“Sugar-Sweetened Soft Drinks, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes.”

JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 09/2004; 292(8):978-9. DOI: 10.1001/jama.292.8.978
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Caroline M Apovian
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    • "In the USA and Europe much attention has been paid to the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and weight gain. On average 1 can of carbonated SSB (soft drink) provides 40–50 g of sugar and 150 calories, generally in the form of high-fructose corn syrup [38]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To review studies undertaken in South Africa (SA) which included sugar intake associated with dental caries, non-communicable diseases, diabetes, obesity and/or micronutrient dilution, since the food-based dietary guideline: "Use foods and drinks that contain sugar sparingly and not between meals" was promulgated by the Department of Health (DOH) in 2002. Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ScienceDirect), and SA Journal of Clinical Nutrition (SAJCN), DOH and SA Medical Research Council (SAMRC) websites were searched for SA studies on sugar intake published between 2000 and January 2012. Studies were included in the review if they evaluated the following: sugar intake and dental caries; sugar intake and non-communicable diseases; sugar and diabetes; sugar and obesity and/or sugar and micronutrient dilution. The initial search led to 12 articles in PubMed, 0 in Cochrane, 35 in ScienceDirect, 5 in the SAJCN and 3 reports from DOH/SAMRC. However, after reading the abstracts only 7 articles from PubMed, 4 from SAJCN and 3 reports were retained for use as being relevant to the current review. Hand searching of reference lists of SAJCN articles produced two more articles. Intake of sugar appears to be increasing steadily across the South African (SA) population. Children typically consume about 50 g per day, rising to as much as 100 g per day in adolescents. This represents about 10% of dietary energy, possibly as much as 20%. It has been firmly established that sugar plays a major role in development of dental caries. Furthermore, a few studies have shown that sugar has a diluting effect on the micronutrient content of the diet which lowers the intake of micronutrients. Data from numerous systematic reviews have shown that dietary sugar increases the risk for development of both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Risk for development of these conditions appears to be especially strong when sugar is consumed as sugar-sweetened beverages. Based on the evidence provided the current DOH food-based dietary guideline on sugar intake should remain as is.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · BMC Public Health
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    • "Studies of the effect of food prices on obesity have been particularly prominent in this context (Apovian 2004; Sturm and Datar 2005; Buttet and Dolar 2008; Schroeter, Lusk et al. 2008; Duffey, Gordon‐Larson et al. 2010) Perhaps because obesity is a kind of " oracle condition " that presages the development of a host of serious chronic conditions ‐‐ diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, some kinds of cancer‐‐ there has been less research about the relationship between food prices and these conditions or their mediating factors, notable exceptions notwithstanding (Meyerhoefer and Leibtag 2010). A case in point, which we address here, is dyslipidemia, an imbalance in blood fats, particularly cholesterol. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cost Americans billions of dollars per year. High cholesterol levels, which are closely related to dietary habits, are a major contributor to CVD. In this article, we study whether changes in food prices are related to cholesterol levels and whether taxes or subsidies on particular foods would be effective in lowering cholesterol levels and, consequently, CVD costs. We find that prices of vegetables, processed foods, whole milk and whole grains are significantly associated with blood cholesterol levels. Having analyzed the costs and benefits of government interventions, we find that a subsidy of vegetables and whole grains would be an efficient way to reduce CVD expenditures.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Economics and human biology
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    • "Note that the impacts of soda sales tax are enormous as compared to the other variables. This is because sugar-sweetened soft drinks contribute 7.1% of total energy intake and represent the largest single food source of calories in the US diet (Apovian, 2004 "
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    ABSTRACT: Prevalence of local foods is believed to answer several food issues one of which is health and nutrition. This study focused on the on the availability of local foods to consumers and see its relationship with two specific diet-related diseases namely, obesity and diabetes. Other variables were included in the analysis to provide additional evidence to previous findings. Factors considered are divided into 5 groups namely diet-, local food-, environment-, education- and gender-related factors. Diet- and environment-related variables provide the most perceptive findings while local food variables provided significant however weak evidence of positive impacts to health and nutrition.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
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