Soy isoflavone intake lowers serum LDL cholesterol: A meta-analysis of 8 randomized controls trials in humans

Article · September 2004with21 Reads
Source: PubMed
Abstract
Clinical trials have noted hypocholesterolemic effects of soy protein intake, but the components responsible are not known. This meta-analysis of 8 randomized controlled trials was conducted to more precisely evaluate the effects of isoflavones on blood LDL cholesterol concentration independently of soy protein level. PubMed was searched for English-language "randomized controlled trial" articles published from 1966 to 2003 that described the effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) intake with measured isoflavone levels on blood lipids in humans using the search terms "soy protein," "isoflavones," and "cholesterol." From 31 articles identified by the search, 8 articles (with 10 low vs. high isoflavone comparisons) were selected for the meta-analysis. Subjects in each comparison consumed similar dietary fat, cholesterol, and fiber; the reported body weight of subjects did not change significantly during treatment. Serum LDL cholesterol concentration in subjects who consumed SPI (mean 50 g/d) with high isoflavone content (mean intake 96 mg/d) decreased by 0.15 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.23 mmol/L; P < 0.0001) compared with those who consumed the same SPI level with low isoflavone content (mean intake 6 mg/d). Decreases in serum LDL cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic and normocholesterolemic subjects were 0.18 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.35 mmol/L; P = 0.03) and 0.14 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.06, 0.23 mmol/L; P = 0.0008), respectively. With identical soy protein intake, high isoflavone intake led to significantly greater decreases in serum LDL cholesterol than low isoflavone intake, demonstrating that isoflavones have LDL cholesterol-lowering effects independent of soy protein.
    • Conflicting data have been obtained in two clinical trials where a high isoflavone diet gave the same results, in terms of blood cholesterol, of a low-isoflavone diet[86][87][88][89][90][91][92]. Metanalysis showed that consumption of soy protein with a high isoflavone content results in a stronger hypocholesterolemic activity than the same diet with a low isoflavone content[93]. In another metanalysis[94], which included 23 randomized control trials, it was observed that an isoflavone-rich diet results a great decrease in plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c, triglycerides and a concommittant increase in HDL-c, while tablets based on extracted isoflavones showed no effect on these parameters[95].
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2017
    • In regard to mechanism, some data suggest that cholesterol reduction is a result of the up regulation of hepatic LDL receptors by the peptides formed upon digestion of soy protein (Cho et al., 2007;Manzoni, 2003). Researchers also continue to explore whether isoflavones in soybeans impact the cholesterollowering effects of soy protein (Zhuo et al., 2004). Soybeans are primarily the only nutritionally-relevant source of these diphenolic compounds (Kuiper, 1998).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interest in dietary fibres, nutraceuticals and functional foods continues to grow, powered by progressive research efforts to identify properties and potential applications of dietary substances, and coupled with public interest and consumer demand. The principal reasons for the growth of the functional food market are current population and health trends. Life expectancy continues to rise, as does the contribution made by older individuals to the total population. Also, obesity is now recognized as a global issue as its incidence continues to climb in countries throughout the world. In the U.S., approximately 62% of the adult population is classified as overweight based on body mass index, and more than half of those adults are classified as obese. Now a day's Cardiovascular Disease continues to be a primary cause of death, responsible for 32% of deaths in the U.S., and cancer, osteoporosis, and arthritis remain highly prevalent. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Epidemiologic research into the cardio-active dietary fibres might support the development of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Here, an attempt is being made through this article to provide a novel approach about dietary fibres, nutraceuticals and functional foods that have been used for mitigation and prevention of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and arterial thrombus formation.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2017
    • Much of the focus on soy has been directed toward the hypocholesterolemic properties of bioactive peptides in soy protein, which exert their effects primarily through mechanisms involving the LDL-C receptor (LDLR), and bile acid regulation[9,10]. These findings are supported by several meta-analyses[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]and have culminated in a soy health claim relating 25 g soy protein with a reduced risk of CHD in the United States[22]and Canada[23], but not Europe[24]. However, other constituents in soy have been shown to confer many health benefits, including reduction of CVD risk, and these are worthy of further examination.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypocholesterolemic effect of soy is well-documented and this has led to the regulatory approval of a health claim relating soy protein to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, soybeans contain additional components, such as isoflavones, lecithins, saponins and fiber that may improve cardiovascular health through independent mechanisms. This review summarizes the evidence on the cardiovascular benefits of non-protein soy components in relation to known CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, inflammation, and obesity beyond cholesterol lowering. Overall, the available evidence suggests non-protein soy constituents improve markers of cardiovascular health; however, additional carefully designed studies are required to independently elucidate these effects. Further, work is also needed to clarify the role of isoflavone-metabolizing phenotype and gut microbiota composition on biological effect.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2017
    • Hasil penelitian ini berbeda dengan penelitian intervensi tempe sebelumnya oleh Utari (2011) yang memberikan tempe 160 g/hari dengan kadar protein 26,4 g selama 4 minggu pada 53 wanita menopause dan terbukti dapat menurunkan LDL secara signifikan. Demikian pula dengan beberapa hasil meta-analisis yang menunjukkan bahwa secara signifikan terjadi penurunan LDL (Anderson et al. 1995;Weggemans & Trautwei 2003;Zhuo et al. 2004;Zhan & Ho 2005;Reynolds et al. 2006;Taku et al. 2007). Hasil uji Duncan menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan signifikan antara penurunan LDL pada perlakuan A dan B dengan perlakuan kontrol, meskipun penurunan pada perlakuan A dan B tidak berbeda secara signifikan.
    Article · Mar 2017 · Theoretical and Applied Genetics
    • Hasil penelitian ini berbeda dengan penelitian intervensi tempe sebelumnya oleh Utari (2011) yang memberikan tempe 160 g/hari dengan kadar protein 26,4 g selama 4 minggu pada 53 wanita menopause dan terbukti dapat menurunkan LDL secara signifikan. Demikian pula dengan beberapa hasil meta-analisis yang menunjukkan bahwa secara signifikan terjadi penurunan LDL (Anderson et al. 1995;Weggemans & Trautwei 2003;Zhuo et al. 2004;Zhan & Ho 2005;Reynolds et al. 2006;Taku et al. 2007). Hasil uji Duncan menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan signifikan antara penurunan LDL pada perlakuan A dan B dengan perlakuan kontrol, meskipun penurunan pada perlakuan A dan B tidak berbeda secara signifikan.
    Article · Mar 2017 · Theoretical and Applied Genetics
    • The medicinal value of isoflavone in soybean seeds has long attracted the attention of numerous researchers. The results of pharmacological studies have suggested that isoflavones can prevent a number of chronic diseases and provide health benefits through the reduction and prevention of diseases, including menopausal symptoms with phytoestrogen , breast, prostate and colon cancers, cardiovascular diseases and other physiological diseases, such as neurobehavioral diseases and osteoporosis (Cheng et al. 2007; Lee et al. 2003; Lephart et al. 2002; Ma et al. 2008; Messina and Wood 2008; Sacks et al. 2006; Shu et al. 2009; Toyomura and Kono 2002; Yu and McGonigle 2005; Zhuo et al. 2004). The incidence of cancers in an East Asian population who prefers to eat soy-based diets is much lower than that in European countries.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key message Utilizing an innovative GWAS in CSLRP, 44 QTL 199 alleles with 72.2 % contribution to SIFC variation were detected and organized into a QTL-allele matrix for cross design and gene annotation. Abstract The seed isoflavone content (SIFC) of soybeans is of great importance to health care. The Chinese soybean landrace population (CSLRP) as a genetic reservoir was studied for its whole-genome quantitative trait loci (QTL) system of the SIFC using an innovative restricted two-stage multi-locus genome-wide association study procedure (RTM-GWAS). A sample of 366 landraces was tested under four environments and sequenced using RAD-seq (restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing) technique to obtain 116,769 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) then organized into 29,119 SNP linkage disequilibrium blocks (SNPLDBs) for GWAS. The detected 44 QTL 199 alleles on 16 chromosomes (explaining 72.2 % of the total phenotypic variation) with the allele effects (92 positive and 107 negative) of the CSLRP were organized into a QTL-allele matrix showing the SIFC population genetic structure. Additional differentiation among eco-regions due to the SIFC in addition to that of genome-wide markers was found. All accessions comprised both positive and negative alleles, implying a great potential for recombination within the population. The optimal crosses were predicted from the matrices, showing transgressive potentials in the CSLRP. From the detected QTL system, 55 candidate genes related to 11 biological processes were χ 2-tested as an SIFC candidate gene system. The present study explored the genome-wide SIFC QTL/gene system with the innovative RTM-GWAS and found the potentials of the QTL-allele matrix in optimal cross design and population genetic and genomic studies, which may have provided a solution to match the breeding by design strategy at both QTL and gene levels in breeding programs.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
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