths could be reduced by 16% (8000 deaths annually, best guess), ranging from 6% to 22%. Evidence is most abundant for gastrointestinal cancers, followed by hormone-related cancers, but limited for other sites and CVD. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables carries a large public health potential. Population trials and biological mechanisms should eventually provide scientific proof of their efficacy. The available evidence is sufficient to justify public health education and promotion aimed at a substantial increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables.
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Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been and remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The most common form of CHD in the western world is atherosclerosis (AS), especially of the major coronary arteries. Failure to maintain an intact endothelium, as a result of episodic and/or persistent injury and perturbation of the vascular endothelium, promotes formation of fatty streaks which are considered initiation events of AS. Cellular constituents contributing to endothelial injury include endothelial cells, monocytes, platelets, and smooth muscle cells. Individuals diagnosed with AS face complex, enduring clinical complications and enormous medical costs. Simple and easily compliant prevention and treatment measures are therefore strategic considerations in the management of this vascular disease. Based on known risk factors for CHD, priorities in AS prevention should include smoking cessation, blood pressure control, and diet modification. In recent years, the possible benefits of low to moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, particularly of red wine, in the prevention of heart disease has received increasing attention and debate in the popular media as well as in the scientific community. Such attention has been prompted by research findings supporting a relationship between red wine consumption and the French paradox. This phenomenon refers to people residing in certain parts of France where red wine is customarily consumed during meals having a low CHD mortality, despite living a lifestyle considered to have comparably high CHD risks, as those in the US and many other developed countries. Studies have reported that the cardioprotective effects of red wine are greater than those attributed solely to ethanol and other types of alcoholic beverages. The mechanism(s) underlying the greater CHD protective benefits of red wine have not been elucidated. Recently the polyphenol resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), known to be abundantly present in red wine, compared to white wine, beer, or spirits, has been demonstrated to elicit a broad spectrum of biological responses in in vitro and in animal studies, including effects that are compatible with the cardioprotective roles proposed for red wine. These recently described effects of resveratrol will be reviewed in this article. We will first summarize published data showing an inverse association between consumption of alcoholic beverages/red wine and risk of CHD. A review of biosynthesis of resveratrol and its presence in food groups and wines will follow. Recent studies relating exposure to wine/resveratrol with reduction in myocardial damage during ischemia-reperfusion, modulation of vascular cell functions, inhibition of LDL oxidation, and suppression of platelet aggregation will be presented. The last section of this review will focus on a discussion of mechanism(s) by which resveratrol acts as a potential cardioprotective agent.
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Low to moderate consumption of red wine reportedly has a relatively greater benefit than other alcoholic beverages in the prevention of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). This beneficial effect is increasingly attributed to the polyphenol resveratrol, present in red wine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol and red wine on aggregation of platelets isolated from healthy, normotensive male volunteers and in rabbits with experimental hypercholesterolemia. Platelet aggregation rate (PAR) was measured using Born's method. The results showed that aggregation of platelets from healthy subjects induced in vitro by collagen (5 microg/ml), thrombin (0.33 units/ml), and ADP (4 microM) was significantly inhibited by 10-1000 microM resveratrol, in a concentration-dependent manner. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits showed enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation; the average PAR increased from 39.5+/-5.9% in normal animals to 61.0+/-7.0% in the high-cholesterol fed group (n=8, p<0.001). Resveratrol (4 mg/kg/day) inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vivo by maintaining the PAR at 35.7+/-6.3% (vs. 39.5+/-5.9% for control rabbits, n=8, p=0.228), but had no effect on serum lipid levels. Similarly platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits was also inhibited when animals received intragastrically Chinese red wine (with or without alcohol, 4 ml/kg/day). These results suggest that resveratrol can inhibit platelet aggregation both in vitro and in vivo, which conceivably could be one of the mechanisms by which this red wine polyphenol exerts its cardioprotective effects.
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The ferrylmyoglobin ⇔ metmyoglobin redox transitions promoted by hydrogen peroxide and dietary phenolic acids and their potential role in the oxidation of LDL were studied. The use of parinaric acid incorporated in LDL as a probe for radicals (detected by fluorescence quenching of the probe) revealed an oxidative stress inside LDL shortly (< 1 min) after addition of hydrogen peroxide to metmyoglobin in the aqueous phase outside the particle, reflecting an efficient access of the oxidant to LDL lipids. However, the propagation step of peroxidation only occurs after a lag phase, as detected by the kinetics of oxygen consumption. Triton X-100 decreases but does not suppress the lag phase of oxidation. Addition of metmyoglobin (without peroxide) to LDL was not followed by significant oxidation during the time of the experiment, unless Triton X-100 was present in the medium. When dietary phenolic acids were present in the medium before peroxide addition, an inhibition of parinaric acid fluorescence quenching and oxygen consumption was recorded as a function of concentration and substitution pattern on the phenol ring of the phenolic acids. This was associated with a conversion of ferrylmyoglobin to metmyoglobin. The results indicate that the naturally occurring phenolic acids prevent ferrylmyoglobin-dependent LDL oxidation in a way strongly dependent on the substitution pattern on the phenol ring. Among the phenolic compounds studied, the o-dihydroxy derivatives of cinnamic and benzoic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, and protocatechuic acids), in a molar ratio of 1 to metmyoglobin, efficiently blocked LDL oxidation initiated by ferrylmyoglobin. Replacement of one OH group from catecholic structure with an H (p-coumaric acid) or methoxy group (ferulic acid) decreased the antioxidant activity. Also, the catechol structure fused in heterocyclic rings with adjacent carbonyl groups (ellagic acid) resulted in decreased antioxidant activity. These observations correlate with the efficiency of phenolic acids to reduce ferrylmyoglobin to metmyoglobin. Therefore, the protection of LDL against oxidation is assigned to the reduction of the oxoferryl moiety of the hemoprotein to the ferric form. Additionally, it is suggested that an access constraint of oxidants plays a minor role in the ferrylmyoglobin-induced oxidation against LDL.
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The present study was designed to elucidate the inhibitory potential of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract on mouse skin papillomagensis with the modulatory influence of biotransformation system enzymes. Topical application of Momordica whole fruit extract (100 microl/animal per day) during the peri-initiation stage (1 week before and 2 weeks after initiation) by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and/or during the tumor promotion stage reduced the (i) tumor burden to 4.26, 3.72 and 3.11 (positive control value: 5.42); (ii) cumulative number of papillomas to 81, 67 and 53 (positive control value: 103); and (iii) percent incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 100, 94 and 94, respectively (positive control value: 100). In a comparison of the anticarcinogenic efficacy of Momordica peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract (100 microl/animal per day), after topical treatment during the peri-initiation and during the tumor promotion stage, revealed the modulation of the (i) tumor burden (tumors/mouse) to 3.06, 3.61, 3.17 and 3.11; (ii) cumulative number of papillomas to 49, 65, 54 and 53; and (iii) percent incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 84, 100, 94 and 94, respectively. Significant elevation in the sulfhydryl (-SH) level was observed in the liver and skin tissues by the topical treatment of Momordica peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract. Elevation in the hepatic levels of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and microsomal cytochrome b, was also observed by the topical treatment of Momordica peel, seed and whole fruit extract. The results suggest the maximum chemopreventive potential is in the Momordica peel. Equivocal efficacy is in the Momordica seed and whole fruit extract. Biotransformation system enzymes may be the cause of this reduced papillomagenesis.
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The epidemiologic literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and human cancer at a variety of sites was reviewed systematically in Part I. It was concluded that consumption of higher levels of vegetables and fruit is associated consistently, although not universally, with a reduced risk of cancer at most sites, and particularly with epithelial cancers of the alimentary and respiratory tracts. Possible mechanisms by which vegetable and fruit intake might alter risk of cancer are addressed here. A large number of potentially anticarcinogenic agents are found in these food sources, including carotenoids, vitamins C and E, selenium, dietary fiber, dithiolthiones, glucosinolates and indoles, isothiocyanates, flavonoids, phenols, protease inhibitors, plant sterols, allium compounds, and limonene. These agents have both complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action, including the induction of detoxification enzymes, inhibition of nitrosamine formation, provision of substrate for formation of antineoplastic agents, dilution and binding of carcinogens in the digestive tract, alteration of hormone metabolism, antioxidant effects, and others. It appears extremely unlikely that any one substance is responsible for all the associations seen. Possible adverse effects of vegetable and fruit consumption are also examined. One way to consider the relationships reviewed here is to hypothesize that humans are adapted to a high intake of plant foods that supply substances crucial to the maintenance of the organism, but only some of which are currently called 'essential nutrients.' Cancer may be the result of reducing the level of intake of foods that are metabolically necessary--it may be a disease of maladaptation.
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The epidemiologic literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and human cancer at a variety of sites is reviewed systematically. A total of 13 ecologic studies, nine cohort studies, and 115 case-control studies are included. Cancer of all sites, cancers of lung, breast, colon, rectum, esophagus, larynx, oral cavity and pharynx, stomach, pancreas, prostate, bladder, ovary, endometrium, cervix, and thyroid, as well as mesothelioma and gestational trophoblastic disease, are considered. Relevant data from clinical trials, animal, and in vitro studies are included. It is concluded that consumption of higher levels of vegetables and fruit is associated consistently, although not universally, with a reduced risk of cancer at most sites. The association is most marked for epithelial cancers--particularly those of the alimentary and respiratory tracts--and, currently, is weak to nonexistent for hormone-related cancers. The association exists for a wide variety of vegetables and fruit with some suggestion that raw forms are associated most consistently with lower risk. Possible mechanisms by which vegetable and fruit intake might alter risk of cancer and possible adverse effects of vegetable and fruit consumption will be considered in Part II of this review.
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Nitro blue tetrazolium has been used to intercept O2− generated enzymically or photochemically. The reduction of NBT by O2− has been utilized as the basis of assays for superoxide dismutase, which exposes its presence by inhibiting the reduction of NBT. Superoxide dismutase could thus be assayed either in crude extracts or in purified protein fractions. The assays described are sensitive to ng/ml levels of super-oxide dismutase and were applicable in free solution or on polyacrylamide gels. The staining procedure for localizing superoxide dismutase on polyacrylamide electrophoretograms has been applied to extracts obtained from a variety of sources. E. coli has been found to contain two superoxide dismutases whereas bovine heart, brain, lung, and erthrocytes contain only one.
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The action of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) as an antioxidant was studied using various models of oxidative stress in macrophages and vascular endothelial cells. GBE was incubated with murine macrophages (J774) at 37 degrees C and 5% CO2 for 1 h; oxidative burst was triggered by zymosan. The intensity of fluorescence was measured directly in 96-well plates using a computerized microplate fluorometer at 485 nm excitation and 530 nm emission. GBE exhibited both time- and concentration-dependent suppression of oxidative burst. Confluent monolayers of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) were preincubated with different concentrations of GBE for 16 h, washed, and then exposed to an organic oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) for 2 h. Lipid peroxidation products of PAEC were determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Cell injury was assessed by measuring the release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cell viability was determined by the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. tBHP increased production of TBARS in PAEC. Preincubation with GBE inhibited the increase of TBARS induced by tBHP. GBE protected biomembranes from oxidative injury by decreasing intracellular LDH leakage from PAEC. MTT assay showed that GBE minimized loss of cell viability induced by oxidative injury. The extensive antioxidant effect of GBE may be valuable to the prevention and treatment of various disorders related to free radical-induced pathology.
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The migration of monocytes into the vessel wall is a critical event leading to the development of atherosclerosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is the main chemotactic factor involved in this phenomenon, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is one of the nuclear factors controlling its expression. ACE inhibitors have been useful in some experimental models of atherosclerosis. In this work, we addressed the hypothesis that angiotensin II (Ang II) may be implicated in the recruitment of monocytes into the vessel wall through the activation of NF-kappa B and the induction of MCP-1 expression. Accelerated atherosclerosis was induced in the femoral arteries of rabbits by endothelial desiccation and atherogenic diet for 7 days. Atherosclerotic vessels exhibited an increase in NF-kappa B-like activity, and p50 and p65 NF-kappa B subunits were identified as components of this activity. MCP-1 (mRNA and protein) was also expressed in the injured vessels coincidently with the neointimal macrophage infiltration. ACE inhibition with quinapril reduced these three parameters. In cultured monocytic and vascular smooth muscle cells. Ang II elicited an increase in NF-kappa B activation and MCP-1 expression that was prevented by preincubation of cells with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation. The present data support a role for Ang II in neointimal monocyte infiltration through NF-kappa B activation and MCP-1 expression in a model of accelerated atherosclerosis in rabbits. Our results suggest that ACE inhibitors may have a beneficial effect in early atherosclerosis.
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The present study evaluates the postnatal efficacy of Momordica charantia peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract via assessing the modulation in the biotransformation system enzymes of suckling neonates and lactating mice. The peel, seed or whole fruit extract of Momordica (100 microl/animal/day) independently induced a significant increase in the hepatic levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acid soluble sulfhydryl (-SH) after 14 or 21 days treatment in lactating dams (P < 0.01) and translactationally exposed neonates (P < 0.05). However, the elevation (P < 0.05) in hepatic cytochrome b5 (Cyt. b5) and cytochrome P-450 (Cyt. P-450) levels was observed only in the lactating dams treated with the respective extracts of peel, seed or whole fruit of Momordica. In lactating dams and suckling neonates the modulated levels of biotransformation system enzymes suggest the potential for the translactational passage of active principle(s) and/or metabolites of Momordica.
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Fifteen kinds of commonly consumed Thai vegetables were sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform and methanol, and then tested for antimutagenic activities against direct-acting (AF-2 and NaN3) and indirect-acting (AFB1 and B(a)P) mutagens using Ames' Salmonella mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 as tester strain. It was found that only the methanol extract of neem leaves contain weak antimutagen inhibiting the mutagenicities of both direct-acting mutagens. Interestingly, all vegetables studied were found to contain chemical compounds, mainly nonpolar ones, capable of inhibiting the mutagenicity of AFB1, while only some vegetables contain chemical compounds capable of inhibiting the mutagenicity of B(a)P, which is also an indirect-acting mutagen. Studies on anticarcinogenic potentials demonstrated that Thai bitter gourd fruits, but not sweet basil leaves, at the concentration of 6.25% and 12.5% in the diet, partially inhibited DMBA-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats when fed to the animals 2 weeks prior to DMBA. Results in the present study therefore demonstrated that most Thai vegetables contain antimutagens inhibiting the mutagenicity of some indirect-acting mutagen, particularly AFB1. The mechanism of their antimutagenicity may probably be the inhibition of the activity of metabolic-activating enzymes in rat liver homogenates. Very interestingly, our results clearly reveal that Thai bitter gourd fruits, which possess Phase II enzymes inducing property, as well as the ability to reduce Phase I enzyme activities in rat liver, contain some anticarcinogens or chemopreventive agents. However, sweet basil leaves that possess both Phase I and Phase II enzyme-inducing properties may not contain any anticarcinogen, at least against DMBA-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis.
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Monocyte infiltration into the vessel wall, a key initial step in the process of atherosclerosis, is mediated in part by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Hypertension, particularly in the presence of an activated renin-angiotensin system, is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. To investigate a potential molecular basis for a link between hypertension and atherosclerosis, we studied the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on MCP-1 gene expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Rat smooth muscle cells treated with Ang II exhibited a dose-dependent increase in MCP-1 mRNA accumulation that was prevented by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan. Ang II also activated MCP-1 gene transcription. Inhibition of NADH/NADPH oxidase, which generates superoxide and H2O2, with diphenylene iodonium or apocynin decreased Ang II-induced MCP-1 mRNA accumulation. Induction of MCP-1 gene expression by Ang II was inhibited by catalase, suggesting a second messenger role for H2O2. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD098059 inhibited Ang II-induced MCP-1 gene expression, consistent with a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling mechanism. Ang II may thus promote atherogenesis by direct activation of MCP-1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Article
The putative beneficial effects of an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables have been associated with antioxidant nutrients. However, the effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on the overall antioxidant status in humans is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a diet rich in fruit and vegetables would affect the antioxidant capacity of human plasma. Thirty-six healthy nonsmokers resided in a metabolic research unit and consumed 2 sets of controlled diets. Diet A contained 10 servings of fruit and vegetables each day for 15 d. Diet B was the same as diet A, except diet B also provided 2 servings of broccoli each day on days 6-10. There was a free-living period of a minimum of 6 wk between the 2 experiments using either diet A or diet B. Fasting plasma antioxidant capacity, measured as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were determined on days 1, 6, 11, and 16. The fasting baseline plasma ORAC of these subjects was significantly correlated with their estimated daily intake of total antioxidants from fruit and vegetables during the previous year. Plasma ORAC of these subjects was significantly increased by both diets A and B. This increase in ORAC could not be explained by the increase in the plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration. Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables can increase the plasma antioxidant capacity in humans.
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Increasing evidence supports an association between inflammation and plaque rupture. Macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells are a source of cytokines and growth factors, which contribute to ongoing inflammation during atherogenesis. In a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, we evaluated the effect of the ACE inhibitor quinapril on different parameters implicated in the pathogenesis of the plaque, such as the presence of chemokines (interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), collagen I, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation (PDGF-B). Since nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been implicated in the control of chemokine transcription and cell proliferation, we also investigated its activation and localization in the lesion. Quinapril administration for 28 days caused a down-regulation in arterial expression of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (mRNA and protein). However, collagen I expression (mRNA and protein) was not modified. PDGF-B expression was reduced in both the intima and the media. Active NF-kappaB, found in both macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells, was also reduced by quinapril. Nevertheless, no significant changes were noted in the mild neointima formation, although a certain trend toward normalization was found in the quinapril-treated group. In conclusion, our results show that quinapril treatment attenuates several parameters associated with inflammation within the atherosclerotic lesions that are controlled by NF-kappaB, although it has no effect on collagen I expression. Both effects could contribute to the stabilization of the atherosclerotic plaque.
Article
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine expressed by angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that functions as an autocrine growth factor. In this study, we analyze the mechanism for Ang II-inducible IL-6 expression in quiescent rat VSMCs. Stimulation with the Ang II agonist Sar1 Ang II (100 nmol/L) induced transcriptional expression of IL-6 mRNA transcripts of 1.8 and 2.4 kb. In transient transfection assays of IL-6 promoter/luciferase reporter plasmids, Sar1 Ang II treatment induced IL-6 transcription in a manner completely dependent on the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) motif. Sar1 Ang II induced cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation of the NF-kappaB subunits Rel A and NF-kappaB1 with parallel changes in DNA-binding activity in a biphasic manner, which produced an early peak at 15 minutes followed by a nadir 1 to 6 hours later and a later peak at 24 hours. The early phase of NF-kappaB translocation was dependent on weak simultaneous proteolysis of the IkappaBalpha and beta inhibitors, whereas later translocation was associated with enhanced processing of the p105 precursor into the mature 50-kDa NF-kappaB1 form. Pretreatment with a potent inhibitor of IkappaBalpha proteolysis, TPCK, completely blocked Sar1 Ang IIAng II-induced NF-kappaB activation and induction of endogenous IL-6 gene expression, which indicated the essential role of NF-kappaB in mediating IL-6 expression. We conclude that Ang II is a pleiotropic regulator of the NF-kappaB transcription factor family and may be responsible for activating the expression of cytokine gene networks in VSMCs.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme is present in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and which types of epithelial cells possess this enzyme. It is well known that serum promotes squamous differentiation of airway epithelial cell culture in vitro. We found that whole-cell homogenates of both basal (serum-untreated) and squamous-differentiated bronchial epithelial cells degraded hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine, a synthetic substrate for angiotensin-converting enzyme. Analysis of RNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed the presence of mRNA for angiotensin-converting enzyme in both types of cells. In addition, we found that squamous cells secreted the enzyme into the culture medium more than basal cells did. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (imidaprilat, enalaprilat) inhibited the enzyme activity in bronchial epithelial cells with an IC50 of 0.9-3.6 nM. Exogenously added bradykinin was degraded to bradykinin-(1-5), an inactive fragment, in the squamous cell cultures. Our data indicate the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and also that the enzyme is secreted by squamous differentiated cells.
Article
Epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of wine, particularly of red wine, reduces the incidence of mortality and morbidity from coronary heart disease. This has given rise to what is now popularly termed the "French paradox". The cardioprotective effect has been attributed to antioxidants present in the polyphenol fraction of red wine. Grapes contain a variety of antioxidants, including resveratrol, catechin, epicatechin and proanthocyanidins. Of these, resveratrol is present mainly in grape skin while proanthocyanidin is present in the seeds. In this report, we provide evidence that red wine extract as well as resveratrol and proanthocyanidins are equally effective in reducing myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, which suggests that these red wine polyphenolic antioxidants play a crucial role in cardioprotection.
Article
Multiple data suggest that the renin-angiotensin system contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The atherogenic effect of the renin-angiotensin system can only in part be explained by the influence of its effector angiotensin II on blood pressure, smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth, or antifibrinolytic activity. Because chronic inflammation of the vessel wall is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that angiotensin II may elicit inflammatory signals in vascular SMCs. Human vascular SMCs were stimulated with angiotensin. Inflammatory activation was assessed by determination of interleukin-6 (IL-6) release into the culture medium, detection of IL-6 mRNA by RT-PCR, and demonstration of activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Angiotensin II concentration-dependently (1 nmol/L to 1 micromol/L) stimulated IL-6 production by SMCs via activation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (demonstrated by the inhibitory action of the receptor antagonist losartan). Angiotensin I increased IL-6 production by SMCs, too. This effect was inhibited by captopril and ramiprilat, suggesting conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme in SMCs. Steady-state mRNA for IL-6 was augmented after stimulation with angiotensin II, suggesting regulation of angiotensin-induced IL-6 release at the pretranslational level. Moreover, the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB, which is necessary for transcription of most cytokine genes, was also activated by angiotensin II. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate suppressed angiotensin II-induced IL-6 release, a finding compatible with involvement of reactive oxygen species as second messengers in cytokine production mediated by angiotensin. The data demonstrate the ability of angiotensin to elicit an inflammatory response in human vascular SMCs by stimulation of cytokine production and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB. Inflammatory activation of the vessel wall by a dysregulated renin-angiotensin system may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Article
Angiotensin II and hypertension increase vascular oxidant stress. We examined how these might affect expression of the extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD), a major form of vascular SOD. In mice, angiotensin II infusion (1.1 mg/kg for 7 days) increased systolic blood pressure from 107+/-3 to 152+/-9 mm Hg and caused a 3-fold increase in ecSOD, but there was no change in the cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD protein, as determined by Western blot analysis. This was associated with a similar increase in ecSOD mRNA as assessed by RNase protection assay and was prevented by losartan. Induction of ecSOD by angiotensin II was not due to hypertension alone, because hypertension caused by norepinephrine (5.6 mg. kg-1. d-1) had no effect on ecSOD. Similarly, exposure of mouse aortas to angiotensin II (100 nmol/L) in organoid culture increased ecSOD by approximately 2-fold. In the organoid culture, angiotensin II-induced upregulation of ecSOD was prevented by losartan (10 micromol/L) and PD985059 (30 micromol/L), a specific inhibitor of p42/44 MAP kinase kinase. Angiotensin II activates the NADH/NADPH oxidase; however, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (10 micromol/L), an inhibitor of this oxidase, did not prevent p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation or ecSOD induction by angiotensin II. Finally, in human aortic smooth muscle cells, angiotensin II moderately increased transcriptional rate (as assessed by nuclear run-on analysis) but markedly increased ecSOD mRNA stability. Thus, angiotensin II increases ecSOD expression independent of hypertension, and this increase involves both an increase in ecSOD transcription and stabilization of ecSOD mRNA. This effect of angiotensin II on ecSOD expression may modulate the oxidative state of the vessel wall in pathological processes in which the renin-angiotensin system is activated.
Article
Most chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease and many types of cancer depend on the in vivo conversion of cellular macromolecules or of carcinogens to specific reactive, oxidized forms. For that reason, health promoting nutrition involves the daily intake of five to 10 vegetables and fruits, fruit juices, red wine and tea that are rich sources of micronutrients with antioxidant properties, including the antioxidant vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. Tomatoes contain lycopene, a stable, active antioxidant. Many vegetables contain quercetin and related polyphenolic compounds. Tea is a source of epigallocatechin gallate, in green tea, and theaflavin and the associated thearubigins, in black tea. Red wine contains resveratrol. The diverse antioxidants in foods, red wine and tea provide the necessary antioxidant resources for the body to control oxidation reactions in the body with possible adverse consequences. For example, the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol yields a product that damages the vascular system. Thus, a lower intake of saturated fats to decrease the levels of LDL cholesterol, together with an adequate intake of antioxidants, is the optimal approach to lower heart disease risk. Cancer of the stomach involves the consumption of salted, pickled foods yielding direct-acting carcinogens, and their formation is inhibited by vitamins C and E. Cancer in the colon, breast, prostate and pancreas may be caused by a new class of carcinogens, the heterocyclic amines, formed during the broiling or frying of creatinine-containing foods, including fish and meats. Their formation and action can be inhibited by antioxidants such as those in soy, tea, vitamin C and also by the synthetic antioxidants BHA or BHT. The growth, cell proliferation and development of abnormal preneoplastic and neoplastic cells also involves oxidation reactions, including the formation of active oxygen or peroxy compounds. Such reactions can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as those in tea, tomatoes or vegetables. Even ageing and longevity in good health would be favoured by the availability of adequate amounts of varied antioxidants. Prevention of the formation and of action of reactive products by antioxidants as present in fruits, vegetables, tomatoes, red wine and tea is of great public health importance in decreasing the risk of major diseases. Prevention is the optimal approach to disease control, and also as an effective route to lower costs of medical care.
Article
Flavonoids are phenolic substances isolated from a wide range of vascular plants, with over 8000 individual compounds known. They act in plants as antioxidants, antimicrobials, photoreceptors, visual attractors, feeding repellants, and for light screening. Many studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit biological activities, including antiallergenic, antiviral, antiinflammatory, and vasodilating actions. However, most interest has been devoted to the antioxidant activity of flavonoids, which is due to their ability to reduce free radical formation and to scavenge free radicals. The capacity of flavonoids to act as antioxidants in vitro has been the subject of several studies in the past years, and important structure-activity relationships of the antioxidant activity have been established. The antioxidant efficacy of flavonoids in vivo is less documented, presumably because of the limited knowledge on their uptake in humans. Most ingested flavonoids are extensively degraded to various phenolic acids, some of which still possess a radical-scavenging ability. Both the absorbed flavonoids and their metabolites may display an in vivo antioxidant activity, which is evidenced experimentally by the increase of the plasma antioxidant status, the sparing effect on vitamin E of erythrocyte membranes and low-density lipoproteins, and the preservation of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids. This review presents the current knowledge on structural aspects and in vitro antioxidant capacity of most common flavonoids as well as in vivo antioxidant activity and effects on endogenous antioxidants.
Article
Methods for determining primary antioxidant activity were evaluated. A beta-carotene bleaching method and a free radical method using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) were modified to rapidly test samples for potential antioxidant activity. Malonaldehyde production in a linoleic acid emulsion system assayed by an HPLC method was also used to determine antioxidant and prooxidant activities initiated by a metal catalyst (Cu(2+)). All methods were used to assess activity of selected phenolic compounds including several anthocyanidins/anthocyanins and selected berry extracts. Most phenolic compounds had prooxidant activity at low concentrations, unlike synthetic antioxidants (BHA and BHT). Compounds with similar structures exhibited comparable trends in antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity usually increased with an increase in the number of hydroxyl groups and a decrease in glycosylation. The antioxidant activity of many phenolic compounds and extracts was comparable to those of synthetic antioxidants using the beta-carotene bleaching and HPLC methods.
Article
Solvent-extracted bamboo leaf extract (BLE) containing chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and luteolin 7-glucoside was evaluated in vitro for free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities using a battery of test methods. BLE exhibited a concentration-dependent scavenging activity of DPPH radical. BLE prolonged the lag phase and suppressed the rate of propagation of liposome peroxidation initiated by peroxyl radical induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH) at 37 degrees C. BLE also prevented human low-density lipoprotein oxidation, mediated by Cu(2+), which was monitored by the lower formation of conjugated diene and fluorescence and a reduced negative charge of apo-B protein. Finally, BLE protected supercoiled DNA strand against scission induced by AAPH-mediated peroxyl radical. Prooxidant activity of BLE was seen in a Cu(2+)-induced peroxidation of structured phosphatidylcholine liposome, indicating catalytic peroxidation due to a relatively high reducing power of BLE. It was concluded that the BLE has both antioxidant activity and prooxidant activity; the antioxidant activity was attributed to free radical scavenging activity, and the prooxidant activity, albeit minor, resulted from the reducing power of plant phenolics in the presence of transitional metal ions.
Article
Under oxidative stress, which is associated with atherosclerosis, oxidative modifications of LDL take place. A major effect of antioxidants in the LDL environment is to prevent the formation of oxidized LDL during atherogenesis. The question that arises is what are the body's capabilities to inhibit LDL oxidation and to remove and/or to neutralize atherogenic Ox-LDL when formed. Strategies to reduce LDL oxidation and atherogenesis can involve the enrichment of the LDL and arterial cells with potent antioxidants that can prevent oxidative damage to the arterial wall. There seems to be a clear cause and effect relationship between LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease and LDL is oxidized by all major cells of the arterial wall during the development of atherosclerosis via more than one mechanism. The various LDL oxidation pathways produce several lipid peroxidation products such as isoprostanes from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, oxysterols from unesterified and esterified cholesterol, hydroxy fatty acids, lipid peroxides and aldehydes. Thus, one single assay of lipid peroxidation is probably not sufficient to serve as a marker for cardiovascular risk and there is a need for measurements of several markers. The use of biomarkers provides a logical scientific basis for major intervention trials of antioxidants; such trials will, in turn, eventually validate or disprove the biomarker concept. Any intervention trial that does take place should be accompanied by measurements of one or more relevant biomarkers at intervals during the study. If the endpoint of the trial is disease incidence or mortality, such studies will help to validate or disprove the biomarker concept. They might also help to explore the possibility that in vivo levels of oxidative lipid damage are early predictors of subsequent development of cardiovascular disease. In addition, specific antioxidants in serum, as well as serum paraoxonase activity can provide very useful information on the risk for cardiovascular diseases. For vascular disease risk, in addition to the markers in use for lipid peroxidation, there is a need to include also markers for endothelial dysfunction, monocyte adhesion, macrophage uptake of lipoproteins, thrombotic, and inflammatory processes.
Article
Oxidative stress contributes to joint inflammation and damage in rheumatoid arthritis. In a mobile inflamed joint, exercise induced multiple cycles of hypoxia-reperfusion injury may lead to the creation of a redox environment in which oxido-reductase systems, by NADPH mechanisms, produce highly reactive chemical species (i.e., oxygen free radicals). We investigated 2 endproducts of lipid peroxidation, malonildialdehyde (MDA) and diene conjugates (DC), and the formation of antibodies against oxidized low density lipoproteins (Ab oxLDL) in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA), and assessed the role of oxidative phenomena in different phases and subsets of this disease. To assess the role of oxidative stress in JCA, we measured the endproducts of lipid peroxidation, MDA and DC, by the increase of absorbance at 586 nm and 234 nm, respectively, and the levels of Ab oxLDL by ELISA in the sera of 58 patients with JCA and 21 healthy controls. Due to crossreactivity between Ab oxLDL and anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), the sera were also tested by a standard ELISA for IgG-aCL. The patients were divided into 3 subsets: 29 with pauciarticular (pauci), 15 with polyarticular (poly), and 14 with systemic (sys) onset disease, and then were subdivided, according to different variables appropriate to each subset, reflecting active and inactive disease, into 30 active (14 pauci, 8 poly, 8 sys) and 28 inactive (15 pauci, 7 poly, 6 sys). Levels of Ab oxLDL were significantly increased in the whole group of patients (566.6 +/- 263.0 vs 206.6 +/- 136.3 mU/ml; p < 0.001) and in each of the type of onset (pauci 660.8 +/- 272.1, p < 0.001; poly 341.3 +/- 134.7, p < 0.01; sys 497.8 +/- 114.8, p < 0.001) compared to controls. Ab oxLDL were higher in the inactive than in the active group (743.5 +/- 231.9 and 404.4 +/- 169.9; p < 0.001). MDA and DC levels were not increased significantly in patients' sera. No patient was positive for IgG-aCL. These findings suggest that MDA and DC cannot be considered major markers of oxidative stress in JCA and that the Ab oxLDL may represent a delayed sign of oxidative stress previously induced by the inflammatory process in patients with JCA.
Article
trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a nonflavonoid polyphenol reported to exert different biological activities, among them inhibition of the lipid peroxidation, scavenging of the free radicals, inhibition of the platelet aggregation, and anticancer activity as the most important. In order to enlighten the radical-scavenging mechanism of trans-resveratrol, stationary gamma-radiolytic experiments in liposomes and pulse radiolytic experiments in aqueous solutions were performed. Applying the stationary gamma-radiolysis together with the subsequent product analysis, reactions of lipid peroxyl radicals, LOO*, with trans-resveratrol and other natural antioxidants were investigated. It was found that trans-resveratrol was a better radical scavenger than vitamins E and C but similar to the flavonoids epicatechin and quercetin. The comparison of the radical-scavenging effects of trans-resveratrol and its analogues trans-4-hydroxystilbene and trans-3,5-dihydroxystilbene revealed that trans-resveratrol and trans-4-hydroxystilbene showed almost the same effect and were more efficient than trans-3,5-dihydroxystilbene. These findings indicate greater radical-scavenging activity of trans-resveratrols para-hydroxyl group than its meta-hydroxyl groups. Using the pulse radiolysis, reactions of trans-resveratrol and its analogues with trichloromethylperoxyl radicals, CCl(3)OO*, were studied. Spectral and kinetic properties of the observed transients showed great similarity between trans-resveratrol and trans-4-hydroxystilbene which seems to confirm that para-hydroxyl group of trans-resveratrol scavenges free radicals more effectively than its meta-hydroxyl groups.
Article
The last decade has witnessed a major reassessment of our perceptions about the acute coronary syndromes. Today, we recognize that thrombosis underlies most acute complications of atherosclerosis, notably unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction. A consensus has emerged that inflammation plays a decisive role in the pathophysiology of these acute thrombotic events (Figure 1). Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms has increased substantially since this topic was last reviewed in these pages 6 years ago. The present article provides an update of this rapidly moving field. Figure 1. Initiation, progression, and complication of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque. Top, Longitudinal section of artery depicting “timeline” of human atherogenesis from normal artery (1) to atheroma that caused clinical manifestations by thrombosis or stenosis (5, 6, 7). Bottom, Cross sections of artery during various stages of atheroma evolution. 1, Normal artery. Note that in human arteries, the intimal layer is much better developed than in most other species. The intima of human arteries contains resident smooth muscle cells often as early as first year of life. 2, Lesion initiation occurs when endothelial cells, activated by risk factors such as hyperlipoproteinemia, express adhesion and chemoattractant molecules that recruit inflammatory leukocytes such as monocytes and T lymphocytes. Extracellular lipid begins to accumulate in intima at this stage. 3, Evolution to fibrofatty stage. Monocytes recruited to artery wall become macrophages and express scavenger receptors that bind modified lipoproteins. Macrophages become lipid-laden foam cells by engulfing modified lipoproteins. Leukocytes and resident vascular wall cells can secrete inflammatory cytokines and growth factors that amplify leukocyte recruitment and cause smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. 4, As lesion progresses, inflammatory mediators cause expression of tissue factor, a potent procoagulant, and of matrix-degrading proteinases that weaken fibrous cap of plaque. 5, If fibrous cap ruptures at point of weakening, coagulation factors …
Article
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies indicate fish eaters are less likely to die prematurely compared with non-fish eaters. The protective properties in fish are likely to be related to its concentration of omega 3 fatty acids, calcium, selenium, vitamin D, taurine and coenzyme Q10. A high consumption of fruits and vegetables has been shown to protect against stroke and coronary heart disease. The presence of vitamins and minerals, as well as the complex array of non-nutrient compounds, found in fruits and vegetables would play an important role in this protection.
Article
The beverage tea, from the top leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis is one of the most widely used beverages in the world, second only to water. Black and green tea have mostly similar actions. The active components are polyphenols, mainly epigallocatechin gallate in green tea, and the tea leaf polyphenol oxidase mediated oxidation to oolong and black tea, yielding other polyphenols, theaflavin and thearubigins. There is 40-50 mg caffeine in a 160-ml cup of tea. The chemopreventive effects of tea depend on: (1) its action as an antioxidant; (2) the specific induction of detoxifying enzymes; (3) its molecular regulatory functions on cellular growth, development and apoptosis; and (4) a selective improvement in the function of the intestinal bacterial flora. The oxidation of LDL cholesterol, associated with a risk for atherosclerosis and heart disease, is inhibited by tea. Many of cancers are caused by lifestyle elements. One is cigarette and tobacco use, leading to cancer in the oral cavity, esophagus and lung, inhibited by tea. Mice administered a tobacco nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), developed significantly fewer lung tumors than controls when given green tea or its major polyphenol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Tea suppressed the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, in the lung DNA of mice given NNK. Gastric cancer, caused by a combination of Helicobacter pylori and salted foods, is lower in tea drinkers. Western nutritionally-linked cancers of the breast, colon, prostate and pancreas can be inhibited by tea. The formation of genotoxic carcinogens for these target organs during the cooking of meats, heterocyclic amines, and their effects were decreased by tea. Tea inhibited the formation of reactive oxygen species and radicals and induced cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2 and 2B1, and glucuronosyl transferase. The higher formation of glucuronides represents an important mechanism in detoxification. The developmental aspects and growth of cancers through promotion are decreased by tea. The regular use of a widely available, tasty, inexpensive beverage, tea, has displayed valuable preventive properties in chronic human diseases.
Article
Consistent epidemiological data point to a reduced morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis in people consuming plant-derived beverages such as tea or wine. We studied the antioxidant capacity of three red wines (W) and compared it those of tea and herbal "mate" tea infusions. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated measuring: (1) the inhibition of the luminol-induced chemiluminescence assay (TRAP); (2) the inhibition of 2.2'-thiobarbituric-reactive substances (TBARS) formation in liposomes by fluorescence; (3) the protection of Jurkat cells from AMVN-induced oxidation, measuring the oxidation of 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2'7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate to a fluorescent derivative. The polyphenolic content was estimated spectrophotometrically and by HPLC with electrochemical detection. All three beverages provided antioxidant protection in the three assays in a dose-dependent manner. Significant and positive correlations were found between antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content, especially in the Jurkat cell oxidation assay (r: 0.96, p < 0.01). Results suggest that these dietary components could be a source of antioxidants that protect from oxidative stress. Further studies of absorption and metabolism of the active compounds will judge the physiological relevance of these results for human health.
Article
Oxidative stress is a central mechanism for the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease and atherogenesis, for cancer and other chronic diseases in general, and it also plays a major role in the aging process. Dietary antioxidants constitute a large group of compounds that differ in mechanism of action, bioavailability and side effects. A systematic analysis of the role of the various antioxidants in chronic diseases is hampered by the difficulty of employing death or clinical events as end points in intervention studies. Therefore, valid markers for oxidative stress, which show dose response and are sensitive to changes in dietary supply of antioxidants, are potentially of great value when trying to establish healthy dietary patterns, or when one component, like red wine, is evaluated specifically. To evaluate potential oxidative stress markers we have studied the effect of different diets plus wine supplementation on antioxidant defenses and oxidative damage. In three experimental series, four groups of young male university students, one of older men and other of older women, 20-24 volunteers each, received Mediterranean or occidental (high-fat) diets alone or supplemented with red wine, white wine, or fruits and vegetables. Measurements included, leukocyte DNA 8-OH-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG), plasma 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol, TBARS and well-characterized antioxidants, and plasma and urine polyphenol antioxidants. In all experimental groups that received red wine, consumption resulted in marked decrease in 8OHdG. The changes observed in 8OHdG correlate positively with the other markers of oxidative damage, and shows a clear inverse correlation with the plasma level of well established antioxidants and with measurements of total antioxidant capacity. Urinary total polyphenol content as well as the sum of some specific plasma species also correlate inversely with 8OHdG. In conclusion, the results identify 8OHdG as a very promising general marker of oxidative stress in nutrition intervention studies in humans, and red wine shows a remarkable protective effect.
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