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Effects of light resistance exercise using dumbbells and rubber band with mild energy restriction on body composition and physical fitness in obese Korean women

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Abstract

The effects of light resistance exercise using dumbbells and rubber band with mild energy restriction on body composition and physical fitness were studied in 11 mildly obese Korean women aged 38-59 years. The subjects performed dumbbell exercises with pairs of 0.5-1 kg dumbbells and rubber band exercise 3 days per week for approximately 40 min. Subjects were restricted to approximately 80% of energy intake RDA for Korean women for 12 weeks. Subjects were measured for body composition, physical fitness, and blood and serum biochemical data before commencing the experiment and again at 12 weeks while still dieting. During the 12-week experimental period, body weight and body fat decreased significantly without reducing fat free mass. Grip and back strength increased significantly during the experimental period. These results suggest that combination of dumbbell and rubber band exercises decreases body weight and body fat without reducing FFM while increasing physical fitness.

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... 35 36 The dumbbell exercise training works on the shoulders, chest, biceps and triceps, the back and abdominal muscles, as well as the thigh and calf. 37 Compared to metal dumbbells, this dumbbell offers a better grip and is safe and easier to use. 36 The dumbbell exercise has positive beneficial effects for all people irrespective of age. ...
... Some of the benefits include prevention of sarcopenia, osteopenia, weight control and management, and overall health promotion. Studies have been carried out on the effects of light resistance exercise using dumbbells on resting metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and body composition, 35 fat reduction, 36 body composition and physical fitness, 37 concentrations of amino acids, 38 39 and weight reduction, 40 and the results were found to be promising. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no such studies in Malaysia, particularly among breast cancer survivors. ...
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Background Participation in physical activity has a positive impact on the overall health and quality of life, whereas physical inactivity is associated with a poor prognosis among breast cancer survivors. Despite the health-enhancing benefits of physical activity, the majority of Malaysian breast cancer survivors are not physically active. This paper presents the design of a randomised study to evaluate the feasibility and effect of exercise therapy intervention using light resistance dumbbell exercise to promote active lifestyle and improve the quality of life of breast cancer survivors in Malaysia. Methods/design This is an intervention study of a 12-week exercise therapy that will explore and compare the effects of light resistance and aerobic exercise on physical activity level and quality of life components in 102 female breast cancer survivors. Major eligibility criteria include histologically confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer stages I–III, 3–12 months post-diagnosis, and absence of any disorder contraindicating exercise. Participants will be stratified based on menopausal status (pre-menopause vs post-menopause) and then assigned randomly to one of three groups. Participants in group A will participate in a three-times weekly supervised resistance exercise using light resistance dumbbells; participants in group B will participate in a three-times weekly supervised aerobic exercise; while participants in group C (control group) will be given aerobic exercise after completion of the intervention. The primary end points include physical activity level and quality of life components. The secondary end points are body mass index, body composition, total caloric intake, and waist-to-hip ratio. Discussion Although there have been many studies of resistance exercise in breast cancer survivors, this is the first study using this specific mode of resistance. Findings will contribute data on the feasibility and effects of light resistance dumbbell exercises, and provide knowledge on the physical activity intervention programme that will maximally promote better overall health and well-being of survivors.
... [14] Health-related benefits of resistance training (RT) have gained the popularity as a modality for health purposes. [15,16] Therefore, the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association have recommended RT for a wide range of population starting from adolescents to elderly and from healthy to clinical populations. [17] To the best of our knowledge, no scientific studies have examined LRS supplementation as a sports performance enhancer to date. ...
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Background: This study investigated the effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis (LRS) supplementation and resistance training (RT) on isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters in young males. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to four groups: Control (C), LRS, RT, and combined RT-LRS (RT-LRS). Participants in the LRS and RT-LRS groups consumed 500 mg of LRS daily for 8 weeks. RT was conducted 3 times/week for 8 weeks for participants in the RT and RT-LRS groups. The following parameters were measured before and after the intervention period: Anthropometric data, isokinetic muscular strength and power, and anaerobic and aerobic fitness. Blood samples were also collected to determine immune parameters. Results: Isokinetic muscular strength and power were increased (P < 0.05) in participants of both RT and RT-LRS groups. RT-LRS group had shown increases (P < 0.05) in shoulder extension peak torque, shoulder flexion and extension average power, knee flexion peak torque, and knee flexion and extension average power. There were also increases (P < 0.05) in anaerobic power and capacity and aerobic fitness in this group. Similarly, RT group had increases (P < 0.05) in shoulder flexion average power, knee flexion and extension peak torque, and knee flexion and extension average power. In addition, increases (P < 0.05) in anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic fitness, T lymphocytes (CD3 and CD4), and B lymphocytes (CD19) counts were observed in the RT group. Conclusions: RT elicited increased isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters among young males. However, supplementation with LRS during RT did not provide additive benefits.
... [14] Health-related benefits of resistance training (RT) have gained the popularity as a modality for health purposes. [15,16] Therefore, the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association have recommended RT for a wide range of population starting from adolescents to elderly and from healthy to clinical populations. [17] To the best of our knowledge, no scientific studies have examined LRS supplementation as a sports performance enhancer to date. ...
... En relación a la fuerza, su mejora no alcanzó significación estadística, al igual que otro realizado en mujeres postmenopáusicas (Brill, Probst, Greenhouse, Schell, & Macera, 1998). A diferencia de éstos, otros estudios obtuvieron mejoras estadísticamente significativas: programas de 3 meses de ejercicio físico (Cecchi et al., 2009); con mujeres de mayor edad entrenando 4 semanas con bandas elásticas y mancuernas (Rogers, Sherwood, Rogers, & Bohlken, 2002); en mujeres de mediana edad que durante 12 semanas ejercieron la fuerza resistencia (Kang et al., 2004); incluido un programas donde no se trabajaba de forma específica la fuerza (Jonsson, Ringsberg, Josefsson, Johnell, & Birch-Jensen, 1992). ...
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Aquesta investigacio preten coneixer els canvis que provoca un programa d’activitat fisica moderada de cinc mesos de durada sobre la condicio fisica (forca, flexibilitat i resistencia) en dones premenopausiques. En l’estudi van participar-hi dones premenopausiques separades en dos grups: menors de 35 anys (n = 10) i majors de 35 anys (n = 10). Per a l’estudi, es va establir un programa d’intervencio d’aerobic, classes de step i tonificacio, de 5 mesos de durada, amb una frequencia setmanal de 3 dies alterns i amb una durada de 60 minuts cada sessio a una intensitat entre el 60-70 % de la frequencia cardiaca maxima de reserva. Els resultats mostren que les dones de menor edat, en finalitzar el programa d’activitat fisica, van incrementar la flexibilitat posterior del tronc i la forca de prensio d’ambdues mans, encara que nomes van millorar de manera significativa la flexibilitat anterior del tronc (p < 0,05). Les dones amb edats superiors van millorar tots els parametres de condicio fisica, i igual que les mes joves, van obtenir canvis significatius nomes en la flexibilitat anterior del tronc (p < 0,05). En la comparacio entre ambdos grups d’edat, les dones majors de 35 anys obtenen una major millora enfront de les joves (p < 0,05) en el consum maxim d’oxigen i la forca de prensio manual esquerra. Els resultats de l’estudi mostren possibles beneficis del programa d’exercici utilitzat sobre la flexibilitat en dones, aixi com la rellevancia del programa en dones adultes que pal·lien la perdua de condicio fisica i capacitat cardiorespiratoria ocasionada per l’edat.
... En relación a la fuerza, su mejora no alcanzó significación estadística, al igual que otro realizado en mujeres postmenopáusicas (Brill, Probst, Greenhouse, Schell, & Macera, 1998). A diferencia de éstos, otros estudios obtuvieron mejoras estadísticamente significativas: programas de 3 meses de ejercicio físico (Cecchi et al., 2009); con mujeres de mayor edad entrenando 4 semanas con bandas elásticas y mancuernas (Rogers, Sherwood, Rogers, & Bohlken, 2002); en mujeres de mediana edad que durante 12 semanas ejercieron la fuerza resistencia (Kang et al., 2004); incluido un programas donde no se trabajaba de forma específica la fuerza (Jonsson, Ringsberg, Josefsson, Johnell, & Birch-Jensen, 1992). ...
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Esta investigación pretende conocer los cambios que provoca un programa de actividad física moderada de 5 meses de duración sobre la condición física (fuerza, flexibilidad y resistencia) en mujeres premenopáusicas. En el estudio participaron mujeres premenopáusicas, separadas en dos grupos: menores de 35 años (n = 10) y mayores de 35 años (n = 10). Para el estudio, se estableció un programa de intervención de aeróbic, clases de step y tonificación, de 5 meses de duración, con una frecuencia semanal de 3 días alternos y con una duración de 60 minutos cada sesión a una intensidad entre el 60-70 % de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima de reserva. Los resultados muestran que las mujeres de menor edad, al finalizar el programa de actividad física, incrementaron la flexibilidad posterior del tronco, la fuerza de prensión de ambas manos, aunque solo mejoraron de forma significativa la flexibilidad anterior del tronco (p
... These changes may be explained by the change in the number of calories ingested by all volunteers in the study. Changes in hematological parameters have previously been observed on restricting caloric intake (Kang et al., 2004). ...
... These changes may be explained by the change in the number of calories ingested by all volunteers in the study. Changes in hematological parameters have previously been observed on restricting caloric intake (Kang et al., 2004). ...
... The results of Kang et al. indicated that after 12 weeks of light resistance exercise 3 day/wk and 40 min, using dumbbells and rubber band, both body weight and body fat were decreased. It seems weight loss in these subjects occurred because of the mild energy restriction during intervention.[26] ...
Article
The loss of muscle mass is associated with aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training and detraining on muscle mass in elderly women. Twenty post-menopausal women aged ≥50 years old were enrolled. Matching for age, they were randomly assigned into control and resistance training group (RT). The intervention consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions for 10 movements with Thera-Band tubing (based on 80-100% 10-RM), three times a week, for 12 weeks and thereafter, four weeks detraining. Skinfold thickness was determined by caliper. Percentage of body fat was estimated from skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) by McArdle method. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were calculated. Range of motion for trunk flexion and extension was determined. During 12 weeks of intervention, significant increases were observed in 1-RM of biceps curl, FFM, trunk flexion and extension and significant decreases during four weeks detraining in RT group. The RT group demonstrated significant decreases during resistance training and increases during detraining in skinfold thickness. FFM, trunk flexion, and extension decreased and skinfold thickness, %FM, and weight of body fat increased in the control group (P < 0.05). Resistance training with Thera-Band enhanced strength and muscle endurance in elderly women and a 4-week detraining period had an adverse effect on muscle power. This suggests that a strength training program is an effective intervention to prevent functional reductions, and can contribute to improve neuromuscular function in older adults.
... These changes may be explained by the change in the number of calories ingested by all volunteers in the study. Changes in hematological parameters have previously been observed on restricting caloric intake (Kang et al., 2004). Previous studies which reported on the safety of F. excelsior focused on extracts produced from the leaves or from the bark of the plant. ...
... Furthermore, Kilgore et al. [10] reported that 6 weeks of moderate-to-intense resistance training of healthy untrained males could cause the serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the count of red blood cells (RBC) to rise. It was observed that exercise training might accelerate erythropoiesis or red cell mass expansion [9,19,22]. In a cross-sectional study, Schumacher et al. [20] found that athletes had higher RBC than sedentary subjects. ...
Article
We previously showed that resistance training significantly increased the red blood cell count (RBC) and hematocrit (Hct) and decreased the mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in physically inactive men. Since the enhanced hematopoiesis may result, at least partly, from bone metabolism, the purpose of this study was to further investigate the effect of resistance training on serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity (B-ALP), a biomarker of bone formation, and focus on the relationship between the change in B-ALP from baseline to 20-week follow-up and the corresponding changes in RBC, Hct and MCHC. Seventy-four men aged 20-45 years were randomly assigned to training and control groups. The training group underwent a 20-week progressive resistance training. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for serum B-ALP at baseline, and at 10-week and 20-week follow-up. B-ALP in the control group exhibited no significant change. In contrast, the training group increased its B-ALP from baseline at 10-week and 20-week follow-up (both P<0.01 compared to control group). Within the training group, B-ALP was elevated at 10-week and 20-week follow-up when compared to baseline (both P<0.001). A significant correlation was found between change in B-ALP from baseline to 20-week follow-up and the corresponding changes in RBC, Hct and MCHC in the training group (r=0.49, P<0.01; r=0.56, P<0.01, and r = -0.38, P<0.05, respectively). We concluded that resistance training increased biomarkers of bone formation, which had association with RBC turnover. Adaptive changes of bone metabolism induced by resistance training might facilitate erythropoiesis.
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The effects of dumb-bell exercise (aerobic-resistance exercise) with and without low calorie diet (LCD) therapy on resting metabolic rate (RMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and body composition were studied in 12 mildly obese women aged 19–20 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: dumb-bell exercise with LCD (DEx + LCD group), and dumb-bell exercise only (DEx group). The subjects performed dumb-bell exercises with pairs of 2 kg dumb-bells every day after dinner for approximately 20 min. In the DEx + LCD group, subjects also received a liquid-formula diet based on a commercially available diet supplement, Micro Diet, for two of their three daily meals. Thus, they were restricted to approximately 4.18 MJ of energy intake per day for 12 weeks. Subjects underwent several measurements (body composition, RMR and DIT tests) before commencing the experiment and again after 12 weeks while still dieting. During the 12 week experimental period, body weight and body fat decreased significantly in both the DEx + LCD and the DEx groups without reducing fat free mass (FFM). The decreases in body weight and body fat were significantly larger in the LCD + DEx group than in the DEx group. These results suggest that dumb-bell exercise decreases body weight and body fat without reducing FFM in relation to increasing RMR and DIT. Micro Diet LCD may strengthen the effect of dumb-bell exercise on body weight and body fat, but weaken the effects on RMR and DIT.
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Fifty obese patients were givena 1.34 MJ (320 kcal) formula diet (containing 44 g/day carbohydrate, milk protein supplying 24--29 g protein/day in a total of 31 g/day, fat 2 g/day and the RDA of minerals and vitamins) for four to 12 weeks, either as inpatients (22) or outpatients (28). This regime was followed by a 3.35 MJ (800 kcal) conventional diet as outpatients. All but six outpatients completed the trial. Substantial weight losses were achieved in all patients with a total mean loss of 8.4 kg at four weeks and 11.0 kg at eight weeks. At four weeks the mean weight loss was 9.6 kg for inpatients and 7.2 kg for outpatients (P less than 0.05). There was no statistical difference in weight between the groups at eight weeks. Patients who continued on the 1.34 MJ formula diet for 12 weeks continued to lose weight but those on the 3.35 MJ conventional diet did not. Nitrogen-balance studies were carried out on the inpatients. During the first four weeks there was a small net loss of nitrogen (56 g, equivalent to 350 g protein) but equilibrium was achieved by the fifth or sixth week. There was no evidence of protein deficiency as judged by unchanged serum total protein, albumin, haemoglobin, RBC and PCV. Equilibrium between intake and excretion of sodium and potassium was also achieved throughout, and serum electrolytes were unchanged. A large number of other routine clinical and laboratory tests showed the treatment was safe. Serum bilirubin was elevated (18--48 per cent) and increased slightly above normal in two outpatients. Serum cholesterol was decreased by 21 per cent and triglycerides by 45 per cent after three weeks. Serum lipids in hyperlipaemic patients were normalised. It is concluded that the very-low-calorie formula diet provides a safe and very effective method of weight reduction, and the advantages of hospital compared with outpatient treatment are small.
Twenty-four women completed a 20-week heavy-resistance weight training program for the lower extremity. Workouts were twice a week and consisted of warm-up exercises followed by three sets each of full squats, vertical leg presses, leg extensions, and leg curls. All exercises were performed to failure using 6-8 RM (repetition maximum). Weight training caused a significant increase in maximal isotonic strength (1 RM) for each exercise. After training, there was a decrease in body fat percentage (p less than 0.05), and an increase in lean body mass (p less than 0.05) with no overall change in thigh girth. Biopsies were obtained before and after training from the superficial portion of the vastus lateralis muscle. Sections were prepared for histological and histochemical examination. Six fiber types (I, IC, IIC, IIA, IIAB, and IIB) were distinguished following routine myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase histochemistry. Areas were determined for fiber types I, IIA, and IIAB + IIB. The heavy-resistance training resulted in significant hypertrophy of all three groups: I (15%), IIA (45%), and IIAB + IIB (57%). These data are similar to those in men and suggest considerable hypertrophy of all major fiber types is also possible in women if exercise intensity and duration are sufficient. In addition, the training resulted in a significant decrease in the percentage of IIB with a concomitant increase in IIA fibers, suggesting that strength training may lead to fiber conversions.
Article
The effects of caloric restriction and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) were studied for 16 wk in 26 premenopausal obese women. Exercise (X) vs nonexercise (NX) was crossed with a low-fat, ad libitum-carbohydrate (AL) diet vs a restricted (R) (800 kcal) low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Body-weight and percent-fat losses were significant (p less than 0.05) in all groups but greater in subjects assigned to the R diet (p less than 0.05) and/or X (p less than 0.10) groups. Exercise increased (p less than 0.01) VO2 max but neither exercise nor diet influenced fat-free mass or RMR (kcal.m-2.h-1), both of which remained unchanged over time. A program similar to that followed by the ALX group is recommended for long-term weight control and overall health.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise program of five 45-min walk/jog sessions at 60% V̇O2max per week, for 5 wks, would affect the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in mildly obese women while fed a 1300 kcal reducing diet. Twenty-one subjects (27.8 ± 2.8% SEM overweight) were randomly divided into either an exercise (EX) or a nonexercise (NEX) group. The EX group improved V̇O2max 20.9 ± 3.2% vs a decrease of 2.1 ± 3.4% in the NEX group (p < .001). However, body wt, fat wt, and lean body wt changes did not differ significantly between groups, with body wt loss for the NEX and EX groups averaging 5.5 ± 0.6 kg and 5.6 ± 0.2 kg respectively. Regression coefficients were calculated from the weekly RMR data. The average coefficients were 0.95 ± 9.7 and -23.5 ± 7.8 when expressed in kcal/d (p = .06), and 0.037 ± 0.02 and -0.007 ± 0.01 when expressed in ml 02/kg wt/min (ml/kg/min) (p = .06) for the EX and NEX groups respectively. Although these data suggest that exercise training may help counter the slight drop in RMR while on a 1300 kcal diet, this increase was not large enough to enhance wt loss.
Article
Assessed the effectiveness of a combined program of low calorie diet (400–500 kcal) and behavior therapy in treating obesity. 50 women (average age 43.9 yrs) and 9 men (average age 44.7 yrs), averaging 89% overweight, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) low calorie diet alone, (b) behavior therapy alone, or (c) low calorie diet plus behavior therapy (combined treatment). Mean weight losses for the 3 conditions at the end of treatment were 14.1, 14.3, and 19.3 kg, respectively; losses for combined treatment were significantly greater than those for the other 2 conditions. At 1-yr follow-up, mean weight losses for the diet alone, behavior therapy alone, and combined-treatment conditions were 4.6, 9.5, and 12.9 kg, respectively; and losses for combined treatment were significantly greater than for the diet alone condition. 29% of the combined-treatment and 44% of the behavior therapy alone Ss maintained weight losses within 2 kg of their end-of-treatment weight; none of the diet-alone Ss met this criterion. Ss in all 3 conditions achieved significant reductions in blood pressure at posttreatment, but only those receiving behavior therapy alone and combined treatment showed significant decreases in depression. (36 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The effects of exercise on lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and quadriceps (QD) strength were studied in 72 male, mildly obese (X = 38% fat) subjects (X age, 43.5 yr) randomly assigned to one of eight treatments arranged in a 2 X 4 factorial plan with exercise (EX) and non-exercise (NE) and four diets as the two factors. Exercise consisted of a 3 d/wk, 8-wk aerobics program (70-85% maximum heart rate) accompanied by a calisthenics program. LBM was determined by whole body potassium (40K), FM by subtracting LBM from total body weight, VO2max using the Wilmore-Costill method, and QD strength with the Cybex II system. Weight loss of the combined EX (11.8 +/- 0.6 kg) (X +/- SE) and NE (9.2 +/- 0.3 kg) groups was not statistically different. LBM of the EX group was unchanged (from 63.1 +/- 1.9 to 62.5 +/- 2.1 kg), whereas in the NE group it was reduced from 62.6 +/- 1.1 to 59.3 +/- 1.2 kg (P less than 0.001) accounting for 36% of total weight loss. FM loss was greater for the EX group (11.2 +/- 1.5 kg) when compared to the NE (5.2 +/- 1.6 kg) group (P less than 0.001). The EX group exhibited an increase in VO2max from 2.9 +/- 0.3 to 3.4 +/- 0.2 1 X min-1 (P less than 0.001), whereas the NE group was unchanged (3.0 +/- 0.3 to 2.9 +/- 0.4 1 X min-1 (NS].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that 26% of U.S. adults, or about 34 million people aged 20 to 75 years, are overweight. The survey used a body mass index of 27.8 kg/m2 or greater for men and 27.3 or greater for women to define overweight. Prevalence of overweight increases with advancing age and is generally much higher among black women than among white women. Women below the poverty line have a much higher prevalence of overweight between ages 25 and 55 years than women above the poverty line. Multivariate analysis indicates that for women race and poverty status are independent predictors of overweight. Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes are commoner in overweight persons than in persons who are not overweight. The relative risk of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes is greater in overweight adults aged 20 to 45 years than it is in overweight persons aged 45 to 75 years. This observation is consonant with mortality data, suggesting that being overweight during early adult life is more dangerous than a similar degree of overweight in later adult life.
Article
The development of very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) over the lats 50 years is described, from the early work of the Pittsburgh group in 1930, using conventional food, to the present day liquid-formula diets containing all essential nutrients. Recent work has been concerned with the protein requirements of obese patients consuming 200-400 kcal (0.8-1.6MJ) VLCD. Independent studies indicate that the protein requirement is about 40-55 g/day without carbohydrate, and about 25-30 g/day when carbohydrate (30-45 g/day) is included. Although some workers use VLCD consisting only of protein, the author prefers those also containing carbohydrate because they prevent excessive ketosis, hyperuricemia, diuresis, electrolyte loss, re-feeding oedema, and may improve muscular endurance. Numerous clinical trials have shown VLCD to be highly effective in about 80 per cent of outpatients and give an average weight loss of 2 kg/week which is comparable to that seen in complete starvation. Clinical studies of up to 16 weeks and longer in numerous medical schools in Europe have demonstrated their safety in patients under medical supervision. Whilst the achievement of a normal body weight in most obese patients is now a reality, the main problem for the future is to achieve permanent weight loss.
Article
Diet and exercise studies of premenopausal women have shown reductions in obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Forty-one healthy, moderately obese (120-140% of ideal body weight, LBW), postmenopausal women (65.6 +/- 3.3 y) participating in 24-wk diet or diet + exercise programs were studied to determine whether similar CVD risk reduction would occur. Daily energy need (DEN) was estimated from basal energy expenditure and self-reported activity. The diet + exercise group (n = 16) reduced their daily energy intake (DEI) by 2092 kJ from their DEN and expended 837 kJ/d in walking and resistance exercise. The two diet-only groups (n = 13 and n = 12) reduced their DEI by 2092 and 2929 kJ from their DEN, respectively. Body weight, waist-to-hip and subscapula-to-triceps ratios, blood lipids (total, low-density-lipoprotein, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols), glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline and after 12 and 24 wk of diet and diet + exercise. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance with repeated measures (P < or = 0.05) and Tukey's post hoc test. Loss of body weight was significant for all groups between baseline and 12 and 24 wk (baseline: 79.3 +/- 7.6 kg; 12 wk; 75.1 +/- 7.7 kg; 24 wk; 72.8 +/- 8.0 kg) but did not differ among groups. No significant time or treatment effects were observed between baseline and 24 wk for changes in mean blood lipid, glucose, and fasting insulin concentrations or measures of body fat distribution. Although 24 wk of diet or diet+exercise significantly reduced body weight in this group, this loss in body weight was not accompanied by a reduction of other commonly accepted CVD risks.
Article
Thirty-one women (mean age 35.4 +/- 8.5 yr) who were overweight were matched and randomly placed into either a control group (Con; n = 6), a diet-only group (D; n = 8), a diet+aerobic endurance exercise training group (DE; n = 9), or a diet+aerobic endurance exercise training+strength training group (DES; n = 8). After 12 wk, the three dietary groups demonstrated a significant (P </= 0.05) reduction in body mass, %body fat, and fat mass. No differences were observed in the magnitude of loss among groups, in fat-free mass, or in resting metabolic rate. The DE and DES groups increased maximal oxygen consumption, and the DES group demonstrated increases in maximal strength. Weight loss resulted in a similar reduction in total serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among dietary groups. These data indicate that weight loss during moderate caloric restriction is not altered by inclusion of aerobic or aerobic+resistance exercise, but diet in conjunction with training can induce remarkable adaptations in aerobic capacity and muscular strength despite significant reductions in body mass.
Article
To compare weight loss on a balanced hypocaloric diet to that of a Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD) after two months of treatment and to further compare 26 months of weight maintenance and safety with or without VLCD assistance in obese patients. Prospective, randomized, controlled intervention trial, initially with two and later with three parallel groups. Swedish University out-patient obesity clinic. Eighty-one obese patients of both gender with a BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 from the waiting list participated in a structured weight reduction + weight maintenance programme. Twenty-seven patients (group A) were randomized to a balanced diet of 6720 kJ/d (1600 kcal/d) during the whole treatment period. The other patients (n = 54) were randomized to VLCD (Nutrilett) 1764 kJ/d (420 kcal/d) diet during the first two months. The VLCD treated patients were rerandomized after the initial treatment to the well balanced hypocaloric diet (6720 kJ/d) with (group C) or without (group B) 1 MJ of VLCD to be taken during the evening. During the first two-month period, the mean body weight loss in the VLCD group was 18.9 +/- 7.1 kg compared to 7.2 +/- 4.8 kg in the diet treated group, with a similar relative fat loss assessed by bioimpedance of 68% and 76% respectively. The maintained weight loss in all groups after 28 months of treatment was 10.9 +/- 10.2 kg in the 52% who completed the programme. Weight losses and drop-out rates were similar in all three groups. Twenty-four months weight maintenance and drop out rates are independent of whether the initial treatment commences with VLCD or a hypocaloric diet. One MJ nutrition powder taken freely does not affect 24 months weight maintenance on a hypocaloric (6.7 MJ/d) diet.
Article
We have reported that ingesting a meal immediately after exercise increased skeletal muscle accretion and less adipose tissue accumulation in rats employed in a 10 week resistance exercise program. We hypothesized that a possible increase in the resting metabolic rate (RMR) as a result of the larger skeletal muscle mass might be responsible for the less adipose deposition. Therefore, the effect of the timing of a protein supplement after resistance exercise on body composition and the RMR was investigated in 17 slightly overweight men. The subjects participated in a 12-week weight reduction program consisting of mild energy restriction (17% energy intake reduction) and a light resistance exercise using a pair of dumbbells (3-5 kg). The subjects were assigned to two groups. Group S ingested a protein supplement (10 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate, 3.3 g fat and one-third of recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamins and minerals) immediately after exercise. Group C did not ingest the supplement. Daily intake of both energy and protein was equal between the two groups and the protein intake met the RDA. After 12 weeks, the bodyweight, skinfold thickness, girth of waist and hip and percentage bodyfat significantly decreased in the both groups, however, no significant differences were observed between the groups. The fat-free mass significantly decreased in C, whereas its decrease in S was not significant. The RMR and post-meal total energy output significantly increased in S, while these variables did not change in C. In addition, the urinary nitrogen excretion tended to increase in C but not in S. These results suggest that the RMR increase observed in S might be associated with an increase in body protein synthesis.
Article
To evaluate the effects of long-term voluntary resistance exercise (climbing) compared with aerobic exercise (swimming) on iron status in severely (4 mg Fe/kg diet) and mildly (18-29 mg Fe/kg diet) iron-deficient rats, we trained male Wistar rats for 8 wk to climb a wire-mesh tower (phi20 cm x 200 cm, CLIMB) and to swim in a plastic pool (phi50 cm x 50 cm, SWIM). These rats were compared with sedentary (SED) rats. After the experimental period, blood hemoglobin level, plasma iron concentration, and transferrin saturation were significantly lower in the 4 mg Fe/kg diet rats than in the 18, 29, and 40 mg Fe/kg diet rats. In 4 mg Fe/kg diet rats, the hemoglobin level was significantly higher in the CLIMB group than in the SED and SWIM groups. On the other hand, neither exercise affected iron status in mildly iron-deficient rats. Bone marrow delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity was significantly higher in the CLIMB group than in the SWIM and SED groups. These results suggest that long-term resistance exercise is more effective than aerobic exercise in improving blood hemoglobin concentration in severely iron-deficient rats, probably because of an increase in heme biosynthesis. Resistance exercise may be a useful therapy for iron-deficient anemia.