Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Pediatric Patients Improves with Home-Based Intensive Nursing Intervention

Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Pediatric and Youth HIV Program, Hartford, Connecticut 06106, USA.
AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs (Impact Factor: 3.5). 07/2004; 18(6):355-63. DOI: 10.1089/1087291041444078
Source: PubMed


Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to be a determining factor in controlling viral replication, maintaining immunologic function and long-term survival in HIV-positive individuals. Little information is available on strategies to improve adherence in pediatric HIV-infected patients. We conducted a randomized, nonblinded, pilot study to determine if a home-based nursing intervention would improve medication adherence. The study was offered to all eligible HIV-positive patients receiving care at Connecticut Children's Medical Center's (CCMC) Pediatric and Youth HIV Program. Sixty-seven percent (37/55) of the patients and their caretakers participated. We randomized participants to either standard of care or the intervention trial. The intervention was designed to improve knowledge and understanding of HIV infection and HIV medications and to resolve or modify barriers to adherence. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires, assessing their knowledge and understanding of HIV, ART, and adherence. Adherence was estimated objectively from medication refill history and subjectively from a self-report score. We also inferred adherence from pre- to post-test plasma viral load and CD4+ T-cell percentages. The knowledge score (p = 0.02) and medication refill history (p = 0.002) improved significantly in the intervention group. The adherence self-report score improved, although not significantly (p = 0.07). We did not observe statistical differences in CD4+ T-cell counts or viral load between groups. We conclude that our home-based nursing intervention helped HIV-positive children and their families in better adhering to prescribed medication regimens.

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Available from: Juan C Salazar, Feb 22, 2014
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    • "Included studies suggest that home-based interventions can achieve better adherence to prescribed medication regimens among HIV-positive children, adults, and their families as it allows their patients and caretakers to better understand HIV infection and ARV medications [11,23]. Home-based delivery of ART and health education by nurses help to build trusting and accepting relationships between nurses and families, which can ensure successful adherence [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In 2012, an estimated 35.3 million people lived with HIV, while approximately two million new HIV infections were reported. Community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of HIV allow increased access and ease availability of medical care to population at risk, or already infected with, HIV. This paper evaluates the impact of CBIs on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission. We included 39 studies on educational activities, counseling sessions, home visits, mentoring, women's groups, peer leadership, and street outreach activities in community settings that aimed to increase awareness on HIV/AIDS risk factors and ensure treatment adherence. Our review findings suggest that CBIs to increase HIV awareness and risk reduction are effective in improving knowledge, attitudes, and practice outcomes as evidenced by the increased knowledge scores for HIV/AIDS (SMD: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.07), protected sexual encounters (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.25), condom use (SMD: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.03, 1.58), and decreased frequency of sexual intercourse (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.96). Analysis shows that CBIs did not have any significant impact on scores for self-efficacy and communication. We found very limited evidence on community-based management for HIV infected population and prevention of mother- to-child transmission (MTCT) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Qualitative synthesis suggests that establishment of community support at the onset of HIV prevention programs leads to community acceptance and engagement. School-based delivery of HIV prevention education and contraceptive distribution have also been advocated as potential strategies to target high-risk youth group. Future studies should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of community delivery platforms for prevention of MTCT, and various emerging models of care to improve morbidity and mortality outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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    • "However our earlier research suggested the need to restrict trials by quality [8]. Therefore, we only used the 21 trials that were assessed by the Cochrane reviewers as fulfilling their quality criteria [22-42]. This was based on the key recommendation by the Cochrane Collaboration, which was assessment of whether randomization was concealed [43]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Complex healthcare interventions consist of multiple components which may vary in trials conducted in different populations and contexts. Pooling evidence from trials in a systematic review is challenging because it is unclear which components are needed for effectiveness. The potential is recognised for using recipients’ views to explore why some complex interventions are effective and others are not. Methods to maximise this potential are poorly developed. Methods We used a novel approach to explore how patients’ views may explain the disparity in effectiveness of complex interventions. We used qualitative comparative analysis to explore agreement between qualitative syntheses of data on patients’ views and evidence from trialed interventions to increase adherence to treatments. We first populated data matrices to reflect whether the content of each trialed intervention could be matched with suggestions arising from patients’ views. We then used qualitative comparative analysis software to identify, by a process of elimination, the smallest number of configurations (patterns) of components that corresponded with patients’ suggestions and accounted for whether each intervention was effective or ineffective. Results We found suggestions by patients were poorly represented in interventions. Qualitative comparative analysis identified particular combinations of components corresponding with patients’ suggestions and with whether an intervention was effective or ineffective. Six patterns were identified for an effective and four for an ineffective intervention. Two types of patterns arose for the effective interventions, one being didactic (providing clear information or instruction) and the other interactive (focusing on personal risk factors). Conclusions Our analysis highlights how data on patients’ views has the potential to identify key components across trials of complex interventions or inform the content of new interventions to be trialed.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Trials
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    • "Review of the 14 remaining trials revealed that all interventions aimed to improve medication management skills; this involved various techniques, for example, adaptation of dose schedules according to participants' risk factors and/or provision of adherence gadgets such as timers [30-43]. Apart from one where the comparative trial arm involved additional medication monitoring [39], all the interventions were compared with usual care. "
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    ABSTRACT: Including qualitative evidence on patients' perspectives in systematic reviews of complex interventions may reveal reasons for variation in trial findings. This is particularly the case when the intervention is for a long-term disease, as management may rely heavily on the efforts of the patient. Inclusion though seldom happens, possibly because of methodological challenges, and when it does occur the different forms of evidence are often kept separate. To explore heterogeneity in trial findings, we tested a novel approach to integrate qualitative review evidence on patients' perspectives with evidence from a Cochrane systematic review. We used, as a framework for a matrix, evidence from a qualitative review on patients' perspectives on helping them manage their disease. We then logged in the matrix whether the interventions identified in a Cochrane review corresponded with the patient perspectives on how to help them. We then explored correspondence.The Cochrane review we used included 19 trials of interventions to improve adherence to therapy in HIV/AIDS patients. The qualitative review we used included 23 studies on HIV/AIDS patients' perspectives on adherence; it translated the themes identified across the studies into recommendations in how to help patients adhere.Both reviews assessed quality. In the qualitative review they found no difference in findings between the better quality studies and the weaker ones. In the Cochrane review they were unable to explore the impact of quality in subgroup analysis because so few studies were of good quality. Matrix tabulation of interventions and patients' perspectives identified a range of priorities raised by people infected with HIV-1 that were not addressed in evaluated interventions. Tabulation of the more robust trials revealed that interventions that significantly improved adherence contained more components considered important by patients than interventions where no statistically significant effect was found. This simple approach breaks new ground in cross tabulating qualitative evidence with the characteristics of trialled interventions. In doing so it tests the assumption that patients are more likely to adhere to interventions that match more closely with their concerns. The potential of this approach in exploring varying content and rates of success in trialled complex interventions deserves further evaluation.
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