Practical Application of Pharmacotherapy With Long-Acting Risperidone for Patients With Schizophrenia

Department of Psychiatry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
Psychiatric Services (Impact Factor: 2.41). 10/2004; 55(9):997-1005. DOI: 10.1176/
Source: PubMed


It is now generally accepted that the use of second-generation, or atypical, antipsychotics for schizophrenia represents an advance over conventional antipsychotic agents. However, adherence continues to be a problem, as with other medications for chronic disorders. Long-acting formulations of conventional antipsychotics partly address adherence problems, but their use is limited by tolerability issues. This article provides practical advice to physicians on the characteristics of patients who would benefit from treatment with long-acting atypical antipsychotic agents and offers suggestions on how to initiate treatment.
A literature search for studies published between 1980 and 2003 that evaluated the treatment of patients with schizophrenia with long-acting atypical agents was conducted by using MEDLINE and EMBASE. The primary search parameters were "schizophrenia," "atypical," "antipsychotic," and "long-acting." As expected, long-acting risperidone was the only long-acting atypical agent identified; thus this article focuses on practical advice and suggestions on how to initiate therapy with long-acting risperidone.
From the results of the literature search and the discussion of a panel of experts at a meeting held in Dublin in 2003 and supported by Johnson & Johnson, it is possible to conclude that long-acting risperidone has demonstrated efficacy and tolerability, even among patients who are considered clinically stable on other antipsychotics. Most patients can switch safely and effectively to long-acting risperidone if appropriate strategies are applied. Long-acting risperidone provides a new and promising therapeutic option for the treatment of schizophrenia.

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    • "Although adherence is a complex, multifactorial phenomenon related to the type of disease and drugs used, patient attitude to medications seems to be a main factor, with compliance being strongly influenced by patient perception of benefits and costs [Siracusano et al. 1998; Parellada et al. 2005]. It has been demonstrated that in stable patients with schizophrenia, adherence is mainly related to the recognition of the positive effects of the pharmacological therapy on daily life [Keith et al. 2004; Lindenmayer et al. 2005]. In particular, during long-term therapies subjective perception of general wellness and quality of life are clear factors influencing and maintaining adherence to treatment [Gastpar et al. 2005]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: This study evaluated adherence to treatment, quality of life and subjective well-being in patients with psychosis treated with long-acting injectable risperidone. Subjects enrolled were part of a larger study where patients were observed in an adherence to treatment program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata. Materials and methods: A total of 27 nonadherent patients (21 men, six women; mean age: 36.1 years; range: 23-63 years) were enrolled. Maximum observational period was 30 months. Results: A total of 12 patients were under treatment for 30 months (44.44%) but only nine had a valid 30-month follow up, while the remaining three patients initially treated at our unit continued long-acting risperidone at their local centre. Reductions of monthly mean values of Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) [repeated measures analysis of variance (rm-ANOVA): p < 0.0001] and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) (p < 0.0001), increase of monthly mean values of Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN) (p < 0.0001) and Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (S-QoL) (p < 0.01) were observed. Significant differences with respect to SAPS baseline values from the sixth month, SANS baseline values from the seventh month, SWN baseline values from the eighth month, S-QoL baseline values from the eighteenth month were shown in post hoc tests. Reduction of SAPS mean values was associated with increase of SWN (p < 0.0001) and S-QoL (p < 0.0001) mean values as demonstrated by correlation analysis. The same inverse correlation was found between reduction of SANS mean values and increases of SWN (p < 0.0001) and S-QoL (p = 0.0001) mean values. Conclusions: Long-term treatment with long-acting risperidone may be associated with improvement to adherence to therapy and quality of life. Patients may show improvement in psychopathological symptoms, subjective well-being and quality of life.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
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    • "Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental disorder requiring continuous and long-term therapy with antipsychotics [1]. Treatment non-adherence to daily oral antipsychotics and the associated risk of symptom relapse or recurrence are some of the global challenges prevalent among patients with schizophrenia [2,3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: There are no previous reports of paliperidone palmitate's (PP) long term tolerability or pharmacokinetics of the highest dose in patients with schizophrenia. This study evaluates safety and tolerability, as well as pharmacokinetics, of the highest marketed dose of PP (150 mg eq. [234 mg]) in stable patients with schizophrenia over a 1-year period. In this 1-year prospective study, eligible patients (aged 18-65 years; Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale's total score ≤ 70) received an initial deltoid injection of PP 150 mg eq. The second injection one week later and subsequent once-monthly injections were deltoid or gluteal. All injections were to be PP 150 mg eq. Patients willing to participate in intensive pharmacokinetic sampling were classified as Treatment A. Patients unwilling to undergo intensive pharmacokinetic sampling or unable to tolerate the 150 mg eq. dose (consequently receiving flexible doses of 50, 100 or 150 mg eq.) were classified as Treatment B. Of the 212 patients (safety analysis set), 73% were men; 45% white; 20% black; 34% Asians; mean (SD) age 41 (10.2) years, and mean (SD) baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score 54.9 (9.03). A total of 53% (n = 113) patients completed the study and 104 received PP 150 mg eq. throughout. Mean (SD) mode dose of PP was 144.8 (19.58) mg eq. The dosing initiation regimen resulted in rapidly achieved and maintained therapeutic paliperidone levels over the study (average concentrations during the dosing interval were 34.7, 40.0, and 47.8 ng/mL after the 2nd, 8th, and 14th injection respectively). Most frequent (≥ 10%) treatment-emergent adverse events were nasopharyngitis (n = 37), insomnia (n = 32), injection-site pain (n = 32), headache (n = 28), and tachycardia (n = 27). Akathisia (n = 19) and tremor (n = 11) were the most common extrapyramidal adverse events. 33 patients had an SAE and 27 discontinued due to treatment-emergent adverse events. No deaths were reported. Mean (SD) weight change from baseline was 2.5 (5.41) kg at endpoint. Patients' psychoses remained stable. Safety results after one-year therapy with the highest available dose of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate were consistent with results from previous studies, with no new concerns noted. Plasma concentrations were within the expected range. TRIAL REGISTRATION NO: NCT01150448.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · BMC Psychiatry
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    • "Cette constatation est riche de sens : non seulement les APAP ne sont pas toujours dans le monde réel les formes les plus adaptées au traitement au long cours des sujets non compliants, mais cette indication, paradoxale car elle assimile les APAP à une forme édulcorée de NAP, ne contribue pas à leur assurer une bonne image auprès des sujets qui le sont. Changer l'image des APAP présuppose que leurs indications ne soient plus concurrentielles des produits retard classiques [10] [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the questions asked to practitioners regarding compliance to new long-acting atypical antipsychotics (LAAA): how does the comprehensive approach of patients' and carers' attitudes facing treatment challenge it? A review of recent literature shows that LAAA, are still suffering from an "image problem". We aim to describe these negative beliefs and suggest that LAAA indications be reconsidered. Following a comprehensive approach, we interpreted our review on the basis of anthropological criteria. We focused on value-based health and disease models that organize the attitude of patients and carers regarding the depot injection. Multiple negative beliefs attached to the pain, side-effects, and stigmas are well-known to impair adhesion to treatment. Carers understand disease as a lack of insight. Patients experience it as a threat for the Self and a loss of autonomy. The nurse-patient relationship involving injections is an important factor of compliance. When time is devoted by the carer to paying attention to the patient's experience, in order to perceive the patient as a participant, patients are more likely to adopt the injectable route themselves. By doing so, the patient considers the injection as a "protective net" a "lesser evil" by integrating it within his(her) biography. A comprehensive approach links the lack of insight to the patient's perception of stigma. Hope for recovery is related by the person him(her)self to his(her) own ability for autonomy. Persons with schizophrenia usually struggle for norms (agonomia). This trend has to be taken into account. LAAA are better indicated when patients are compliant. There is no indication when patients are "pure agonomics" and fight to deny both stigma and medication.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · L Encéphale
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