Vocal quality characteristics in children with cleft palate: A multiparameter approach
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Belgium. Journal of Voice
(Impact Factor: 1.24).
10/2004; 18(3):354-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2003.12.006
The main purpose of the present study was to examine the vocal quality and to investigate the effects of gender on vocal quality in 28 children with a unilateral or bilateral cleft palate. In this study, the vocal quality was determined using videolaryngostroboscopic and perceptual evaluations, aerodynamic, voice range, acoustic, and dysphonia severity index (DSI) measurements. The DSI is based on the weighted combination of four voice measurements and ranges from +5 to -5 for, respectively, normal and severely dysphonic voices. Additional objectives were to compare the vocal quality characteristics of children with cleft palate with the available normative data and to investigate the impact of the cleft type on vocal quality. Gender-related vocal quality differences were found. The male cleft palate children showed an overall vocal quality of +0.62 with the presence of a perceptual slight grade of hoarseness and roughness. The female vocal quality had a DSI value of +2.4 reflecting a perceptually normal voice. Irrespective of the type of cleft, all subjects demonstrated a significantly lower DSI-value in comparison with the available normative data. The results of the present study have provided valuable insights into the vocal quality characteristics of cleft palate children.
Available from: Renzo Mora
- "Jitt represents evaluation of the pitch (reciprocal of the fundamental frequency) perturbation and Shim is the relative evaluation of the period-toperiod variability of the peak-to-peak amplitude within the analyzed voice segment. Their values are typically associated with hoarse and breathy voices   . Jitt is a good measure of cycle-tocycle irregularity, which can be associated with the inability of the vocal cords to support a periodic vibration for a defined period and with the presence of turbulence noise in the voice signal: the postoperative normalization of Jitt and Shim highlights the absence of a slight grade of hoarseness and roughness in the postoperative controls, with improvement of the vocal quality (Table 2). "
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in acoustic features of speech after tonsillectomy and to establish concepts of patient management and rational therapeutic approach. Before and 1 month after surgery, phonetically balanced sentences and sustained vowels a, e, i were carried out and digitalized with Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (Kay Elemetrics, Lincoln Park, NJ) in all the patients, as an evaluation of nasal resonance, speech articulation, and voice handicap index (VHI). These parameters were estimated: average of fundamental frequency, Jitter percent, Shimmer, noise-to-harmonics ratio, voice turbulence index, soft phonation index, degree of voiceless, degree of voice breaks, and peak amplitude variation. Our data showed that 1 month after tonsillectomy, improvements in all the acoustic parameters, a subjective decrease of hypernasality, and an improvement of speech articulation and VHI were achieved. These data suggest the reduction of the nasal resonance and highlight the role of tonsillectomy in the improvement of voice and speech quality. Furthermore, tonsillectomy should be performed before consideration of pharyngeal flap surgery. Our results highlight that objective evaluation of speech and voice helps the specialist to improve patient management and avoid unnecessary and dangerous surgical procedures.
Available from: Emeka Nkenke
- "However, procedures for speech assessment continue to vary considerably and the validity of results can still be questioned . Objective means only exist for quantitative measurements of nasal emissions 14—16 and for the detection of secondary voice disorders   . "
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ABSTRACT: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) may cause functional limitations even after adequate surgical and non-surgical treatment, speech disorders being one of them. Interindividually, they vary a lot, showing typical articulation specifics such as nasal emission and shift of articulation and therefore a diminished intelligibility. Until now, an objective means to determine and quantify the intelligibility does not exist.
An automatic speech recognition system, a new method, was applied on recordings of a standard test to evaluate articulation disorders (psycholinguistic analysis of speech disorders of children PLAKSS) of 31 children at the age of 10.1+/-3.8 years. Two had an isolated cleft lip, 20 a unilateral cleft lip and palate, 4 a bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 5 an isolated cleft palate. The speech recognition system was trained with adults and children without speech disorders and adapted to the speech of children with CLP. In this study, the automatic speech evaluation focussed on the word accuracy which represents the percentage of correctly recognized words. Results were confronted to a perceptive evaluation of intelligibility that was performed by a panel of three experts.
The automatic speech recognition yielded word accuracies between 1.2 and 75.8% (mean 48.0+/-19.6%). The word accuracy was lowest for children with isolated cleft palate (36.9+/-23.3) and highest for children with isolated cleft lip (72.8+/-2.9). For children with unilateral cleft lip and palate it was 48.0+/-18.6 and for children with bilateral cleft lip and palate 49.3+/-9.4. The automatic evaluation complied with the experts' subjective evaluation of intelligibility (p<0.01). The multi-rater kappa of the experts alone differed only slightly from the multi-rater kappa of experts and recognizer.
Automatic speech recognition may serve as a good means to objectify and quantify global speech outcome of children with cleft lip and palate.
Available from: Sara Howard
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