ArticleLiterature Review

Emergent Literacy of Deaf Children

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... Bu durum işitme kayıplı çocukların okuma becerilerinin gelişimini olumsuz etkilemekte, ilerleyen süreçte metni okumalarını, anlamalarını ve anlatmalarını zorlaştırabilmektedir (Goldberg, 2016;Schirmer, 2000). Okuma ve yazma becerilerine ilişkin yapılan araştırmalarda işitme kayıplı çocukların normal işiten yaşıtları ile okulöncesi dönemde birbirine yakın okuryazarlık becerileri sergiledikleri görülmektedir (Williams, 2004). Erken okuryazarlık becerilerinin gelişiminin formel okuma yazma öğretiminin temelini oluşturması, işitme kayıplı çocukların okulöncesi eğitiminin önemini arttırmaktadır. ...
... Yapılan araştırmalar çeşitlendirilmiş okuma ve yazmaya hazırlık etkinliklerinin işitme kayıplı çocukların dinleme becerilerini destekleyici olduğunu göstermektedir (Hargreve ve Senechal, 2000;Lonigan vd., 2013;Rottenberg, 2001;Williams, 2004;Williams ve McLean, 1997;Yennari, 2010 Girgin, 2006;Machado, 2007;Schirmer 2000). Bu nedenle bu araştırmada anlatım için rol model olunmuş ve dinlediğini anlatma becerisi desteklenmeye çalışılmıştır. ...
... Alanyazında öğretmenlerin kullandıkları soru-cevap, katılım genişletme ya da düzeltme gibi stratejilerin, işitme kayıplı çocukların erken okuryazarlık becerilerinin gelişimi üzerinde etkisi olduğunu göstermektedir (Anderson vd., 2012;Swanson vd, 2011;Zucker vd., 2010 (Hargreve ve Senechal, 2000;Williams, 2004;Lonigan vd., 2013;Nelson, Wright ve Parker, 2016;Rottenberg, 2001;Yennari, 2010). ...
... These issues mentioned above often limit parent involvement in literacy activities in the home. These gaps in early interactions between a child and their parents with print and books can therefore delay and limit literacy outcomes (Andrews & Mason, 1986;Andrews & Zmijewski, 1997;Bailes, Erting, Erting, & Thumann-Prezioso, 2009;Berke, 2013;Watson & Swanwick, 2008;Williams, 2004). All of these cognitive and linguistic developmental issues create problems for many deaf children as they learn to read. ...
... Early reading encompasses the awareness and experiences with reading, writing, speaking, listening and thinking, all of which occurred in the home prior to children starting the formal instruction of conventional literacy in the first grade. This view of reading is not only historical, but is still relevant today as researchers studying deaf children continue to use these emergent literacy frameworks (Herbold, 2008; see reviews in Trezek & Mayer, 2015;Williams, 2004). These recent works show that signing deaf children by age five can identify environmental print, write their names, fingerspell their names, write most, if not all, of the alphabet, and recite back elements of storybooks after being read to (Herbold, 2008;Williams, 2004). ...
... This view of reading is not only historical, but is still relevant today as researchers studying deaf children continue to use these emergent literacy frameworks (Herbold, 2008; see reviews in Trezek & Mayer, 2015;Williams, 2004). These recent works show that signing deaf children by age five can identify environmental print, write their names, fingerspell their names, write most, if not all, of the alphabet, and recite back elements of storybooks after being read to (Herbold, 2008;Williams, 2004). This framework includes four components, listed and explained below. ...
Article
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Deaf children can develop reading skills by using a visual language to bridge meaning to English print without the use of English auditory phonology. To this end, five deafcentric frameworks are described that take into account the use of visual language and visual learning, as well as the use of deaf cultural role models in the teaching of reading. Moving away from the deficit model, these frameworks focus on Deaf1 students in the act of reading in order to document their actual behaviors using a bilingual American Sign Language/English philosophy. These five models suggest that there is more involved in reading than simply bottom-up code-based strategies based on spoken language. Multiple pathways are recommended, based on the work of Treisman, and his idea of “fault tolerant” approaches, which permit and encourage multiple pathways for deaf readers.
... Language delay does not prevent children with hearing impairment from participating in literacy activities and from gaining early literacy concepts (Rottenberg & Searfoss, 1992;Williams, 1994Williams, , 2004. Williams (1994) followed three profoundly deaf children (ages 3.11 to 5.10) and documented the emergent literacy activities in their homes. ...
... Williams indicated that their parents read to them or with them almost daily. While research regarding family literacy of hearing children is extensive and books have been written about it (for example see Wasik, 2004), there are only a handful of studies on the subject of family literacy of children with hearing impairments (Williams, 2004). ...
... Moreover, children with hearing impairments can learn much about the written language through recurring interactive storybook reading involving questions and prompts that help the child take an active part in storybook reading interactions (Rottenberg, 2001). Some evidence points to the fact that interactive storybook reading supports deaf children's self-confidence as emergent readers, and increases their comprehension skills, their interest and engagement with books, and their storytelling as well as their word recognition skills (Williams, 2004). In the current study, our aim was to analyze in more detail the manner of storybook-telling to children with hearing impairments, comparing this to that of storybooktelling to hearing children. ...
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We investigated the mediation profile of maternal storybook-telling to kindergartners with hearing impairment in two educational settings: group (N = 15) and individual (N = 15) inclusion. The results were then compared with the mediation profile of mothers of hearing children. The mothers were videotaped while telling their child a wordless book. The manner of the interaction was analyzed with regard to the following mediation aspects: dialogic reading, language complexity, questions, social praises and manual illustrations. The findings revealed that mothers of children with hearing impairment in individual inclusion were the most active during the interactions. Mothers of normal hearing children used more complex sentences and asked more open questions when compared to mothers of children with hearing impairment.
... Norms of Deaf culture have an impact on communication with Deaf children; relative locations of communicators, and the getting and retaining of visual attention are important considerations during interactions with Deaf people . Deaf children are creative communicators when they are motivated to communicate (Potter et al., 2014;Williams, 2004). ...
... I recommend that designers and researchers wanting to work with young Deaf children should also take steps to familiarise themselves with the children's sign language and Deaf cultural communication norms, as these will help to promote communication. Designers and researchers should further commit themselves to awareness of non-verbal communication, as young Deaf children are expressive and inventive communicators when motivated (Potter et al., 2014;Williams, 2004), and this provides another opportunity to understand them, their needs, and their abilities. ...
Article
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Involving users in the research and design of new technologies is particularly relevant for groups affected by digital exclusion and lacking in cultural power, such as people with disabilities, people from cultural minorities, and children. Design with young Deaf children lies at the intersection of these three groups, as the medical community defines physical deafness as a disability; Deaf communities around the world identify as minority cultural groups with their own languages; and young children traditionally lack power in interactions with adults. Deaf children bring particular needs, abilities and experiences related to their youth, physical deafness and cultural Deafness to the technology design process, making their involvement in design vital. Their involvement presents a unique set of challenges and ethical considerations, including matters of consent and behaviour management. Adult involvement in supportive roles can facilitate young Deaf children’s involvement in design activities and address some of the challenges of designing with Deaf children. This article presents a case study that involved young Australian Deaf children as design partners, with their family members and Deaf and hearing education professionals in supportive roles, for the purpose of providing recommendations to researchers and designers who wish to undertake similar design activities with young Deaf children and supportive adults. The case study involved a series of 30-minute design sessions with four Deaf children (ages 3-5). Reflections on this case study will discuss the roles adult design team members took throughout the design sessions, the benefits and challenges of involving adults as members of design teams with young Deaf children, and ethical considerations to be addressed when designing with young Deaf children in design teams. The article concludes with recommendations for researchers and designers conducting design sessions with young Deaf children and adult supporters, so that young Deaf child designers are well-supported and have the freedom to explore their preferences, desires, requirements, and to contribute to design solutions.
... Working across languages should involve active awareness on the part of the researcher that interpretation cannot be one-to-one [37]. Young children with delayed language acquisition and low language skills need more communication support than interpretation; this is supported by the fact that Deaf and deaf children can be active and creative in attempting to communicate when they lack skills in signed and spoken languages [40]. ...
... This did not mean that they did not communicate at all. As observed in the research literature [40], the children were creative about communicating when they had something that they considered important to communicate. They would sign at times, usually to request specific materials or creations within the design sessions. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper will discuss the impacts Deaf culture and the traits of individual Deafness have on the conduct of co-design with Deaf children. A series of design sessions were undertaken with a design team composed of young Deaf children, the first author as an adult designer, members of an Early Childhood Development Program's staff, and the parents of the young Deaf children. From the interactions of the design team, lessons about the impact of Deaf culture and individual Deafness have been identified. Designers wishing to work with young Deaf children must consider the impacts Deafness and Deaf culture will have on their design activities if they wish to maximise Deaf children's involvement in and contribution to those design activities.
... These studies usually used whole language techniques and included small samples (e.g., Andrews & Gonzales, 1992). Storybook reading poses difficulties with children who have HL (Williams, 2004). One difficulty lies in holding the book and signing at the same time, and another stems from the child's need to shift visual focus from the book illustrations to the reader's face and hands that are signing/speaking the printed words. ...
... All of the study units were preplanned and were introduced within a developmentally appropriate environment, beginning with the familiar and creating a context linking alphabetic knowledge with writing (Wasik, 2001). In line with studies on literacy development of hearing children (Levin, Both-de Vries, Aram, & Bus, 2005) as well as deaf children (Williams, 2004), children were first taught to recognize their written name and the written names of their friends. Gradually, they were introduced to word segmentation, syllable retrieval, identification of an opening/closing syllable or phoneme, letter-name and letter-sound correspondence, and writing. ...
Article
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The study assessed the efficacy of an early literacy intervention for 79 children ages 5-6 years with prelingual hearing loss (HL) who all functioned auditorily, using appropriate devices. Teachers and speech therapists administered an 8-month-long intervention in preschools through two alphabetic sessions and one storybook-reading session per week. Alphabetic sessions involved games and activities that encouraged letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and functional writing. Storybook-reading sessions utilized children’s books to discuss central concepts and ideas via games and creative activities. The study compared two educational inclusion tracks: individual inclusion (a single student with HL fully integrated into a regular classroom) and co-enrollment (a group of students with HL partially integrated into a regular classroom and co-taught by a regular teacher and a special education teacher). Another group of children with HL studying in a co-enrollment track served as a control group. Children’s alphabetic skills (letter naming, orthographic awareness, phonological awareness, and word writing) were assessed at pretest and posttest. Results showed that participants progressed more in the intervention groups than in the control group on phonological awareness and word writing, regardless of inclusion track. Interestingly, the two intervention groups did not differ in their progress.
... DHH children specifically are at risk for developing reading difficulties (Traxler, 2000;Wauters, van Bon, & Tellings, 2006). Williams (2004) states that they need many opportunities to engage in literacy activities to be able to develop the emergent literacy skills they need for their later reading development. This greater risk for DHH children implies that we need to engage them in literacy activities as early as possible. ...
... Interactive reading is an important activity in children's development of language and emergent literacy skills (DesJardin et al., 2009;Mol et al., 2008). Because DHH children are at risk for developing a delay in both these areas, it is imperative to involve them in literacy activities as young as possible (Williams, 2004). Our study showed that parents, early interventionists, and educators now have even more opportunities for interactive reading through reading eBooks on a tablet. ...
Article
Interactive storybook reading is effective in enhancing deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children's emergent literacy skills. The current digital era gives parents more opportunities to read books with their child. From an early age on, interaction between parent and child during literacy activities is very important for the development of emergent literacy skills. The purpose of the present study was to explore the opportunities of eBooks on a tablet for interactive reading with young DHH children. Parent and child interactive behavior in reading print books was compared to eBooks in 18 parents and their 1- to 3-year-old DHH child. All parents followed an interactive reading programafter which their interactive reading behaviors were observed while reading print books and eBooks with their child. Results mainly showed similar interactive reading behaviors in parents and children when reading print books or eBooks, except for a lower occurrence of pointing to pictures/ objects in the parent behavior when reading the eBooks. These results give parents and professionals even more opportunities for interactive storybook reading with DHH children, and thus more opportunities to enhance their language and literacy skills. Tablets can be easily taken with you making eBooks accessible for interactive reading wherever you are.
... This failure to acquire the alphabetic principle may explain, at least in part, the reported disconnect between reading and spelling development for young deaf children. This disconnect between reading and spelling may have significant implications for early writing development, as well, given the connections that have been documented between reading and writing development in early childhood (Bear et al., 2008;Chall, 1996;Clay, 1983;Mayer, 2010;Paul, 2009;Shanahan, 2006;Williams, 2004Williams, , 2011. ...
... We would argue, however, that it would be especially important to design studies that not only measure current performance but also track children's performance longitudinally over time. During the early childhood period, deaf children appear to follow developmental trajectories similar to those of their hearing counterparts (Mayer, 2007;Paul, 2009Paul, , 2010Williams, 2004Williams, , 2011, and these indications of a parallel start should predict the development of age-appropriate outcomes at later stages. But, this has not been found, raising questions as to when, how, and in what ways the literacy learning trajectories of deaf learners differ from those of their hearing peers, and the extent to which this difference is evidenced in the early years (Allman, 2002;Mayer, 1998Mayer, , 2007Williams, 2011). ...
Article
The authors conducted an integrative review of the research literature on the writing development, writing instruction, and writing assessment of young deaf children ages 3 to 8 years (or preschool through third grade) published between 1990 and 2012. A total of 17 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. The analysis examined research problems, theoretical frames, research methodologies, and major findings across the body of work. Findings of the review indicated that much of the research has focused on spelling, and when studies examined writing development, the analyses were limited to the word level. Assessment of writing has been largely ignored. Results also indicated that two primary conceptual frameworks have dominated the field across the 22-year span, with divergent implications for pedagogy and practice. The researchers call for longitudinal studies that examine deaf children’s use of English grammar and syntax within connected discourse.
... Second, students who did not receive this explicit and consistent modeled instruction were not able to blend sounds or employ the letter-sound strategy as independently (Juel & Minden-Cupp, 2000). A more detailed description of the explicit application of the visual strategy is found in Williams (2004). Williams (2004) reviewed material which supported the explicit multi-modal instructional approach of primary-junior educators of students who were Deaf. ...
... A more detailed description of the explicit application of the visual strategy is found in Williams (2004). Williams (2004) reviewed material which supported the explicit multi-modal instructional approach of primary-junior educators of students who were Deaf. Using storybooks for read-alouds and shared reading, the teachers explicitly modeled phonological decoding skills. ...
... Even with the advent of newborn hearing screening and an increase in the availability of amplification devices, some researchers suggest that deaf children are still at risk (e.g., Nittrouer, Caldwell, Lowenstein, Tarr, & Holloman, 2012). This places great significance on early language and literacy exposure (Mayberry, 2007;Mayer, 2007;Paul & Wang, 2012;Williams, 2004). ...
... Improving the quality and quantity of language and literacy experiences and materials in the home and in early education settings is critical for all children. For deaf children, who are at risk for language and literacy failure, a greater quantity and higher quality of language and literacy experiences are imperative if they are to experience early literacy development and later literacy success (Mayer, 2007;Musselman, 2000;Williams, 2004). exposure to language and literacy is critical, yet there are different perspectives on how best to promote development in these areas. ...
Article
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With the increase in research on multiliteracies comes greater interest in exploring multiple pathways of learning for deaf children. Educational media have been increasingly examined as a tool for facilitating the development of deaf children's language and literacy skills. The authors investigated whether preschool deaf children (N = 31) acquired targeted American Sign Language and literacy skills after viewing one video from an educational video series in ASL. Descriptive statistics were gathered and a split-plot ANOVA was conducted to determine whether targeted literacy scores increased from pretest to posttest and whether scores varied by baseline ASL skills. A significant improvement was found in the skills targeted in the video, which occurred regardless of the level of baseline ASL skills. The findings support the claim that learning ASL and literacy skills through educational media may benefit deaf children with varied levels of exposure to ASL.
... Writing wall tales on posters, manila sheets, or large volumes is one of them, as well as writing stories, essays, and poetry; recounting or reworking stories; class diary entries; and writing about shared experiences. The conclusions differ from those of American research on the goal of writing for SWHI byConway (1985) andWilliams (2004). When given genuine opportunity to write, deaf or hard-of-hearing students can and do write, according to a significant common pattern documented in the research. ...
Article
Developing literacy in English while using Indian Sign Language (ASL). Despite not having a written form, ISL is a fully accessible language for learners with HI, allowing them to build on past experiences, mediate information, and engage in critical thinking and reasoning. This study sought to examine the methods employed in teaching written English to students with hearing impairments (SWHI) in special education. In this study, a descriptive survey design was employed. This study included a sample of 5 English language instructors, 8 SWHI, and 1 school headmistress. Utilizing questionnaires, schedules for observation and interviews, data was gathered. The computer application excel, which makes manipulating numbers simple, was used to examine the data in large part. Narrative data was used to convey qualitative data. It was found that teachers lacked a solid understanding of the projects and tactics that may be utilized to enhance writing among SWHI. Instead, they employed frequent copy writing, the teaching of new vocabulary, sentence construction, and copying phrases. This was unable to raise students' writing ability to the necessary degree. The study suggests that teachers of students with hearing impairment often receive training on how to teach writing. Teachers for SWHI should receive comprehensive training on how to spot students who have writing challenges. The management of the school should see to it that SWHI receive proper writing instruction. Early exposure to Indian Sign Language should occur, and English language instructors should continually assess how well their remedial programs are working.
... 41 Araştırmalar, İK'li çocukların erken yaştan itibaren dil ve okuryazarlık açısından zengin ortamlarda bulunmalarının, ileri dönemdeki okuryazarlık ve akademik başarıları için kritik olduğunu ifade etmektedir. 34,42,43 Öte yandan İK'li çocuklar için yalnızca ev EOY ortamının düzenlenmesinin yeterli olmayacağına da dikkat çekilmektedir. Bir başka deyişle, İK'li çocuklar EOY becerilerinin desteklenmesine yönelik doğrudan öğretim seanslarına da şüphesiz ihtiyaç duymaktadırlar. ...
Article
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ÖZET: Bu çalışmada dil, konuşma ve işitme alanlarında sorun yaşayan çocukların erken okuryazarlık becerilerinin desteklenmesi için yapılabilecek uygulamalara yönelik güncel bilgilerin sentezlenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Geleneksel derleme yöntemi ile tasarlanan bu çalışmada; dil, konuşma ve işitme alanlarında sorun yaşayan çocuklara yönelik erken okuryazarlık müdahalesine ilişkin alanyazın taraması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yapılan incelemeler sonucunda erken okuryazarlık becerilerinin desteklenmesinde okumanın 2 boyutunu (çözümleme ve anlama) da destekleyen etkinliklere ulaşılmıştır. Bu etkinliklerin; fonolojik farkındalık, yazı farkındalığı, harf bilgisi, dinlediğini anlama ve sözel dil becerileri gibi erken okuryazarlığın farklı boyutlarını kapsadığı görülmüştür. Dil ve konuşma bozukluğu olan çocuklara yönelik erken okuryazarlık müdahalesi; ebeveyn ve öğretmen eğitimi, etkileşimli okuma, müdahaleye tepki modeli ve kod temelli müdahale başlıkları altında ele alınmıştır. İşitme kayıplı çocuklara yönelik erken okuryazarlık müdahalesi ise ev erken okuryazarlık ortamının düzenlenmesi, fonolojik farkındalık ve sözel dil müdahalesi başlıkları altında incelenmiştir. İletişim bozukluğu olan çocuklara yönelik erken okuryazarlık müdahalesi, temel olarak tipik gelişim gösteren çocuklara yönelik düzenlenen müdahale ile ortak uygulamaları içermektedir. Bununla birlikte, müdahale içeriğinin doğrudan, tekrarlı ve bireyselleştirilmiş strateji kullanımları ile çeşitli uyarlamalar gerektirdiği görülmektedir. İleri dönem okuma güçlükleri açısından risk altında oldukları belirtilen ve iletişim bozukluğu olan çocuklar, erken okuryazarlık becerileri açısından da değerlendirilmeli ve gerekli durumlarda erken okuryazarlık müdahalesi, terapi seansları içerisine entegre edilmelidir. ABSTRACT: In this study, it is aimed to synthesize up-to-date information about the practices that can be implemented to support the early literacy skills of children who have problems in speech, language and hearing areas. In this study, which was designed with the traditional review method; a literature review was conducted on early literacy intervention for children with speech, language and hearing problems. As a result of the examinations, activities that support both dimensions of reading (decoding and comprehension) have been reached in supporting early literacy skills. It has been seen that these activities cover different dimensions of early literacy such as phonological awareness, print awareness, letter knowledge, listening comprehension and verbal language skills. Early literacy intervention for children with speech and language disorders were examined under the headings of parent and teacher training, interactive reading, response to intervention model and code-based intervention. Early literacy intervention for children with hearing loss was examined under the headings of arrangement of home literacy environment, phonological awareness and verbal language intervention. Early literacy intervention for children with communication disorders basically includes joint practices designed for typically developing children. However, the content of the intervention seems to require various adaptations with the use of direct, repetitive and individualized strategies. Children with communication disorders, who are stated to be at risk for advanced reading difficulties, should also be evaluated in terms of early literacy skills, and early literacy intervention should be integrated into their therapy sessions when necessary.
... Intersubjective understanding emerges from locally co-produced action, where a history of routine, reliable means of achieving intersubjectivity affords fluency and constituent structure (Bybee 2007;Goodwin 2018). Much like Home Signs that emerge locally in social contexts with deaf children (Goldin-Meadow et al. 1984;Williams 2004), multi-turn constructions could be viewed as 'home constructions' that emerge and become conventionalized within their own local contexts. It is worth noting that these constructions emerged from asymmetries between Matt and mom: the roles of child and mother, the interactional asymmetries of child and adult, as well as asymmetries based on their different neurodiverse constitutions. ...
Article
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The human capacity for intersubjective engagement is present, even when one is limited in speaking, pointing, and coordinating gaze. This paper examines the everyday social interactions of two differently-disposed actors—a non-speaking autistic child and his speaking, neurotypical mother—who participate in shared attention through dialogic turn-taking. In the collaborative pursuit of activities, the participants coordinate across multiple turns, producing multi-turn constructions that accomplish specific goals. The paper asks two questions about these collaborative constructions: 1) What are their linguistic and discursive structures? 2) How do embodied actions contribute to these constructions? Findings show that the parent and child repeatedly co-produced multi-turn constructions that had consistent structures, implying a sophisticated ability to anticipate the completion of action trajectories. Examining the embodied actions of interactants revealed that the child often accommodated to the parent’s demands for participation. Nonetheless, the child occasionally pursued his own goals by improvising with and within multi-turn constructions. He launched constructions to redirect parental attention, and otherwise produced surprising actions within the turn-taking structure of these constructions. The paper concludes that multi-turn constructions in the midst of activities are a primordial site in which to begin observing the competencies of non-speaking autistic children for intersubjective engagement.
... Die spezifischen Herausforderungen, die beim Erwerb von Literacy-Kompetenzen bei hörgeschädigten Kindern zu berücksichtigen sind, werden in diesem Rahmen nicht weiter ausgeführt(Williams 2004). ...
... Appreciating its definitional impermanence, its fluidity and its multiplicity, one can refer to Williams' (2004) recent review, which divides literacy studies into 'narrow' and 'broad' camps and then concerns itself primarily with the former, highlighting research that privileges individual capacities and offers reading and writing as separate domains. Literacy in the narrow sense as a part of cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics refers to reading comprehension, reading and writing processes, language development in writing and spelling. ...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was twofold: The first was to determine the validity and reliability of a news media literacy questionnaire that was developed to identify college students’ literacy levels related to media and news about violence against women. The existing literature about media literacy shows that there is a lack of evaluation instrument of this kind. The study aimed to determine whether or not Turkish students could critically analyze the news reports, in particular, news about violence towards women, given on different news channels. A questionnaire that consisted of 16 questions divided among three categories (awareness, analysis, and judgment) was developed based on a comprehensive review of related studies in the literature. Data were collected from 172 Turkish college students enrolled in the department of English Language Teaching at a major government university in Turkey. The results showed the instrument to be reliable and valid. The second aim of the study was to validate the questionnaire with 81 laymen of different age groups and with different educational levels and income. The results of the validation study were given as a preliminary presentation of the perceptions of the respondents.
... Children's encounters with literacy at home hold multiple implications for their careers as readers and writers. What is crucial in all the children's encounters with literacy are the mediators of literacy (Williams 2004). Analysis of the child participants' experience with literacy is framed by the theory of language learning as socially constructed knowledge and understanding that develops through interactions with more experienced members of the community (Rogoff 2003). ...
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Background: Early childhood education is essential in bridging home and school literacy practices; however, recognising the home as a literacy space remains a challenge to educators in South African schools. Aim: The aim of this article was to explore children’s literacy practices, often through play, and the potential implications this might hold for their future careers as readers and writers. The article conceptualises home as the primary domain where literacy develops. Setting: The study was conducted in a multilingual township in South Africa. Methods: We engage with key theories in sociocultural studies and new literacy studies, as well as key ideas from young children’s learning experiences with family members and peers during play. Methodologically, we undertook a case study in which we conducted interviews with parents, guardians and educators, as well as conducting home observations of the children’s literacy practices. Results: We confirmed that children’s out-of-school practices have the potential to support literacy development in school, and we concluded that children interact with multiple discourses during their everyday practices and play. Conclusion: Although there is a general lack of knowledge and understanding of these discourses by educators, these interactions have the potential to enhance schooled literacies.
... For hearing children, Storch and Whitehurst (2002) used structural equation modeling to demonstrate that alphabetic knowledge, PA, and vocabulary in prekindergarten and kindergarten predicted later reading ability. Similarly, the findings of two longitudinal studies of young DHH children (ages 3-5 years in one study and 5-6 in another) suggest that PA, vocabulary, and alphabetic knowledge during preschool or kindergarten predict later reading abilities (Easterbrooks et al., 2008;Kyle & Harris, 2011), though the need for more research specifically regarding early literacy among DHH children has been noted (Williams, 2004). We explore the literature among DHH children for each of these skills below. ...
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Already well documented for hearing children, schooling's effects on early literacy skills for young students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) were examined for the first time in the present study. Piecewise growth curve modeling was used to describe 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old students' growth in phonological awareness, letter-word identification, and vocabulary during 2 years of schooling and the intervening summer (N = 56). Amplification mode was cochlear implants for 45% of the sample and hearing aids for 54%. Classroom communication mode was spoken language only (for 61%) or sign language (39%). Across all skills, significant growth occurred during the 2 years of schooling but not during the summer. These findings underscore early education's importance in promoting DHH children's critical early skills. Universal preschool intervention, including during summer, may be important in ensuring that DHH children have an adequate foundation when schooling begins.
... Ou seja, o acesso à esta língua geralmente acontece no contexto escolar e depois dos cinco anos de idade. Neste sentido, pesquisas (Bonvillian et al.,1997;Woll,1998;Colombo et al., 2002) (Santana, 2007;Souza, 2009 (Cunha, Cintra, 1985;Cunha 1992 (Fernandes, 2003;Gonçalo, 2004;São Paulo, 2005;Crato, Cárnio, 2009 , Koutsoubou et al., 2006, Hermans et al., 2008 (Williams, 2004;Peixoto, 2006) Quanto ao uso de outros marcadores de tempo empregados na elaboração das frases escritas, os resultados sugerem que quatro sujeitos realizaram a transposição da estrutura da Libras para a Língua Portuguesa, uma vez que na Libras é comum o uso dos marcadores utilizados (Ferreira Brito, 1995;Felipe, 2005). De acordo com a literatura é freqüente o uso de traços da primeira língua quando se está adquirindo uma segunda língua (Wang, Wen, 2002;Woodall, 2002;Devitto, Burguess, 2004 Comer Mão direita aberta em sentido vertical, palma da mão na frente da boca. ...
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Crato AN. Tense marking by deaf signers. [dissertação]. São Paulo: Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo; 2010. p.114. Summary INTRODUCTION: National researches have emphasized that deaf students present difficulty in the use of verbal inflexion for tense in written Portuguese. This statement is unquestionable; nevertheless the origin of this difficulty is attributed to several factors, such as: influence of Sign Language, difficulty to access the Portuguese Language, and teaching practices out of context. In order to better understand this process, this study aimed to verify if and how deaf signers use verbal inflection for tense in Portuguese written language and to observe the presence of other resources for tense marking in this language and in Brazilian Sign Language. METHODS: The study was carried out with 18 subjects with profound bilateral sensoryneural hearing loss, ranging in age from 15 to 23 years old, and with an educational level varying from the 3rd to the 7th grade of a regular public Elementary School. All subjects were users of Brazilian Sign Language and had hearing parents; they did not present other disorders associated to deafness. Subjects were assessed concerning the knowledge of nine action verbs in Brazilian Sign Language through boards with pictures representing the actions; they were asked to elaborate three sentences with each verb in written Portuguese and in Brazilian Sign Language, one in the past tense, one in the present and one in the future tense. Data were analyzed qualitative and quantitatively. RESULTS: Despite the adequate use of tense markers by most of the participants of the study in Brazilian Sign Language, a better performance was expected once sign language was the preferable communication language. Adjuncts of adverb were the most frequent tense markers used in the past and in the future sentences, and adverbs of time were predominant in the present tense. Only four subjects used sign language markers to indicate time in written sentences. Subjects presented better performance in the elaboration of sentences in the present tense in both, Brazilian Sign Language and in Written Portuguese. There was a significant statistical relation between the use of verbal inflexion in the present tense and the use of other tense markers in written production according to the increase of the educational level. CONCLUSION: Most of the deaf participants use tense markers in sentences expressed in Brazilian Sign Language and present difficulty in the Written Portuguese. Results suggest that the greater the educational level, less difficulty will be presented. This fact demonstrates the need for rethinking practices of Portuguese teaching as a second language in order for the deaf to have the opportunity to broaden their knowledge and to master writing sooner. Descriptors: sign language, deafness, evaluation, language
... Deaf children born to hearing parents have been shown to experience delays in the acquisition of language and literacy, which in turn lead to learning, behavioural and attention difficulties, and lower social and emotional development compared to hearing children, or the children of Deaf parents, of the same age [21], [27]- [35]. However, Deaf children are also quite innovative in approaching communication if they are motivated to do so [21], [36]. ...
... Children with HI lack access to the phonemes of the spoken language and hence have less opportunity to master the alphabetic principle in the way that children with normal hearing do. Still, given a supportive literacy environment, the literacy development of children with HI exhibits a parallel route to that of hearing children (Williams, 2004). However, young children with HI experience fewer parent-child literacy-related interactions relative to hearing children (Marschark, 1993). ...
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The rising significance attributed to reading and spelling acquisition as a foundation for learning and scholastic success (Echols, West, Stanovich, & Zehr, 1996), has motivated numerous societies to devote considerable resources to the support of this domain. The recognition that reading and spelling do not emerge in children simply through growing up among and interacting with literate people (Ehri, Nunes, Stahl, & Willows, 2001), a belief once quite popular (Goodman, 1967), and still preached today (Edelsky, 2006), led to a search for planned procedures best suited to the promotion of reading and spelling. In many countries, the attempt to enhance reading/spelling acquisition included supporting competencies from an early age that build the foundations for reading and spelling acquisition later on (Eufimia, 2008; Neuman & Roskos, 2005; Perlman & Fletcher, 2008). Promotion attempts mainly targeted two contexts -- school and home. Many educational systems developed curricula to teach early literacy very early, even in pre-preschool. Concomitantly, attempts were made to enhance the home literacy environment. School and home are different environments with different agendas. While school is more focused on teaching/learning, home provides, first and foremost, parenting and emotional care. Consequently, while literacy should be taught in school through a well-planned curriculum, at home it may be integrated with everyday communication, daily games, and chores that promote a close caregiver-child relationship and provide entertainment. This chapter deals with promoting literacy at home.
... Children with HI lack access to the phonemes of the spoken language and hence have less opportunity to master the alphabetic principle in the way that children with normal hearing do. Still, given a supportive literacy environment, the literacy development of children with HI exhibits a parallel route to that of hearing children (Williams, 2004). However, young children with HI experience fewer parent-child literacy-related interactions relative to hearing children (Marschark, 1993). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The rising significance attributed to reading and spelling acquisition as a foundation for learning and scholastic success (Echols, West, Stanovich, & Zehr, 1996), has motivated numerous societies to devote considerable resources to the support of this domain. The recognition that reading and spelling do not emerge in children simply through growing up among and interacting with literate people (Ehri, Nunes, Stahl, & Willows, 2001), a belief once quite popular (Goodman, 1967), and still preached today (Edelsky, 2006), led to a search for planned procedures best suited to the promotion of reading and spelling. In many countries, the attempt to enhance reading/spelling acquisition included supporting competencies from an early age that build the foundations for reading and spelling acquisition later on (Eufimia, 2008; Neuman & Roskos, 2005; Perlman & Fletcher, 2008). Promotion attempts mainly targeted two contexts -- school and home. Many educational systems developed curricula to teach early literacy very early, even in pre-preschool. Concomitantly, attempts were made to enhance the home literacy environment. School and home are different environments with different agendas. While school is more focused on teaching/learning, home provides, first and foremost, parenting and emotional care. Consequently, while literacy should be taught in school through a well-planned curriculum, at home it may be integrated with everyday communication, daily games, and chores that promote a close caregiver-child relationship and provide entertainment. This chapter deals with promoting literacy at home.
... Care that focuses on partnerships, encouraging the building of relationships between its members, enables the possibility of a significant listening environment, flexibility of roles and positions, and recognition of the differences between the self and the other. Following this path, using speech-language therapy that considers language to be an interpersonal, uninterrupted action, it is possible that the subjects involved in this action with the other, and about the other, they were adopted, which will be shown in Diagram 1 below, and were divided into two groups: I. actions that follow regulation and idealization rules (covering actions [1][2][3][4] and are based on insertion and deletion strategies; ...
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Para que sujeitos surdos estabeleçam relações entre a língua brasileira de sinais e a língua portuguesa, o uso de recursos de retextualização pode ser uma ferramenta capaz de levar tais sujeitos a produzirem gêneros textuais escritos de acordo com convenções ortográficas e gramaticais do português. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste trabalho é discutir o processo de retextualização usado como prática nas terapias fonoaudiológicas em grupo como um meio desses sujeitos se apropriarem da língua portuguesa em sua modalidade escrita. Participaram da pesquisa 8 surdos que fazem uso de Libras e da língua portuguesa em sua modalidade escrita. Inicialmente, os sujeitos produziam textos em língua de sinais que, depois de comentados e discutidos, em sessões em grupo, contando com a presença de uma fonoaudióloga, além de outros profissionais, eram retextualizados por meio da escrita. Após a retextualização, os sujeitos surdos foram convocados a reler o texto e, caso julgassem necessário, a modificá-lo. Na sequência, eles reliam os textos em conjunto com os profissionais e o retextualizavam em uma versão final escrita. Nos textos analisados, as operações de reestruturações sintáticas, de reconstruções textuais em função da norma da língua, bem como as de tratamento estilístico com seleção de novas estruturas sintáticas e opções lexicais foram as mais usadas nos processos de retextualização. A partir dos processos de retextualização, os surdos passaram a refletir sobre a escrita e sua função social, assumindo essa modalidade da linguagem com mais disposição e autoconfiança.
... Few studies have focused on the experiences of deaf children in preschool, where settings are meant to be inclusive. The prerequisites of early childhood literacy have not been investigated (Roos, 2004;Williams, 2004). While the objectives and features of inclusive education vary across national boundaries (Hyde, 2009), two different approaches to empirical research on inclusive education may be identified in the Norwegian research literature (Haug, 2010). ...
Article
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This article reports on a study of literacy practices in a Norwegian preschool where deaf and hearing children are enrolled in the same group and where communication is based on both sign language and spoken language. The aim of the study was to explore pathways to literacy for young deaf children within this setting. Our implicit assumption is that deaf children access literacy in much the same way as hearing children do. In the study we ask what kind of literacy events occur in the preschool and we examine how these events might allow for participation by the young deaf children on equal terms with their hearing peers. The study is conducted within a sociocultural framework. From this perspective, literacy is perceived as a social practice in everyday activities. Within the range of social activities in the preschool, some significant literacy events were analysed with regard to their nature and impact on literacy learning for deaf children. Data are based on video recordings, field notes and interviews with teachers. The results demonstrate that a number of events vital to literacy learning represent great educational challenges in inclusive settings with both hearing and deaf children. © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
... That is, the social dimensions of language and literacy (e.g., sociocultural, sociohistorical) have not been considered until quite recently. Nevertheless, even the little research motivated by social models has lent some support to the QSH (see, e.g., Williams, 2004). ...
Article
In this chapter, I present the underpinnings of the qualitative-similarity hypothesis (QSH) and a synthesis of a sample of research investigations on children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing (dDhh) (Paul 2008, 2009, 2010; Paul & Lee, 2010; Paul & Wang, 2012; Trezek, Wang, & Paul, 2010, 2011). dDhh children are those who have slight to profound hearing losses based on the pure-tone average in the better of their two unaided ears (e.g., Moores, 2001; Paul & Whitelaw, 2011). Children are identified as Deaf if they have Deaf parents who use American Sign Language (ASL) or if they use ASL themselves. These children, and others whose home language is not English, can also be classified as English language learners (ELLs), which is the common phrase used to refer to children who are learning English as a second language, especially in educational settings (e.g., Paul & Wang, 2012).
... Deaf native signers' language development, as well as their vocabulary development, is similar to that of hearing children (Allen et al. 2014a, b;Calderon and Naidu 2000;Williams 2004). Additionally, these deaf native signers have the language foundation necessary to support early literacy (Cunningham and Stanovich 1997;Hart and Risley 1995). ...
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The rationale for developing an Individualized Education Program (IEP) is to identify appropriate goals to ensure that children who have disabilities are successful at school. This study focused on investigating teachers’ views of the most important IEP goals for their young deaf students, as well as to ask them which services students were receiving. Our purpose was to identify the most prevalent IEP goals guiding early childhood education (ECE) programs and to determine whether services provided were appropriate for addressing the students’ most critical needs. The participants included 118 young deaf children, ages 3–5, participating in the VL2 Early Educational Longitudinal Study (EELS). Results found that the IEP goals focused on three main areas: 1) improving school readiness; 2) improving communication (both sign communication and speech communication); and 3) improving pre-academic performance in targeted areas. Additionally, associations between specific IEP goals listed and related services were explored in relation to educational setting and school language philosophy. Recommendations for educational practice and further studies are provided.
... Few studies have focused on the experiences of deaf children in preschool, where settings are meant to be inclusive. The prerequisites of early childhood literacy have not been investigated (Roos, 2004;Williams, 2004). While the objectives and features of inclusive education vary across national boundaries (Hyde, 2009), two different approaches to empirical research on inclusive education may be identified in the Norwegian research literature (Haug, 2010). ...
... Children with HI lack access to the phonemes of the spoken language and hence have less opportunity to master the alphabetic principle in the way that children with normal hearing do. Still, given a supportive literacy environment, the literacy development of children with HI exhibits a parallel route to that of hearing children (Williams, 2004). However, young children with HI experience fewer parent-child literacy-related interactions relative to hearing children (Marschark, 1993). ...
... Good reading ability is related to progress through school Thagard, Hilsmier, & Easterbrooks, 2011), acceptance into postsecondary opportunities (Cuculick & Kelly, 2003), good postsecondary performance (Albertini, Kelly, & Matchett, 2011), and positive occupational outcomes (Walter & Dirmyer, 2013). Much speculation and debate have occurred regarding the relative importance of the various elements that contribute to good reading (Beal-Alvarez, Dillon, de Jong, & Pisoni, 2012;Mayberry, del Giudice, & Lieberman, 2011;Miller, Lederberg, & Easterbrooks, 2012;Parault & Williams, 2010;Park, Lombardino, & Ritter, 2013;Wang, Spychala, Harris, & Oetting, 2013), and the debate over whether deaf readers' literacy acquisition is qualitatively or quantitatively different from that of hearing readers has been lively (Allen et al., 2009;Mayer, 2007;Paul, Wang, Trezek, & Luckner, 2009;Williams, 2004). However, the evidence is unclear. ...
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Students whO are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) face challenges in learning to read. Much has been written about the relative importance of the different factors associated with success in reading, but these factors are disputed within the literature on DHH readers. The Center on Literacy and Deafness, funded by the Institute of Education Sciences, is engaged in a nationwide project to identify child-by-instruction interactions related to instructional factors that are malleable within the classroom context. In the present article, the authors describe the project, present the conceptual model on which it is based, explain the processes and procedures used to choose assessment tools, and discuss their theoretical view of how reading and instruction might differ based on an individual student's language and level of functional hearing.
... Printed materials on the walls (bulletin boards, children's work, alphabet charts, labels, names, etc.) will be meaningless to children unless the teacher makes connections with them during the course of conversation. Similarly, the availability of various writing tools (e.g., markers, crayons, pencils) will be useful only if the teacher can entice children into wanting to use them to communicate (Williams 2004). Access to print and writing materials should be provided throughout the classroom to maximize the opportunities for teacher/child interactions in both languages. ...
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This article outlines a working model that is grounded in visual learning; it is a model for facilitating deaf children's acquisition of literacy. In our view, literacy is more than merely reading. It also encompasses the acquisition of knowledge and the development of cognitive skills that one needs for thinking, comprehending, and communicating. The perspective espoused by the proponents of "multil iteracies" is utilized to fashion a model that explains how deaf children's literacy development may be supported through ASL and various visual modes of learning. The model incorporates components of ASL acquisition, visual engagement, emergent literacy, social mediation of English print, literacy and Deaf culture, and a variety of media. Our goal is to broaden the current dialogue on the literacy development of deaf children by offering a model that is based on a fairly holistic concept of literacy, insights from a wide array of research findings and theoretical constructs, and recognition of the need to capitalize on deaf students' natural tendency to learn via the visual mode.
... Despite this, deaf children frequently lag behind hearing children in academic areas, including reading, comprehension, written language, mathematics, and speech and language [22]. The delay in language development then leads to reduced levels of literacy [14], however deaf children can be active and innovative in approaching communication by incorporating drawing and writing to communicate when they do not have spoken or signed language [24]. This suggests that a design approach for these children needs to be flexible and tangible allowing the children to engage innovatively. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we focus on the question of design of technology for Deaf children, and whether the needs of these children are different from their hearing counterparts in a technology design setting. We present findings from literature together with our own observations to determine if there are distinguishing characteristics for Deaf children that may influence design sessions with them. We found that Deaf children generally have reduced literacy and slower academic progress, reduced social and emotional development, reduced empathy and a level of nervousness in novel situations, delayed language development, and limited or delayed spoken language. We also found that Deaf children are active and innovative in approaching communication, have sensitive visual attention in their peripheral vision, enhanced attention to small visual changes, and a capacity for visual learning. Finally, cultural issues within the Deaf community mean that Deaf children should be free to interact on their own terms in a design situation. We suggest that these differences merit the development of a design approach specific to the needs of Deaf children.
Article
Purpose: This study aims to explore the contributions of phonological awareness (PA) and morphological awareness (MA) to the reading comprehension skills of Chinese-speaking children with hearing loss (HL) and examine the possible mediation effect of vocabulary knowledge on the relationships of PA and MA with their reading comprehension. Method: The participants were 28 Chinese-speaking children with HL, who were followed from Grade 1 through Grade 2. They were administered a series of tests that measured their PA and MA at the beginning of Grade 1, vocabulary knowledge at the end of Grade 1, and reading comprehension at the end of Grade 2. Results: MA significantly accounted for additional variance in reading comprehension beyond the effect of PA but not vice versa. Both PA and MA contributed uniquely to vocabulary knowledge, which completely mediated the relationships of PA and MA with reading comprehension. Conclusions: PA and MA are both essential to the development of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension in Chinese-speaking children with HL; however, MA seems to be more important than PA in their reading comprehension. PA and MA significantly affect children's reading comprehension through their influence on vocabulary knowledge. This study has replicated previous evidence on the importance of PA, MA, and vocabulary knowledge in the reading comprehension of children with typical hearing, and has extended its significance to children with HL. In addition, the findings have the potential to inform educational practitioners regarding the importance of teaching essential reading skills to Chinese-speaking children with HL.
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Digital technologies have now become a means of facilitating and empowering information and communication, having on touch-screen devices a reality that, although still recent, already has a considerable impact in today's society. Children are among their main supporters and users, and therefore also at the center of the debate about their use. However, if much of this discussion has been limited to problems related to its excessive (and even addictive) use, the truth is that these supports are especially effective as communication interfaces for children with some kind of difficulty. Focusing research on children with special educational needs, the early identification of a shortage of solutions for deaf children denoted a reality that extends to the context of the classroom, where the great majority of materials used are developed by educators, who, despite their best, present natural gaps in specific training in design or visual communication, thus underutilizing a unique opportunity to make the learning process faster, more effective and more rewarding. In the absence of the sense of hearing, the pedagogy of the project, which supports the teaching-learning process of these children, appeals to other senses - above all vision and touch - stimulating the "experivience" for the acquisition of concepts. This was the favorable context that promoted this research work, which, based on the bibliography consulted and observation sessions on the ground, considered digital technologies as an opportunity of enormous potential in the education of deaf or low-hearing children. Based on research on a cross-sectional basis, this document seeks to affirm the fundamental role design plays in designing these products - in a holistic approach that addresses the various needs, agents and constraints, and which, given the idiosyncrasies of these children, may result in clear benefits increasing their literacy.
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. تسعى هذه الدراسة إلى استكشاف المستوى اللغوي للغة المكتوبة وتقييمها للطلاب ضعاف السمع في جامعة الملك عبد العزيز في ضوء مقاييس المجلس الأمريكي لتعليم اللغات الأجنبية آكتفل ACTFL. تكونت عينة الدراسة من أربعة عشر طالبا من الطلاب ضعاف السمع المنتظمين في الجامعة. وجُمعت بيانات الدراسة من خلال اختبار تحريري طُلب منهم فيه الإجابة عن أربعة أسئلة من خلالها يكتبون عن مواضيع مألوفة لهم تشمل الجدول اليومي، وجدولهم أو برنامجهم خلال إجازة الأسبوع السابق للاختبار، وبرنامجهم أو جدولهم للإجازة ما بين الفصلين الدراسيين والتي كانت قريبة وقت إجراء الاختبار، بالإضافة إلى عقد مقارنة بين حياتهم في التعليم العام وتجربتهم في المرحلة الجامعية من حيث أوجه الشبه والاختلاف. الأسئلة التي طُلب منهم الإجابة عنها تُعد أسئلة في مواضيع مألوفة لهم وبإمكانهم الإسهاب في الحديث عنها. كان الباحث يسعى إلى استكشاف قدرتهم على السرد في الزمن الحاضر، والسرد في الزمن الماضي، والسرد في الزمن المستقبل، وكذلك محاولة استكشاف إذا كان لديهم القدرة على التنقل بين الأزمنة والسرد بها واستخدامها بشكل صحيح، بالإضافة إلى محاولة استكشاف مدى قدرتهم على المقارنة والربط بين الجمل، واستخدام أدوات الربط بشكل سليم. أظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن الطلاب المشاركين في الدراسة لديهم تأخر شديد وضعف في مهارة الكتابة بحيث إن مستواهم الكتابي يتراوح ما بين مبتدئ أوسط إلى مبتدئ أعلى وفق مقاييس آكتفل ACTFL. ولذلك ختمت الدراسة بذكر بعض أسباب هذا التأخر الشديد، ومحاولة تقديم حلول للتغلب عليها ومعالجتها؛ حيث إنه ينبغي التفريق بيت تعليم اللغة العربية كلغة أُولى، وتعليمها كلغة ثانية؛ ولهذا فإن الدراسة توصي بإعادة تصميم مناهج اللغة العربية للطلاب من ذوي الإعاقة السمعية بحيث يتعلمون اللغة العربية كلغة ثانية، وكذلك ينبغي تأهيل معلمي اللغة العربية لتعليمها كلغة ثانية لهذه الفئة من الطلاب. وكذلك توصي الدراسة بإضافة سنة تمهيدية مكثفة لتطوير وتقوية المهارات والجوانب اللغوية لهذه الفئة من الطلاب.
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בחברה אוריינית ילדי גן מביעים עניין בשפה הכתובה עוד בטרם למדו קרוא וכתוב בבית הספר. כתיבה היא משימה מאתגרת הכרוכה בהפיכת מילה דבורה לסמלים. כאשר ילדי גן מנסים לכתוב הם זקוקים לעתים קרובות לסיוע מהוריהם אשר מתגייסים ומתווכים לילדיהם כתיבה. המאמר מציג סדרה של מחקרים שנערכו בישראל המתארים את אופי תיווך הכתיבה של הורים לילדיהם הצעירים ומשמעותו להתפתחות אוריינות הילדים בעברית ובערבית. המחקרים בוחנים כיצד הורים מסייעים לילדיהם להבין ולהפנים את מערכת הכתב תוך התייחסות לאופי משימות כתיבה וכלי כתיבה שונים. הם בוחנים כיצד מגדר ההורים ואמונותיהם בנוגע לניצני אוריינות כמו גם מאפיינים של הילדים (ויסות עצמי, לקות שמיעה או לקות קשב) משמעותיים לתיווך הכתיבה של ההורים. בנוסף, המאמר מבהיר כיצד לקדם תיווך כתיבה של הורים לילדי גן. ממצאי המחקרים המתוארים במאמר מאירים את התועלת המושגת מתיווך כתיבה הורי יעיל בגיל הרך ומעודדים יוזמה להדרכת הורים מסודרת בתחום זה.
Article
Interactive storybook reading is an important activity to enhance the emergent literacy skills of young deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Parents have a crucial role to play in promoting their children's literacy development. However, parents often do not read in an interactive way; therefore guidance is recommended in applying these interactive reading strategies. In the present study we examined how parent reading behavior was affected by implementing an interactive reading training program for parents of young DHH children. Parents of 18 DHH toddlers in the Netherlands participated in a series of group training sessions and their interactive reading behavior was compared to that of 10 parents who did not participate. The results showed that parents' interactive reading behavior tended to increase after they participated in the interactive reading program. After the program, they applied the interactive reading strategies more often than parents who had not participated in the program. The findings suggest that interactive reading programs should be incorporated into early intervention programs for DHH children.
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The aim of this qualitative case study is to understand a five year old hearing impaired child’s emergent literacy activities and behaviors. It is also included others in the child’s inner circle in order to examine literacy experiences entirely. Participants are the child, five year old hearing impairment with cochlear implant, his parents and his special educationalist live in İzmir, Turkey. Research data have been gathered in the child’s house intensively though, the research environment has expanded in line with the daily routines of the child and his family. Data have been collected through participant observations, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, products and pictures for six weeks. The collected data were analyzed both inductively and descriptively. In addition, the emergent literacy skills of the child were assessed with the help of the Emergent Literacy Skills Control List. Results showed that a hearing impaired child has emergent literacy skills of his age in print knowledge, alphabetical knowledge and phonological awareness. He has experienced reading aloud and tale routines, functional reading activities, free and interactional play activities. His early literacy activities are in his daily routines and also they are influenced his mother’s literacy habits. As a result of the research, it can be said that the hearing loss child with early literacy experiences shows similar literary behaviors to his hearing age.
Article
This article aims to investigate deaf peoplés reasons to participate in a therapeutic group and to analyze some of their reflections on the use of written Portuguese language produced inside this group within a sociocultural perspective. It was carried out at a School for the deaf located in Curitiba, Paraná State/Brazil in a partnership with researchers of a university located in Southern Brazil. Eight deaf subjects, aged 14–33, participated in the group therapies. Data were collected during a semester of group therapies, with 18 weekly meetings, two-hour long each. The findings revealed that group therapy for deaf teenagers and adults had a significant result in these participants’ writing. This type of intervention can allow researchers to be tailored to meet deaf people's specific needs in the written language.
Chapter
In the first version (of this chapter), which appeared in McCallum (2003), the discussion of nonverbal assessment of academic skills began with an overview of academic skill areas commonly assessed in educational settings (see Frisby 2003, followed by a discussion of the three conditions in which the nonverbal assessment of academic skills is most likely to occur with high frequency. In the first condition, instead of an examiner orally giving directions that require a verbal or behavioral response from the examinee, a respondent (parent, teacher, or other caregiver) observes and records the presence of naturally occurring academic skill behaviors (which may or may not be displayed verbally) by an examinee (e.g., as in tests of adaptive behavior). In the second condition, examinees with disabling conditions that involve severe speech and physical impairments (such as cerebral palsy) are unable to speak or write intelligibly due to a variety of neurological, physical, emotional, and/or cognitive limitations. These individuals need assistive technology (AT) to demonstrate what they know and can do. In the third condition, individuals with some degree of hearing loss may require test instructions to be read directly from print, which are administered by means of a nonverbal sign language. In turn, examinee responses are given either in writing of by nonverbal sign language. Compared to the first previous version of this chapter, this chapter focuses with greater detail on this third condition—i.e., the application of nonverbal assessment issues and practices involving individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing (HOH).
Article
This article aims to discuss young deaf children's access to literacy within a sociocultural perspective. We introduce the concept of communities of practice as an aspect in early literacy development for young deaf children. Preschools are learning communities and thus constitute communities of practice. Our discussion on the use of communities of practice is based on a study of literacy practices in preschools with deaf and hearing children. The findings revealed that deaf children did not have adequate access to significant literacy events during preschool activities. We will argue that with regard to developing literacy, more attention should be given to the importance of participation, interaction and regularity for deaf children in these communities of practice.
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Acquisition of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, a key concept of the alphabetic principle, was examined in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) using a semantic association strategy embedded in two interventions, the Children's Early Intervention and Foundations for Literacy. Single-subject design experiments using multiple baselines across content were used to examine the functional relationship between student outcomes and the intervention provided. Only students who were able to identify spoken words were included in the studies. Study One was conducted with 5 children 3.10-7.10 years of age in oral or signing programs. Study Two was conducted with 5 children 3.10-4.5 years of age in an oral program. All children acquired taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences. These findings provide much-needed evidence that children who are DHH and who have some speech perception abilities can learn critical phoneme-grapheme correspondences through explicit auditory skill instruction with language and visual support.
Article
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) and No Child Left Behind Act (2001, 2002) require teachers to use evidence-based practices (EBPs) in instruction. This is not an easy task as the evidence base in deaf education tends to be woefully lacking. This chapter begins with a discussion of the challenges that deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) children face in acquiring reading skills, focusing especially on the apparent bifurcation in the population between those with access to sound and those without. Next, it provides a review of the relations between early skills and later reading acquisition, examining those factors that are related to positive literacy outcomes. The field of literacy instruction is changing rapidly, and teachers need guidelines for reviewing the existing knowledge base. The chapter presents a discussion of levels of research effort through which educators may examine the knowledge base. In the absence of clear evidence, educators may choose to investigate practices from the perspective of their relation to correlates of language acquisition. Finally, it identifies curricula accepted for use with hearing children by the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) and relates these to our evidence of their use with DHH children. In no other area of deaf education is the challenge to educators more important and complex. We must make the effort to keep abreast of newly identified EBPs as research becomes available.
Article
Phonological awareness is a form of metalinguistic awareness that has been studied intensively because of its relation to schooling and the acquisition of literacy. However, much of this research has been confined to languages with alphabetic scripts such as English. It has been noted that children who are born deaf or acquire deafness very early in life before they have learned their native language and those who are raised in an aural-oral environment do develop some awareness of letter-sound mappings and other spelling regularities by drawing on information from lip-reading and residual hearing. Such children nevertheless have to do a lot of catching up in language in order to be effectively integrated in schoolwork. There is limited published evidence about the role of phonological awareness in the acquisition and mastery of languages with non-alphabetic writing systems associated with some of the Indian languages. Specific literacy acquisition problems faced by hearing-impaired children studying in regular schools in India have not been examined within a linguistic perspective. This paper describes the results of an empirical study involving 15 normal hearing children (average age: 10 years) and 15 hearing-impaired children (average age: 14 years), all native speakers of Telugu studying in Telugu-medium schools. Using specially designed syllable manipulation tasks, the quantitative and qualitative differences in the processing of the written word of the two groups were examined. Some of the theoretical and clinical implications of the results are discussed in this paper.
Article
This chapter presents an overview of neurocognitive development in children with hearing loss across the spectrum of hearing disorders. It begins with information about the characteristics of pediatric hearing loss and its consequences in terms of neurophysiologic effects on the developing auditory system and functional effects on spoken language acquisition. The importance of early learning experiences on the developing brain is elaborated and the role of parents is discussed. The chapter briefly describes recent advances in early hearing loss identification and intervention, including the impact of cochlear implant technology, and discusses how these have substantially changed and continue to change developmental outcomes for children with hearing loss. Multiple factors that affect early and later development are outlined. Findings from current literature that provide useful information on developmental outcomes in children with hearing loss of all levels of severity are presented. The chapter also considers information that has accumulated about cognitive processes, particularly related to speech and language acquisition in children with hearing loss. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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The purpose of the research was to explore further the nature of the relationship between language acquisition and early literacy development. Using qualitative methodology, the author investigated the verbal language experiences and early literacy learning of three prelingually, profoundly deaf preschool children across home and school contexts. Despite receptive language delay, all three children demonstrated knowledge and understandings of written language that were developmentally appropriate. Results support the theory that language acquisition and early literacy learning occur simultaneously and reinforce one another in development. /// [French] Cette recherche avait pour but d'approfondir la nature de la relation entre l'acquisition du langage et le début du développement de la lecture-écriture. L'auteur a examiné, en contextes familial et scolaire, les premières expériences de langue parlée et d'apprentissage de la lecture-écriture de trois enfants préverbaux congénitalement sourds d'âge préscolaire. Les trois enfants, bien qu'en retard pour la réception du langage, ont manifesté une connaissance et une compréhension de la langue écrite correspondant à leur développement. Les résultats sont en faveur de la théorie suivant laquelle l'acquisition du langage et le début de la lecture-écriture se produisent en même temps et se renforcent l'un l'autre dans le développement. /// [Spanish] El propósito de la investigación fue explorar la naturaleza de la relación entre la adquisición del lenguaje y el desarrollo temprano de la lectura y la escritura. Usando una metodología cualitativa, la autora investigó las experiencias lingüísticas y el aprendizaje inicial de la lectura y la escritura de tres niños sordos severos prelinguales. Los niños asistían a preescolar y la investigación se realizó en el contexto del hogar y la escuela. A pesar del retraso en lenguaje receptivo, los tres niños demostraron conocimientos sobre la lengua escrita que resultaron apropiados desde el punto de vista evolutivo. Los resultados den apoyo a la teoría que sostiene que la adquisición del lenguaje y el aprendizaje inicial de la lengua escrita ocurren simultánamente y se refuerzan recíprocamente durante el desarrollo. /// [German] Die intention dieser Studie war, einen Beitrag zur Erforschung des Zusammenhangs zwischen Spracherwerb und früher Leseentwicklung zu leisten. Vermittels qualitativer Methodologie untersuchte der Autor wortsprachliche Erfahrungen und das frühe Lesenlemen dreier vollkommen tauber Kinder im Vorschulalter im Kontext des Elternhauses und der Schule. Abgesehen von verspäteter Sprachaufnahmefähigkeit zeigten alle drei Kinder Verstehensfähigkeit und Wissen von geschriebener Sprache im normalen Entwicklungstempo. Die Ergebnisse stützen die Theorie, daß Spracherwerb und frühes Lesenlernen simultan auftreten und sich in der Entwicklung wechselseitig beeinflussen.
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Case studies of early literacy acquisition frequently cite the importance of children's spontaneous questions when parents read aloud to them at home. However, few researchers have examined closely the content and frequency of these inquiries from children. This paper reports the findings from two longitudinal studies of preschoolers, ages 3 to 5, in which their unprompted questions during story reading with their parents were classified into a preliminary taxonomy and analyzed. In Study 1, 2 male children were audiotaped twice a week, on average, for 2 years; they asked 810 questions during 75 hours of recordings. In Study 2, 4 boys and 3 girls were recorded weekly for 1 year, resulting in 1,915 questions from 72 hours of audiotape. In both studies, children asked a wide variety of questions about both illustrated and unillustrated stories, ranging from questions about characters and events in pictures to queries about story line, characters' motives, word meanings, printed word forms, letters, authors, book titles, and the act of reading. A general pattern emerged for 5 of the 9 children: They asked the most questions about pictures (40%-50% in Study 1, and 50%-60% in Study 2). Next most frequent were inquiries about story meaning, followed by questions about word meaning. For most of the children, questions about graphic form (e.g., letters, punctuation, printed word arrays) occurred least frequently. The authors hypothesize that home storybook reading may have more effect on children's development of comprehension processes than on their print awareness. /// [French] Les études de cas sur l'acquisition de la littéracie mentionnent fréquemment l'importance des questions spontannées posées par les enfants quand les parents leur font la lecture à la maison. Cependant, peu de recherches ont analysé le contenu et la fréquence de ces questions. L'article qui suit rapporte les résultats de deux études longitudinales portant sur des enfants américains d'âge préscolaire, âgés entre 3 et 5 ans, études dans lesquelles les questions spontannées posées par les enfants durant la lecture d'histoires à voix haute, ont été classifiées et analysées. Dans la première étude, 2 garçons ont été enregistrés environ deux fois par semaine, pendant 2 ans; 810 questions ont été relevées sur 75 heures d'enregistrements audio. Dans la seconde étude, 4 garçons, et 3 filles ont été enregistrés chaque semaine pendant un an pour un total de 1.915 questions sur 72 heures d'enregistrements audio. Dans les deux études, les enfants ont posé une très grande variété de questions sur des histoires illustrées et non illustrées; les questions portaient sur les personnages ou les évènements représentés sur les illustrations, sur le déroulement de l'histoire, les motivations des personnages, la signification des mots, la forme des lettres, la forme des mots, les auteurs, le titre des livres et l'acte de lire. C'est au sujet des illustrations que les questions sont les plus nombreuses (40%-50% dans la première étude, 50%-60% dans la seconde) suivi des questions sur le sens de l'histoire, et sur le sens des mots. Pour la plupart des enfants, les questions sur le code (lettres, ponctuation, mots) sont les moins fréquentes. Les auteurs posent l'hypothèse que la lecture d'histoires à la maison, aurait plus d'effet sur le développement des processus de compréhension que sur le développement de la conscience de l'écrit. /// [Spanish] Estudios de casos de adquisición de lectura temprana citan frecuentemente la importancia de las preguntas espontáneas que los niños hacen cuando los padres les leen en voz alta en casa. Sin embargo, son pocos los investigadores que han examinado detenidamente el contenido y la frecuencia de estas preguntas de los niños. Este trabajo reporta los hallazgos de dos estudios longitudinales de niños preescolares estadounidenses, de 3 a 5 años, en los que se clasificaron en una taxonomía y se analizaron las preguntas espontáneas durante la lectura de cuentos por sus padres. En el Estudio 1, a 2 niños del sexo masculino se les grabó un promedio de dos veces a la semana por 2 años; los niños hicieron 810 preguntas durante 75 horas de grabación. En el Estudio 2, 4 niños y 3 niñas fueron grabados semanalmente por 1 año, resultando en 1.915 preguntas en 72 horas de grabación. En ambos estudios hicieron los niños una amplia variedad de preguntas tanto de las historias ilustradas como de las no ilustradas, desde preguntas acerca de los personajes y eventos en las ilustraciones hasta cuestionamientos acerca de la trama, motivaciones de los personajes, significado de palabras, formas de la palabra impresa, letras, autores, títulos de libros, y el acto de leer. Un patrón general emergió para 5 de los 9 niños: Hicieron la mayor cantidad de preguntas sobre las ilustraciones (40%-50% y 50%-60% en los Estudios 1 y 2, respectivamente). En seguida las inquisiciones más frecuentes fueron las del significado de la historia, seguidas de preguntas acerca del significado de palabras. Para la mayoría de los niños, las preguntas sobre formas gráficas en el texto (e.g., letras, puntuación, arreglos de la palabra impresa) ocurrieron menos frecuentemente. Los autores tienen la hipótesis que la lectura de cuentos en casa parece tener mayor efecto en el desarrollo de los procesos de comprensión en el niño que en su concientización de la palabra escrita. /// [German] Einzelfallstudien zum frühen Erwerb der Schriftsprachenbeherrschung erwähnen sehr oft, wie wichtig es ist, daß Kinder spontan Fragen stellen, wenn Eltern ihnen zu Hause laut vorlesen. Allerdings haben sich nur wenige Forscher mit dem Inhalt und der Häufigkeit dieser von Kindern gestellten Fragen näher befaßt. An dieser Stelle wird über die Ergebnisse von zwei Langzeitstudien, an denen amerikanischen Vorschulkinder im Alter von drei bis fünf Jahren teilnahmen, berichtet. Die spontanen Fragen, die Kinder während des Vorlesens mit den Eltern stellten, wurden anhand einer vorläufigen Taxonomie klassifiziert und analysiert. In der ersten Studie wurden zwei Jungen im Schnitt zweimal pro Woche für die Dauer von 2 Jahren auf Video aufgezeichnet; sie stellten 810 Fragen während der 75 Stunden Aufnahmezeit. In der zweiten Studie wurden 4 Jungen und 3 Mädchen für die Dauer eines jede Woche einmal aufgezeichnet; das ergab 1.915 Fragen für eine Gesamtaufnahmezeit von 72 Stunden. In beiden Studien stellten die Kinder eine Vielfalt von Fragen, sowohl bei illustrierten als auch nicht-illustrierten Geschichten; der Fragenkomplex erstreckte sich von Charakteren und Ereignissen in Bildform bis hin zu Handlung, Motiven der Charaktere, Wortbedeutungen, gedruckten Wortformen, Buchstaben, Autoren, Buchtiteln und Lesevorgang. Für 5 dieser 9 Kinder ergab sich dabei ein allgemeines Muster. Die meisten ihrer Fragen befaßten sich mit Bildern (40%-50% in Studie 1 und 50%-60% in Studie 2). An zweiter Stelle waren Fragen über die Bedeutung der Geschichte, gefolgt von Fragen über Wortbedeutungen. Die wenigsten Fragen befaßten sich mit den im Text vorhandenen gedruckten Formen (z.B. Buchstaben, Zeichensetzung, Anordnung des gedruckten Wortes). Die Verfasser dieses Berichts stellen daher die Hypothese auf, daß das Lesen von Geschichten zu Hause sich beim Kind auf die Entwicklung der Verständnisprozesse stärker auswirkt als auf die Schriftbildkenntnisse.
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This research examined young deaf children's social interaction during free-choice writing time in their pre-school classroom. The study examined the ways in which five deaf children used signed language as they wrote. Results of the study indicated that the children used both signed language and nonverbal expression to engage in representational, directive, interactional, personal, and heuristic use of language to support their writing endeavors. The study raises the question of whether non-verbal expression might also be salient among emergent writers who are not deaf.
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Fourteen strategies a hard-of-hearing mother uses while reading a book with her hard-of-hearing preschool son are observed. These strategies are grouped in four large categories: (1) confirmation of child's understanding; (2) focusing attention on the book and its content; (3) specific language input; (4) concept development. (Author/LMO)
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This paper reviews current developments in the field of emergent literacy (the study of reading and writing behaviors that develop into conventional literacy). The review includes studies that look at preschoolers' emerging literacy in homes, day-care environments, and kindergartens and that focus on children's development of literacy knowledge and processes through holistic literacy events (storybook reading, play, etc.). Findings suggest the need for a theoretical model to test the complex cognitive, social, and cultural explanations for emergent literacy. There is a need to explain individual differences, to design early reading instruction, and to decide what, when, and whether to provide it. In order to develop and expand research and knowledge about emerging literacy, the paper recommends defining literacy more broadly to include linguistic and nonlinguistic communication. It also recommends changes in research methodology: (1) researchers can no longer generalize findings to all students but must examine a wider range of social, political, economic, and cultural understandings of literacy; and (2) researchers must move away from concepts like high vs. low and discover the strengths, factors of resilience, and ways in which students from underrepresented populations can be successful in school. Contains approximately 200 references (Author/RS)
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Outlines the important similarities in the development of both language and literacy, drawing on research findings and the author's case study of a young boy as he learned to talk and read. S was tape-recorded at home (from 18–36 mo of age) during everyday activities such as meals, dressing, undressing, playtimes, and reading books. It is concluded that the characteristics of parent–child interaction that support language acquisition—semantic contingency, scaffolding, accountability procedures, and the use of routines—also facilitate early reading and writing development. The author dismisses the explanation that variations in the level of literacy in the home are responsible for social class differences in school achievement. It is emphasized that there are distinctive ways in which middle-class families prepare preschoolers to understand and produce decontextualized language. (62 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reports the results of immersing 6 deaf children for a full school year in a kindergarten classroom of literacy-rich activities focused on daily reading and writing in authentic communication tasks. Case studies of the children, with samples of their free writing, show increasing levels of written language production over the year. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
This chapter describes how a native signer teaches in a preschool classroom with five deaf children who entered with minimal communicative competence. None of the children had acquired linguistic skills, either in sign language or in English, before entering school at the age of three. This chapter presents the review of a story, Three Little Kittens that had been read to the students. In this review, the teacher does not read the story but rather asks the children about the story. The study demonstrates how the teacher helps the students adapt to the classroom situation. It specifically focuses on how the teacher uses questions; elicits answers; responds to answers; uses classifier predicates, role playing, and miniature signs; adapts signs to the specific actions depicted in pictures; and changes English words that show sound-related concepts to signs that show visual concepts. The findings suggest that to communicate effectively with those students who are prelingually deaf and have minimal language competence, a teacher must be competent in the use of different forms of American Sign Language (ASL).
Article
This case study reports the first investigation of a young deaf child’s experiences with books. It describes six steps in a developmental sequence of seven stages, from simply labeling pictures and signs to reading independently. One of the most interesting aspects of development was the child’s spontaneous analysis of sign drawings in storybooks that illustrate each word with a sign. These sign drawings provided a bridge between signed and spoken discourse and print. Concepts she discovered about books include: stories are to be enjoyed and repeated; they are means both of social interaction and of private satisfaction; characters have styles of speaking and books have narration and dialogue; stories have plots. Concepts about print relate to directionality, letter patterns, and that print, signs, and speech interrelate.
Article
Three day‐care teachers were audiotaped as they read books to their group of 3‐ and 4‐year‐olds. The books included some read spontaneously and six that we provided. Book‐reading sessions were transcribed and analyzed to discover patterns of teacher‐child exchange and to describe the content of book discussions. While the familiarity and complexity of books affected how books were read, the teachers assumed two distinct styles. Two teachers used an interactive style, engaging children in discussion of text as they read. A third teacher used a performance style, presenting stories in a skillful storytelling fashion with few breaks in the text. Analysis of children's participation and teacher style suggests that different reading styles resulted in the construction of different speech events.
Article
USING SEMIOTIC analysis, the author investigated the production and use of young children's symbol making on the computer in a kindergarten classroom. The following questions were addressed: What types of computer-generated symbols do kindergartners use? What do the symbols mean to the children? How do the children assign meaning to symbols within the cultural context of the computer center? How do kindergartners learn to use the various media tools available in a word anti art processing program to produce symbols? Data for the ethnographic study included field notes, video- and audiotapes of whole-class computer activities and children's computer center activities, interviews with children and the reacher about their computer-related activities, and printouts of children's work on the computer. A semiotic analysis of data led the author to use the metaphor of screenland to describe children's stances toward their work. From this perspective, children viewed the computer as a land to be entered for various purposes that included playing in screenland, creating art in screenland, anti writing in screenland. These stances were shaped by children's emerging understanding of the purposes and forms of language, arts, and multimedia and influenced the types of symbols they generated. Furthermore, findings suggest that as these children emerged as users of symbols they also learned how to discover and express meaning. Support is given for a continued expansion of the definition of young children's literacy and literacy development to include multiple modes.
Article
Case study and correlational research has indicated that frequent exposure to story readings has positive effects on some aspects of early literacy. Much of the work on storybook readings has focused upon the interactive behavior between parent and child during one-to-one readings in middle-class homes. This study was designed to investigate whether frequent one-to-one readings in a school setting would increase the number and complexity of comments and questions from children of low socioeconomic status (SES). The 79 subjects, who were low-SES four-year-olds in three urban day-care centers, were assigned to two experimental groups and one control group. Students in the first experimental group were read a different book each week for 10 weeks. Those in the second experimental group heard repeated readings of three different books. In both groups, interactive behavior between adult and child was encouraged during story readings. The control group was guided through traditional reading readiness activities. The author found that one-to-one story readings did increase the number and complexity of questions and comments made by children in both experimental groups. Repeated readings were found to result in more interpretive responses and more responses focusing on print and story structure, and were most effective with children of low ability. /// [French] L'étude corrélationnelle portant sur l'évolution des sujets a démontré que l'exposition fréquente à la lecture d'histoires était profitable pour certains aspects de l'alphabétisation précoce. La majeure partie de l'étude sur la lecture de livres d'histoires est axée sur le comportement interactif du parent et de l'enfant, issus de classe moyenne, pendant les lectures avec échange effectuées à la maison. Par cette recherche, on veut savoir si de fréquentes lectures avec échange en situation de classe augmenteraient la quantité et la complexité des questions et commentaires des enfants issus de milieu socio-économique (MSE) défavorisé. On a distribué dans deux groupes expérimentaux et un groupe contrôle les 76 sujets issus d'une MSE défavorisé, âgés de quatre ans et fréquentant la garderie en milieu urbain. Dans le premier groupe expérimental, on lisait aux enfants un livre différent à chaque semaine. Dans le deuxième groupe expérimental, on leur faisait la lecture répétée de trois livres différents. Dans chacun des groupes, on encourageait l'interaction de l'adulte et de l'enfant pendant la lecture des histoires. On a guidé le groupe contrôle par des activités traditionnelles de préparation à la lecture. L'auteur a observé les effets positifs de la lecture d'histoires avec échange sur la quantité et la complexité des questions et commentaires des enfants des deux groupes expérimentaux. On a observé que les lectures répétées produisaient plus de réponses interprétatives et plus de réponses axées sur l'écriture et la structure de l'histoire, et que l'effet produit était plus grand chez les enfants plus faibles. /// [Spanish] El estudio de casos y la investigación correlacional ha indicado que la exposición frecuente a la lectura de cuentos tiene efectos positivos en algunos aspectos de alfabetismo temprano. La mayor parte de la investigación en lectura de cuentos se ha concentrado en el comportamiento de la interacción entre el padre y el niño durante la lectura de uno a uno en los hogares de clase media. Este estudio se diseñó con el propósito de investigar si las lecturas frecuentes de uno a uno en el ambiente escolar pueden incrementar el número y la complejidad de los comentarios y preguntas de niños con bajo nivel socioeconómico (SES). Los 76 sujetos, que eran niños de cuatro años de bajo nivel socioeconómico en tres guarderías urbanas, fueron asignados a dos grupos experimentales y a un grupo control. A los alumnos del primer grupo experimental se les leyó un libro diferente cada semana. Aquellos en el segundo grupo experimental oyeron lecturas repetidas de tres libros diferentes. En ambos grupos, se alentó el comportamiento interactivo entre el niño y el adulto durante la lectura de los cuentos. Al grupo control se le guió a través de actividades tradicionales de preparación para la lectura. El autor encontró efectos positivos en las lecturas de cuentos de uno a uno en el número y complejidad de las preguntas y comentarios hechos por los niños en ambos grupos experimentales. Se encontró que las lecturas repetidas resultaron en más respuestas interpretativas y más respuestas enfocadas en la estructura y texto de la historia y fueron más efectivas con niños de bajas habilidades. /// [German] Fall-studien und damit verbundene Forschungen zeigen, daß häufiges Vorlesen positiven Einfluß hat auf einige Aspekte des frühen Buchwissens. Ein großer Teil der Arbeit über Vorlesen befaßte sich mit wechselwirkendem Verhalten zwischen Eltern und Kind während des Person-zu-Person-Vorlesens in Mittelklasse-Familien. Diese Studie wurde entworfen, um zu erforschen, ob häufiges Person-zu-Person-Vorlesen in der Schule die Häufigkeit und Kompliziertheit von Fragen und Stellungsnahmen von Kindern aus niedrigsozialwirtschaftlichen Verhältnissen (SES) beeinflußt. Die 76 Prüflinge, niedrige SES-Vierjährige, aus drei Stadt-Tagesstätten, wurden zwei Experimentier- und einer Kontroll-Gruppe zugeteilt. Schülern in der ersten Experimentier-Gruppe wurde jede Woche ein anderes Buch vorgelesen. Die aus der zweiten Experimentier-Gruppe hörten wiederholt Abschnitte aus drei verschiedenen Büchern. In beiden Gruppen wurde wechselwirkendes Verhalten zwischen Kind und Erwachsenen während des Vorlesens ermutigt. Die Kontroll-Gruppe wurde durch traditionelles Lesen durchgeleitet. Der Autor fand positive Auswirkungen des Person-zu-Person-Vorlesens auf die Anzahl und Kompliziertheit von Fragen und Stellungsnahmen der Kinder in beiden Experimentier-Gruppen. Wiederholtes Lesen, so fand man, resultierte in mehr erläuternden Erwiderungen und mehr Erwiderungen, die sich auf den Druck und die Struktur der Geschichte richteten und wurde bei Kindern mit geringen Fähigkeiten als am wirkungsvollsten empfunden.
Article
This study examined the effectiveness of the graphic representation of signs in developing word identification skills for hearing impaired beginning readers. Twenty prelingually deaf students ranging in age from 6 years to 8 years, 11 months participated in two reading tasks: a word identification task and an immediate retention task. In the word identification task, two word lists were used 2 weeks apart: print plus sign (PS) and print only (PO). Students performed better in the PS condition than in the PO condition. In order to evaluate immediate retention, one word list in print-only form was administered to the students twice, once after the PS condition (PSR) and once after the PO condition (POR). Students retained more words following the PS condition.
Article
A qualitative study of emergent literacy of preschool hearing-impaired children was conducted to discover how the children learned about literacy within a school setting. Seven preschool hearing-impaired children participated in the study. Descriptive and interpretive field notes from ongoing observations of the children constituted a primary data source. Additional data sources included drawing and writing samples from the children and interviews with the teacher and parents. Grounded theory principles were used to analyze the data. The major finding was that the children, through literacy, found a way to learn about the hearing world and, more importantly, to be a part of it.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if children trained in phoneme awareness in kindergarten would differ in invented spelling from children who did not have this training. A reliable scoring system was created to evaluate the invented spelling of the kindergarten children. The children were selected from 18, all-day kindergartens in four, demographically comparable low-income, inner-city schools. Prior to the intervention, the 77 treatment children and the 72 control children did not differ in age, sex, race, PPVT-R, phoneme segmentation, letter name and letter sound knowledge, or word recognition. During March, April, and May of the kindergarten year, treatment children participated in an 11-week phoneme awareness intervention that included instruction in letter names and sounds. After the intervention, the treatment children significantly outperformed the control children in phoneme segmentation, letter name and sound knowledge, and reading phonetically regular words and nonwords. Of primary interest in this study is the fact that the treatment children produced invented spellings that were rated developmentally superior to those of the control children. The 7-point scale created for scoring the developmental spelling test was found to be highly reliable using either correlation (r = .98) or percent of agreement (93%).
Article
This study investigated the role of social interaction in the literacy learning of twenty-one 3- and 4-year-olds. Over a period of 8 months, data were collected at a classroom writing center using the ethnographic techniques of participant/observation, field notes, collection of written texts, audio and video tape. Patterns in the data indicated that author/audience conversation occurring as children completed self-selected literacy activities encouraged them to (a) activate, confirm/disconfirm, and revise their existing hypotheses about literacy; (b) form new literacy knowledge; (c) become audiences for their own texts; (d) internalize the audience's perspective and use this information to plan texts for absent audiences; (e) experience literacy activities beyond their independent abilities; and (f) with their teachers, build shared understandings about literacy. Overall, the findings indicate that children's self-selected literacy activities are rich contexts for literacy learning, and that social interaction, as part of these events, provides the predictable context and motivation for literacy learning, as well as influencing the kinds of literacy strategies children internalize and use independently.
Article
This is a multiple case study of literacy acquisition in three deaf preschoolers aged 3 and 4 years. Data are drawn from a year long study of each child in a program for deaf and hard of hearing students. The primary focus of the project was to document the ways in which these students interacted with and around storybooks. Of special interest was the relationship between language development and the children's emergent literacy experiences.
Article
In two experiments, classroom teachers in New Zealand read stories aloud to elementary school children, and administered pretests and posttests to measure the extent of the new vocabulary the children acquired from the reading. Results showed that oral story reading constitutes a significant source of vocabulary acquisition, whether or not the reading is accompanied by teacher explanation of word meanings. In the first study, seven classes of 7-year-olds showed vocabulary gains of 15 percent from one story, without any teacher explanation. In the second study, after hearing one story, three classes of 8-year-olds who received no teacher explanation showed gains of 15 percent, and three classes that did receive explanation showed gains of 40 percent. By contrast, the same groups produced gains of less than half these figures on a second story with different characteristics. Follow-up tests showed that this incidental vocabulary learning was relatively permanent, and that low-scoring children gained as much as high-scoring children. In addition, the features that best predicted whether a particular word would be learned were frequency of the word in the text, depiction of the word in illustrations, and the amount of redundancy in the surrounding context. The author recommends future studies to investigate further the benefits from stories read aloud, and to clarify the factors that yield differences in children's interest in stories. /// [French] Les deux expériences rapportées se sont déroulées en Nouvelle-Zélande. Les professeurs ont lu à voix haute des histoires à des élèves du primaire. Un pré-test et un post-test ont permis d'évaluer le vocabulaire acquis à la suite des lectures. Les résultats confirmèrent que la lecture d'histoires contribue de façon significative à accroître le vocabulaire des enfants, que la lecture soit ou non complétée par des explications. Dans la première étude, sept classes de deuxième année primaire montrèrent des gains de 15% suite à l'écoute d'une des histoires et ce, sans explication supplémentaire. Dans une seconde étude, après écoute d'une histoire, sans explication, trois classes de troisième année affichèrent une augmentation du vocabulaire de 15%, alors que trois autres classes qui avaient reçu des explications complémentaires montrèrent une amélioration de 40%. Par contre, les mêmes groupes obtinrent des résultats 50% inférieurs à la lecture d'une seconde histoire présentant des caractéristiques différentes. Des post-tests passés plus tard, ont permis de vérifier la stabilité des résultats dans le temps et de montrer que les gains des enfants faibles ont été aussi importants que ceux des enfants forts. De plus, certains facteurs d'apprentissage ont pu être isolés tel la fréquence d'apparition du mot dans le texte, la représentation du mot par l'image, et la redondance du contexte environnant. Les auteurs recommendent que des recherches complémentaires soient menées pour approfondir l'effet de la lecture à voix haute sur l'acquisition de vocabulaire et pour cerner les facteurs responsables de cet apprentissage. /// [Spanish] En dos experimentos llevados a cabo por maestras de primaria en Nueva Zelandia se leyeron historias en voz alta a niños de escuela elemental. Se administraron pruebas de pretest y postest para medir la extensión del nuevo vocabulario que los niños adquirieron de la lectura. Los resultados mostraron que la lectura en voz alta de las historias constituye una fuente significativa de adquisición de vocabulario, ya sea que la lectura vaya acompañada o no de explicaciones por parte de la maestra. En el primer estudio, siete maestras leyeron una historia en voz alta a sus clases de niños de 7 años, sin dar explicación ninguna, y los niños mostraron ganancias del vocabulario de 15%. En el segundo estudio, después de escuchar un cuento, tres clases de niños de 8 años que no recibieron explicación de la maestra, mostraron ganancias de 15%, y tres clases que recibieron explicación mostraron ganancias del 40%. En contraste, los mismos grupos tuvieron aumentos de menos de la mitad de estos números en una segunda historia con características diferentes. Una prueba de seguimiento demostró que este aprendizaje incidental de vocabulario fue relativamente permanente, y que los niños con bajo rendimiento tuvieron un aumento tan grande como el de los niños de alto rendimiento. Además, las características que predijeron mejor si una palabra en particular sería aprendida o no fueron: la frecuencia de la palabra en el texto, la frecuencia de la representación de la palabra en las ilustraciones, y la cantidad de redundancia en el texto circundante. El autor recomienda estudios futuros para investigar con más detalle los beneficios obtenidos de historias leídas en voz alta, y para hacer más claros los factores que rinden diferencias en el interés de los niños por las historias. /// [German] In zwei experimenten lasen Klassenlehrer aus Neuseeland Vorschulkindern Geschichten vor und führten vorher und nachher Teste durch, um den Umfang des Wortschatzes zu messen, den die Kinder sich anhand des Vorlesens angeeignet hatten. Die Resultate zeigten, daß das Vorlesen von Geschichten einen beträchtlichen Anteil am Wortschatzerwerb ausmachte -- ungeachtet dessen, ob während des Vorlesens seitens der Lehrer Erklärungen gegeben wurden oder nicht. In der ersten Studie zeigten sieben Unterrichtsklassen mit Kindern im Alter von sieben Jahren nach dem Vorlesen einer Geschichte einen Wortschatzzuwachs von 15%, ohne daß Erklärungen seitens der Lehrer erfolgten. In der zweiten Studie wurde gleichfalls eine Geschichte vorgelesen. Drei Klassen Achtjähriger, denen keine Erklärungen gegeben wurden, zeigten einen Zuwachs von 15%, und drei Klassen, denen Erklärungen gegeben wurden, zeigten einen Zuwachs von 40%. Im Vergleich dazu zeigten dieselben Gruppen einen Zuwachs von weniger als 50% dieser Werte beim Vorlesen einer zweiten Geschichte, die unterschiedliche Eigenschaften basaß. Eine nachfolgende Untersuchung zeigte, daß dieses einmalige Vokabellernen von relativer Beständigkeit war, und daß Kinder mit niedrigen Ergebnissen genauso viel lernten wie Kinder mit hohen Ergebnissen. Des weiteren waren die Eigenschaften, die am besten vorhersagten, ob ein bestimmtes Wort erlernt würde, folgende: Häufigkeit des Wortes in der Geschichte, Darstellung des Wortes in Bildern und die Höhe der Redundanz im wortumgebenden Kontext. Der Verfasser schlägt vor, daß zusätzliche Studien durchgeführt werden, um die Vorteile des Geschichtenlesens weiter zu untersuchen und um die Faktoren, die bei den Kindern ein unterschiedlich starkes Interesse für verschiedenartige Geschichten hervorrufen, klar herauszustellen.
Article
The purpose of the present project was (a) to increase children's opportunities to interact with storybooks in their classroom and at home and (b) to use holistic assessment measures to describe inner‐city kindergartners’ emergent literacy behaviors. Specific storybooks were first used in the classroom and then each child was given a personal copy of the storybook to take home.Analysis of pre‐ and poststudy scores on the Emergent Reading Abilities Judgments Scale (Sulzby, 1981, 1985) scores indicated that 75% of the children interacted with the storybooks at a higher level of emergent reading at the end of the project. Whereas no children focused on print during the preassessment, 10 of the 28 children were attempting to track print at postassessment. Text complexity appeared to influence the emergent reading ability of some children. By encouraging kindergartners to interact with storybooks and using holistic assessment measures to examine their emergent literacy behaviors, teachers can become aware of children's current and developing literacy‐related knowledge.
Article
Although researchers have encouraged early writing experiences for young children, teachers often write for children because young children have limited writing vocabulary, undeveloped spelling ability and insufficient eye-hand coordination skills. Many young children thus become frustrated with the tasks of writing and reading. The picture-word processor system allows users to write messages on a computer by simply pressing squares of picture-words on an electronic tablet without having to spell words or use extensive eye-hand coordination. This study involved 103 students from four kindergarten classes at an elementary school in Utah. Fifty-two students from two classes formed the treatment group; 51 students from two classes formed the control group. Each pair of students in the treatment group received instruction on the picture-word processor system for 15 minutes per day, four days a week, for six consecutive weeks. Results indicate that students who received the picture-word processor instruction did significantly better in reading than those who received no instruction. Furthermore, the picture-word processor users responded enthusiastically to the system, as evidenced by their reports and written messages and by the comments on questionnaires from teachers, parents and tutors of the kindergarten children.
Article
Reports observations of the storytime of preschool children at home and in schools. The results indicated that children's responses were similar in type whether at home or at school but that children tended to respond to literature more like the adult in the situation than like the other children. (HTH)
Article
Tells the story of young Haitian children's first encounters with written language in a preschool classroom, pointing out how the children's approaches to the task of becoming literate and their uses of print at times coincided with, and other times differed from, the teacher's and the school's intentions. Suggests that children's sociocultural perspectives affect and even transform literacy learning. (SR)
Article
A study of two teachers of deaf children demonstrated that eye gaze is an effective mechanism for regulating turn-taking in the classroom. Eye gaze signals were used to invite individual and group response, initiate action, communicate with a particular student, ask questions, and handle distractions or interruptions. (Author/CB)
Article
An ethnographic study of children's response to literature at a range of developmental levels and in a variety of natural classroom contexts involved comprehensive classroom observations of 90 children aged five to eleven years representing a range of abilities. Data were collected during a four-month period on daily log sheets, then later classified into (1) listening behaviors, (2) contact with books, (3) acting on the impulse to share, (4) oral responses, (5) actions and drama, (6) making things, and (7) writing. Examples of students' responses were compared according to age level differences, and teacher strategies of manipulating contextual settings were categorized. Among the connections identified from the data were that the direct accessibility of a book seemed to be of primary importance in children's willingness to express any response to it at all, and that the most powerful feature of classroom contexts was their manipulation by teachers. (AEA)
Article
This study examined the effects of teaching prelingually deaf, elementary school children specific strategies to use when reading. Strategies addressed the skills of inferring, predicting, analyzing, attending, associating, synthesizing, and monitoring. Five of six children made significant gains in both reading levels and specific metacognitive skills. (Author/DB)
Article
Intended for teachers and administrators, this book examines systematic observation of reading behaviors and reading recovery procedures to help children with reading problems. Part one deals with systematic observation, beginning with a discussion of the reading process and reading programs. Following that, it describes the use of the diagnostic survey--including strategies both for using the "running record" and for testing--and concludes with strategies for summarizing the diagnostic survey results. Part two focuses on reading recovery--a program for early intervention--and includes chapters on organizing to prevent reading failure, reducing reading difficulties with a second chance to learn, understanding the various aspects of the reading recovery program, reading recovery teaching procedures, and deciding when to discontinue children from the program. The final chapter contains summaries of six projects that make up the program and a summary of the entire reading recovery program. The appendixes contain summary sheets, test score sheets, reading recovery teaching sheets (for New Zealand children), and a stanine score summary sheet. (EL)
Article
Describes a 3-yr study that examined the literacy development of 10 hearing-impaired children (aged 4.2–5.5 yrs at the beginning of the study), 9 of whom had hearing-impaired parents. Ss' writing in the school and their reading, art, and through-the-air story production (i.e., the signing of stories) as related to their writing were investigated. Findings from the 1st yr of the study are discussed in relation to the following patterns of the literary process identified by J. Harste et al (1983) in their work with 3–6 yr old non-hearing-impaired children: organization, generativeness, intentionality, social action, demonstration, text, context, and risk. Spelling is also discussed. It is found that the patterns and strategies observed in non-hearing-impaired children were present and functioning in the hearing-impaired children. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the research reported in this paper [attempts to] explain the process of growing print awareness [in 4-yr-olds] / aim is to identify early and universal language learning strategies for the purpose of furthering our understanding of written language growth and development expecting print to be meaningful: the strategy of semantic intent / accessing one's communication potential: the strategy of negotiability / orchestrating the written language event: the strategy of hypothesis testing / the linguistic data pool: strategy of fine tuning language with language / conceptual and instructional implications (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the reactions of 1st and 2nd graders in a natural setting to picture books to provide a descriptive framework for primary children's responses to picture books. A participant observer studied a combination class comprised of 19 2nd and 4 1st graders for a period of 10 wks. Results indicate that Ss looked at books in different ways—in groups, with other children, and by themselves. Some Ss looked at all the pictures before they read while others began reading immediately. Following their first reading, Ss chose a variety of ways in which to respond. They reread, talked about, or wrote about the book. Aspects of the picture books they read seemed to appear somewhat unconsciously in their language and in the products they created. Ss seemed to need time, a variety of materials, and a teacher who was able to develop their early responses. They were often influenced by the interests of their peers. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
reports from a longitudinal study of storybook reading behavior of children aged 2 to 4, in a day care center setting in the USA / examined the reading and writing behaviors of young children with the assumption that they develop into conventional, or independent reading (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Grade 5 children who had been trained in phoneme identity 6 years earlier in preschool were superior to untrained controls on irregular word reading; on a composite list of nonwords, regular words, and irregular words; and on a separate nonword test. Some of the trained children had become poor readers by Grade 5. These poor readers had made slow progress in achieving phonemic awareness in preschool even though they were eventually successful. In general, the rate at which trained children achieved phonemic awareness in preschool accounted for variance in school literacy progress in addition to that accounted for by the actual level of phonemic awareness achieved. Preschool instruction in phonemic structure had modest but detectable effects on later reading skill, but children who were slow to achieve phonemic awareness tended to be hampered in later reading growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)