Inhibition of allergen-specific IgE reactivity by a human Ig Fcγ-Fcε bifunctional fusion protein

ArticleinJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 114(2):321-7 · September 2004with14 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.03.058 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Coaggregating FcepsilonRI with FcgammaRII receptors holds great potential for treatment of IgE-mediated disease by inhibiting FcepsilonRI signaling. We have previously shown that an Fcgamma-Fcepsilon fusion protein, human IgG-IgE Fc fusion protein (GE2), could inhibit FcepsilonRI-mediated mediator releases in vitro and in vivo. We sought to test whether GE2 was capable of blocking mediator release from FcepsilonRI cells sensitized with IgE in vivo or in vitro before exposure to GE2, a critical feature for GE2 to be clinically applicable. GE2 was tested for its ability to inhibit Fel d 1-induced mediator release from human blood basophils from subjects with cat allergy, human lung-derived mast cells, human FcepsilonRIalpha transgenic mice sensitized with human cat allergic serum, and rhesus monkeys naturally allergic to the dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Basophils from subjects with cat allergy and lung mast cells degranulate when challenged with Fel d 1 and anti-IgE, respectively. GE2 itself did not induce mediator release but strongly blocked this Fel d 1- and anti-IgE-driven mediator release. GE2 was able to block Fel d 1-driven passive cutaneous anaphylaxis at skin sites sensitized with human serum from subjects with cat allergy in human FcepsilonRIalpha transgenic mice, but by itself, GE2 did not induce a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Finally, GE2 markedly inhibited skin test reactivity to D farinae in monkeys naturally allergic to this allergen, with complete inhibition being observed at 125 ng. GE2 is able to successfully compete for FcepsilonRs and FcgammaRs on cells presensitized in vitro and in vivo and lead to inhibition of IgE-mediated reactivity through coaggregation of FcepsilonRI with FcgammaRII.
    • "Establishment of a human FcεRIα transgenic mouse model in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 background (Dombrowicz et al. 1996Dombrowicz et al. , 1998 Fung-Leung et al. 1996), with murine FcεRIα knocked out and its human equivalent knocked in, allowed human IgE binding and expression of functional humanized FcεRI. This model also provides a constant repertoire of effector cells expressing human FcεRI mimicking that of humans for the study of human IgE and anaphylaxis (Dombrowicz et al. 1998; Fung-Leung et al. 1996; Kinet 1999) and the efficacy of molecules that inhibit anaphylaxis (Allen et al. 2007; Zhang et al. 2004; Zhu et al. 2002). In addition, it is useful for the evaluation of the anticancer effects mediated by FcεRI and the potential toxicity of IgE containing human constant regions. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The success of antibody therapy in cancer is consistent with the ability of these molecules to activate immune responses against tumors. Experience in clinical applications, antibody design, and advancement in technology have enabled antibodies to be engineered with enhanced efficacy against cancer cells. This allows re-evaluation of current antibody approaches dominated by antibodies of the IgG class with a new light. Antibodies of the IgE class play a central role in allergic reactions and have many properties that may be advantageous for cancer therapy. IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches have been shown to be effective in both in vitro and in vivo models of cancer, suggesting the potential use of these approaches in humans. Further studies on the anticancer efficacy and safety profile of these IgE-based approaches are warranted in preparation for translation toward clinical application.
    Article · Jan 2015
    • "Most published results describe expression in various human cell lines, mainly of basophil origin [72] and in human progenitor-derived mast cells [33], rather than in freshly isolated tissue mast cells. While functional data suggest that FcRIIb is expressed on mast cells in human lung tissue [56], mast cells isolated from human skin after several weeks of culture were reported to express FcRIIa but not FcRIIb [33]. In human cell lines which express FcRI and FcRIIb either endogenously or by transfection, coengagement of these receptors reduces mast cell activation [73]; similar results were obtained using progenitor cell-derived human mast cells [55]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells and basophils play a central role in allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis, as well as in non-allergic inflammatory, neurological and autoimmune diseases. Allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE bound to FcεRI leads to cellular activation, and the low-affinity Fc receptor FcγRIIb is a key inhibitor of subsequent degranulation. FcγRIIb, when coengaged with FcεRI via allergen bound to IgE, stimulates ITIM domain-mediated inhibitory signaling that efficiently suppresses mast cell and basophil activation. To assess the therapeutic potential of directed coengagement of FcεRI and FcγRIIb in the absence of FcεRI crosslinking, we developed a fusion protein comprising the coupled Fc domains of murine IgE and human IgG1. As a key functional component of this tandem Fcε-Fcγ biologic, we engineered its IgG1 Fc domain to bind to human FcγRIIb with 100-fold enhanced affinity relative to native IgG1 Fc. Using mast cells from mice transgenic for human FcγRIIb, we show that this tandem Fc binds with high affinity to murine FcεRI and human FcγRIIb on mast cells, triggers phosphorylation of FcγRIIb, and inhibits FcεRI-dependent calcium mobilization. Control tandem Fc biologics containing a native IgG1 Fc domain or lacking binding to Fcγ receptors were markedly less active, demonstrating that the affinity-optimized tandem Fc can inhibit degranulation through stimulation of FcγRIIb signaling as well as through competition with allergen-IgE immune complex for FcεRI binding. We propose that in the context of a fully human tandem Fc biologic, high-affinity coengagement of FcεRI and FcγRIIb has potential as a novel therapy for allergy and other mast cell and basophil-mediated pathologies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
    • "This concept was exploited in recent studies using two novel bio-engineered fusion proteins, one that consists of human Fc regions of IgG1 and IgE linked together and another a fusion protein made by linking an allergen to human IgG1 Fc region[73]. These proteins block pro-inflammatory mediator and cytokine release from allergic cells and prevent skin, lung and systemic allergic reactivity in a murine model[16,7374757677 . Our study demonstrates that FccRIIb-dependent regulatory mechanism(s) control allergic airway inflammation , making this inhibitory receptor a physiologically relevant therapeutic target in allergic asthma. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic asthma is characterized by airway eosinophilia, increased mucin production and allergen-specific IgE. Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcgammaRIIb), an inhibitory IgG receptor, has recently emerged as a negative regulator of allergic diseases like anaphylaxis and allergic rhinitis. However, no studies to date have evaluated its role in allergic asthma. Our main objective was to study the role of FcgammaRIIb in allergic lung inflammation. We used a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. Inflammation was quantified by BAL inflammatory cells and airway mucin production. FcgammaRIIb expression was measured by qPCR and flow cytometry and the cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Compared to wild type animals, FcgammaRIIb deficient mice mount a vigorous allergic lung inflammation characterized by increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cellularity, eosinophilia and mucin content upon ragweed extract (RWE) challenge. RWE challenge in sensitized mice upregulated FcgammaRIIb in the lungs. Disruption of IFN-gamma gene abrogated this upregulation. Treatment of naïve mice with the Th1-inducing agent CpG DNA increased FcgammaRIIb expression in the lungs. Furthermore, treatment of sensitized mice with CpG DNA prior to RWE challenge induced greater upregulation of FcgammaRIIb than RWE challenge alone. These observations indicated that RWE challenge upregulated FcgammaRIIb in the lungs by IFN-gamma- and Th1-dependent mechanisms. RWE challenge upregulated FcgammaRIIb on pulmonary CD14+/MHC II+ mononuclear cells and CD11c+ cells. FcgammaRIIb deficient mice also exhibited an exaggerated RWE-specific IgE response upon sensitization when compared to wild type mice. We propose that FcgammaRIIb physiologically regulates allergic airway inflammation by two mechanisms: 1) allergen challenge mediates upregulation of FcgammaRIIb on pulmonary CD14+/MHC II+ mononuclear cells and CD11c+ cells by an IFN-gamma dependent mechanism; and 2) by attenuating the allergen specific IgE response during sensitization. Thus, stimulating FcgammaRIIb may be a therapeutic strategy in allergic airway disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010
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