Esophageal muscle physiology and morphogenesis require assembly of a collagen XIX-rich basement membrane zone. J Cell Biol

Research Division of the Hospital for Special Surgery at the Weill College of Medicine of Cornell University, New York, NY 10019, USA.
The Journal of Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 9.83). 09/2004; 166(4):591-600. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200402054
Source: PubMed


Collagen XIX is an extremely rare extracellular matrix component that localizes to basement membrane zones and is transiently expressed by differentiating muscle cells. Characterization of mice harboring null and structural mutations of the collagen XIX (Col19a1) gene has revealed the critical contribution of this matrix protein to muscle physiology and differentiation. The phenotype includes smooth muscle motor dysfunction and hypertensive sphincter resulting from impaired swallowing-induced, nitric oxide-dependent relaxation of the sphincteric muscle. Muscle dysfunction was correlated with a disorganized matrix and a normal complement of enteric neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal. Mice without collagen XIX exhibit an additional defect, namely impaired smooth-to-skeletal muscle cell conversion in the abdominal segment of the esophagus. This developmental abnormality was accounted for by failed activation of myogenic regulatory factors that normally drive esophageal muscle transdifferentiation. Therefore, these findings identify collagen XIX as the first structural determinant of sphincteric muscle function, and as the first extrinsic factor of skeletal myogenesis in the murine esophagus.

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    • "Another form, found in cartilage, is associated with banded fibrils, but only fibrils that do not have collagen IX on their surface (Kassner et al. 2003). The aggregate form of collagen XIX is unknown, but noteworthy is the finding that Col19a1 null mice undergo a transdifferentiation of smooth muscle to skeletal muscle in the abdominal part of the esophagus (Sumiyoshi et al. 2004). Little is known about collagen type XXI other than its primary structure and potential chain association from recombinant α chains (Chou and Li 2002; Li et al. 2005). "
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