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Effect of short-term practice of breathing exercises on autonomic functions in normal human volunteers

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Abstract

Practice of breathing exercises like pranayama is known to improve autonomic function by changing sympathetic or parasympathetic activity. Therefore, in the present study the effect of breathing exercises on autonomic functions was performed in young volunteers in the age group of 17-19 yr. A total of 60 male undergraduate medical students were randomly divided into two groups: slow breathing group (that practiced slow breathing exercise) and the fast breathing group (that practiced fast breathing exercise). The breathing exercises were practiced for a period of three months. Autonomic function tests were performed before and after the practice of breathing exercises. The increased parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic activity were observed in slow breathing group, whereas no significant change in autonomic functions was observed in the fast breathing group. The findings of the present study show that regular practice of slow breathing exercise for three months improves autonomic functions, while practice of fast breathing exercise for the same duration does not affect the autonomic functions.

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... Subsequently, the contact with the surrounding environment is gradually resumed until the child opens their eyes. [28] Clinical Hypnosis Clinical hypnosis consists of relaxation and mental imagery to learn to break away from the stressful environment. [29] Alternatively, it is an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person to focus on inner experiences. ...
... Side effects, such as nausea, insomnia, nightmares, and emotional and behavioral discomfort are often experienced by children during the pre-surgical period [55] and often after being discharged from the hospital. [56] A study on preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain in 60 children (6-12 years old), (28) showed that the relaxation-guided imagery group had significantly reduced preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain. In particular, the level of preoperative anxiety, during the induction of anesthesia, was significantly lower for the children of the experimental group compared to those of the control group. ...
... Similarly, the level of postoperative pain was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. [28] In addition, the effective use of clinical hypnosis to help adolescents cope deal with common medical conditions that require operative procedures, was the main finding in another study in adolescents. ...
Article
Background: Stress is a natural automatic reaction of organisms to challenging or threatening stimuli. Prevalence rates reveal an increasing number of students both in elementary and secondary education suffering from anxiety and stress-related disorders and illnesses. Literature shows a plethora of stress management techniques being used with children and adults to achieve stress reduction and inner peace. This review primarily aims in summarizing evidence-based relaxation techniques in use by minors in the present, contrasting them with data from the past, and directions for the future. Summary: Literature research revealed a plethora of stress management techniques, including breathing practices or breathing exercises, meditation, guided imaginary, clinical hypnosis, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), behavioral therapy, third wave therapies, interpersonal therapies, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), autogenic training, biofeedback training, and mindfulness that are deemed effective to treat stress and a variety of stress-related disorders such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), headaches, abdominal pain, perioperative anxiety and postoperative pain, cancer, and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). These evidence-based stress management techniques have are employed successfully in various settings such as schools, waiting rooms, dental offices and inpatient settings. Key messages: Stress management techniques used by children and adolescents are important to reduce anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms, improve social skills, reduce stress-related physical pain, and achieve academic improvement across settings and diagnoses.
... SBE has role on autonomic balance by increasing parasympathetic activity and decreasing sympathetic activity. [20] This exercise improve CANF by increasing parasympathetic activity or decreasing sympathetic activity in some diseases and also in normal healthy person. [21][22] Although few studies published effect of SBE on HRV in migrane, diabetes mellitus but effect of SBE on HRV in transfusion dependent patient is not known. ...
... This form of yoga is easy to perform than other relaxation technique of yoga. [20] For ensuring the adequate performance of the procedure the principal investigator organized a training session for the participants. The procedure was demonstrated by an expert and participants in a small group practiced the steps of alternate nostril breathing till the trainer was satisfied with their performance. ...
... SBE also improves sympathovagal balance by enhancing central inhibitory rhythm. [20,[24][25] CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that slow breathing exercise may improve impaired autonomic function in TDT patients by increasing parasympathetic while decreasing sympathetic activity with the autonomic balance more parasympathetic dominance in the TDT patients. So, SBE is an effective measure to minimize the risk of cardiovascular disease in TDT patients. ...
... Moreover, a good control of breathing [2,[4][5][6] has been demonstrated as a key factor of controlling blood pressure, enhancing baroreflex sensitivity, and relieving anxiety. Some prior work [7,8] showed that slow breathing exercises over three consecutive months can improve autonomic functions. For example, slow abdominal breathing combined with biofeedback can be an effective intervention for prehypertension [9]. ...
... Many previous studies [18][19][20][21] have shown that the control of breathing during the practice of meditation improves health of people without any side effects [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]22,23]. For example, in a prior study [7], a total of 60 subjects were randomly divided into two groups: a slow breathing group (that practiced slow breathing exercise) and fast breathing group. ...
... Many previous studies [18][19][20][21] have shown that the control of breathing during the practice of meditation improves health of people without any side effects [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]22,23]. For example, in a prior study [7], a total of 60 subjects were randomly divided into two groups: a slow breathing group (that practiced slow breathing exercise) and fast breathing group. After practicing for a period of three months, the increased parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic activity were observed in slow breathing group. ...
Article
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Many studies have shown that slow breathing training is beneficial for human health. However, several factors might discourage beginners from continuing their training. For example, a long training period is generally required for benefit realization, and there is no real-time feedback to trainees to adjust their breathing control strategy. To raise the user’s interest in breathing exercise training, a virtual reality system with multimodal biofeedback is proposed in this work. In our system, a realistic human model of the trainee is provided in virtual reality (VR). At the same time, abdominal movements are sensed, and the breathing rate can be visualized. Being aware of the breathing rate, the trainee can regulate his or her breathing to achieve a slower breathing rate. An additional source of tactile feedback is combined with visual feedback to provide a more immersive experience for the trainees. Finally, the user’s satisfaction with the proposed system is reported through questionnaires. Most of the users find it enjoyable to use such a system for mediation training.
... Individual need to close alternate nose, and holds breathing for a brief period between inhalation and exhalation. [34] Different studies observed that beneficial effects of breathing exercise are diseased as well as normal healthy subjects. [9,10,[35][36][37][38][39][40] Eighteen percent improvement of O 2 consumption was observed after a 1-month ANB exercise. ...
... Previous investigators also reported similar findings. [2,4,10,30,34,40,[45][46][47][48][49][50] Findings of this study were identical with the conclusions from Biswas et al. in 2014, Pal et al. in 2014, and other investigators. [2,4,10,30,34,40,[45][46][47][48][49][50] They supposed that breathing exercise might activate the vasomotor center which ultimately increase parasympathetic activity and decrease the sympathetic activity. ...
... [2,4,10,30,34,40,[45][46][47][48][49][50] Findings of this study were identical with the conclusions from Biswas et al. in 2014, Pal et al. in 2014, and other investigators. [2,4,10,30,34,40,[45][46][47][48][49][50] They supposed that breathing exercise might activate the vasomotor center which ultimately increase parasympathetic activity and decrease the sympathetic activity. [2,4] This might cause a decrease in pulse rate and BP. ...
Article
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Introduction: Alternate nostril breathing (ANB) is an effective breathing exercise with therapeutic benefits on cardiorespiratory functions for healthy and diseased individuals. This study was conducted to assess the effects of ANB exercise on cardiorespiratory tasks in healthy adults. Materials and methods: This randomized experimental study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram, from July 2017 to June 2018. A total of 100 1st-year students, aged between 18 and 20 years, were included by a random sampling method. Fifty participants (25 males and 25 females) were enrolled in the experimental group, while age- and body mass index-matched another 50 participants (25 males and 25 females) served as the control group. Experimental group participants performed ANB exercise for 4 weeks. Cardiorespiratory parameters (pulse rate, blood pressure, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1st s [FEV1], and peak expiratory flow rate [PEFR] were measured. Data were taken at the start and after 4 weeks in both groups. Results: Independent t-test showed no significant differences in the cardiorespiratory functions between the experimental and control groups among the male and female participants, except for the females' PEFR which showed small differences. On the other hand, repeated measure ANOVA shows significant improvement in the experimental groups among males (P < 0.001-0.028) and females (P < 0.001-0.001) in all the cardiorespiratory functions measured, except for the FEV1 and PEFR among males. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that cardiorespiratory functions were improved after breathing exercise, and therefore, ANB can be recommended for increasing cardiorespiratory efficiency.
... It has been reported that regular practice of breathing exercises are known to alter autonomic function and that Right Nostril Breathing (RNB) technique stimulates sympathetic activity by activating left cerebral hemisphere and Left Nostril Breathing (LNB) stimulates parasympathetic activity by activating right cerebral hemisphere. 2 A balancing effect on the left and right cerebral hemisphere was exhibited by Alternate nostril breathing. 3 These evidences confirm that nasal airflow influences the brain activity depending on nostril dominance. ...
... Studies have proved that fast breathing exercises practiced for the same amount of time as slow breathing exercises had not altered the autonomic functions. 2,13 Reaction time also changed significantly with changes in duration of voluntary breathing. 14 In this study, even after 30 minutes of practice of specific nostril breathing exercises, significant changes were observed. ...
Article
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Introduction: Specific nostril breathing techniques are known to influence the autonomic function. Various studies have recorded that Right nostril breathing (RNB) exercises stimulate sympathetic activity and left nostril breathing (LNB) exercises stimulate parasympathetic activity. Materials and Methods: 40 MBBS students in the age group of 18-20 years were randomly selected. Group A (n=20) consisted of male and Group B (n=20) consisted of female volunteers. Subjects were taught breathing exercises on the first day and after 30 minutes of RNB, VRT & ART and again after 30 minutes of LNB, VRT & ART were recorded. Results: A significant reduction in ART& VRT and a significant increase in ART& VRT were seen after RNB & LNB exercises .No significant gender difference was observed on reaction time. Conclusion: RNB stimulates sympathetic activity and LNB stimulates parasympathetic activity. ART is faster than VRT and no difference in reaction times between males and females were found after immediate breathing exercises.
... The voluntary control of breathing has been reported to exert a positive effect on autonomic nervous system functions, including variable heart rate, expiratory flow rate, and vagal tone [89][90][91]. Three months of slow breathing exercises have been shown to cause a decline in heart rate as well as an elevated sensitivity to cardiac response to standing in healthy individuals [92]. This study thus highlights the importance of breathing control as well as the method used for controlling one's breathing. ...
... In a study by Brown and Gerbarg, breathing exercises were suggested to be beneficial for patients with PSD [80]. Breathing exercises restore the normal state of the autonomic system by regulating the movement of the respiratory system [92,101]. Moreover, enhanced parasympathetic nerve activity may lead to improvements in psychological as well as cognitive functions [101,102]. ...
Article
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Patients with stroke may experience a certain degree of cognitive decline during the period of recovery, and a considerable number of such patients have been reported to show permanent cognitive damage. Therefore, the period of recovery and rehabilitation following stroke is critical for rapid cognitive functional improvements. As dysfunctional breathing has been reported as one of the factors affecting the quality of life post stroke, a number of studies have focused on the need for improving the breathing function in these patients. Numerous breathing exercises have been reported to enhance the respiratory, pulmonary, cognitive, and psychological functions. However, scientific evidence on the underlying mechanisms by which these exercises improve cognitive function is scattered at best. Therefore, it has been difficult to establish a protocol of breathing exercises for patients with stroke. In this review, we summarize the psychological, vascular, sleep-related, and biochemical factors influencing cognition in patients and highlight the need for breathing exercises based on existing studies. Breathing exercises are expected to contribute to improvements in cognitive function in stroke based on a diverse array of supporting evidence. With relevant follow-up studies, a protocol of breathing exercises can be developed for improving the cognitive function in patients with stroke.
... 8 Effect of BP on the autonomic functions of parasympathetic and sympathetic activities was reported positive. 9 BP and OM chanting on pulmonary functions are used as the breathing exercises (expiratory) for the patients of asthma. It also improves the antioxidant status of the individual. ...
... Humming sound exercise induces parasympathetic pre-dominance and it seems that this is a relaxation technique of brain that reduces stress. 9,13,14,19 Effect of Bhramari Pranayama on the immunity of body: ...
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Corona virus is a single stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus causes Severe Acute Respiratory syndrome (SARS) category majorly affects lungs in human body. It is communicable through aerosol and touch that may cause death of the patient. The importance of yoga mainly breathing practices like Bhramari Pranayama (BP) and immunity booster practices pulled attention at global level during this COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper the data and information were collected from trusted and authorized websites like Zotero. On the basis PRISMA 2009 the evaluation of papers were made and then the discussion developed. The effect of BP is found effective on the lowering of hypertension, stress, body weight.
... Studies have found that breathing exercise have positive effect on autonomous nervous system [27]. Slow breathing reduces stress by decreasing the hyper-arousal in the body (sympathetic activity) and increase the sense of calm (parasympathetic activity) [28]. It also has positive effects on cardiovascular [27] and respiratory functions [28]. ...
... Slow breathing reduces stress by decreasing the hyper-arousal in the body (sympathetic activity) and increase the sense of calm (parasympathetic activity) [28]. It also has positive effects on cardiovascular [27] and respiratory functions [28]. ...
... We now aimed to investigate the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system with another approach. Slow deep breathing (SDB) exercise was found to increase parasympathetic activity 16,17 , decrease heart rate 18 and alters heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy persons. ...
... In fact, slow deep breathing was previously shown to modulate autonomic tone when 60 healthy young volunteers practiced deep breathing versus fast breathing for three months 16 . However, this could also be a long-term effect that is not directly relied on slow deep breathing. ...
Article
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Parasympathetic nervous system innervates peripheral organs including pancreas, hepatic portal system, and gastrointestinal tract. It thereby contributes to the regulation of whole-body glucose metabolism especially in the postprandial state when it promotes secretion of insulin and enhances its action in major target organs. We now aimed to evaluate the effect of parasympathetic modulation on human glucose metabolism. We used slow deep breathing maneuvers to activate the parasympathetic nervous system and tested for effects on metabolism during an oral glucose tolerance test in a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial in 15 healthy young men. We used projections towards the heart as a readout for parasympathetic activity. When analyzing heart rate variability, there was a significant increase of RMSSD (root mean square of successive differences) when participants performed slow deep breathing compared to the control condition, indicating a modulation of parasympathetic activity. However, no statistically significant effects on peripheral glucose metabolism or energy expenditure after the glucose tolerance test were detected. Of note, we detected a significant association between mean heart rate and serum insulin and C-peptide concentrations. While we did not find major effects of slow deep breathing on glucose metabolism, our correlational results suggest a link between the autonomic nervous system and insulin secretion after oral glucose intake. Future studies need to unravel involved mechanisms and develop potential novel treatment approaches for impaired insulin secretion in diabetes.
... Tai Chi training as a pulmonary rehabilitation program has shown the positive effects on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [34][35][36][37][38][39]. COPD is a disease characterized by restricted airflow due to abnormal airways and/or alveolar, accompanied by chronic symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and sputum production [34]. ...
... The style of mind-body breathing as a component of Tai Chi provides lung function improvement for the COPD population. Lung capacity could be enhanced by this kind of breathing strategy which combines slow and deep breathing to encourage a complete exhalation [37][38][39]. Additionally, the strength of the respiratory muscles could also be increased using mind-body breathing [37]. ...
Article
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The ongoing coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a significant threat to both people’s physical and mental health. Physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, and negative emotions among the general population have been significantly increased because of COVID-19 home confinement. These are major risk factors associated with higher incidences of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, effective exercise management should be proposed as a prevention strategy to improve both physical and mental health while diminishing the effects of COVID-19. Tai Chi as a low-to-moderate aerobic exercise combines physical and mental training and plays a positive impact on human health. Here we aim to outline the effects of Tai Chi on the immune system, inflammatory responses, pulmonary function, and emotional control. The benefits of Tai Chi practice for individuals coping with COVID-19 are stated here which include immune system promotion, inflammation response reduction, rehabilitation in respiratory diseases, and emotional improvement. This statement has been supported by available clinical, physiological, and biological research. As a result, we hope to introduce Tai Chi as an effective exercise intervention for people coping with COVID-19 and as a beneficial exercise for maintaining an active lifestyle during a pandemic.
... Thus, slow pranayamic breathings improve sympathovagal balance. [7] Especially, practice of chandranadi pranayama (left-nostril breathing) and anuloma-viloma pranayama (alternate nostril breathing) is very effective in increasing vagal tone and decreasing sympathetic tone. By improving sympathovagal balance they improve visceral functions, increase insulin secretion and sensitivity, improve thyroid secretion and control metabolism, improve genito-urinary functions and reproductive functions. ...
... A study suggested that arduous activity increases the heart rate which may contribute to a greater increase in attention; which supports this study that, the control group practicing shooting for two hour shows to increase attention level 17 . While breathing exercise is known to increase parasympathetic activity 31 and positive effect on resting heart rate 32 . Similarly, Bhramari pranayama in this study has been reported to produce parasympathetic arousal 33 . ...
Article
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Introduction:Attention is a complex cognitive phenomenon of selecting significant issues and disregarding those which are less significant characterizes achievement in sports, including archery. This study aimed to find out the effect of specific yoga modules with special reference to BhramariPranayama, Trataka, and Jala Neti, on attention among Archers. Material and methods: An experimental-control group design with a random sampling method having inclusion criteria for the participant obtained 50 individuals rangingfrom 18 to 25 years of age from Bhopal; were included in the study. Result:The 25 participants from the experimental group showed a high level of significance (p<0.05) after practicing specific yoga module with Bhramari, trataka, and jala neti for an hour and archery for 2 hours every day, except Sundays for 12 weeks in contrast to the control group were only yoga modules designed for the experimental group were not exposed. Discussion:The study suggests that a specific yoga module with special referenceto Bhramari, tratakaand, jala neti has a positive effect on increasing the shooting score and reducing errors in the Eye-Hand Coordination Test. Yoga can be practiced in a daily routine to increase the level of attention substantially.
... However, these immediate changes seem transitory, given blood pressure values appear to return to baseline values after FPB has ceased (Upadhyay-Dhungel et al., 2016). Similarly, no long-term cardiovascular changes have been found in response to FPB (Pal et al., 2004;Sharma et al., 2013). Based on findings from short-term interventions, FPB can be expected to have an activating effect on the body that would benefit sport performance in circumstances that require a higher level of activation. ...
Article
Breathing techniques are predicted to affect specific physical and psychological states, such as relaxation or activation, that might benefit physical sport performance (PSP). Techniques include slow-paced breathing (SPB), fast-paced breathing (FBP), voluntary hyperventilation (VH), breath-holding (BH), and alternate- and uni-nostril breathing. A systematic literature search of six electronic databases was conducted in April 2022. Participants included were athletes and exercisers. In total, 37 studies were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, and 36 were included in the five meta-analyses. Random effects meta-analyses for each breathing technique were computed separately for short-term and longer-term interventions. Results showed that SPB and BH were related to improved PSP, with large and small effect sizes for longer-term interventions, respectively. In short-term interventions, SPB, BH, and VH were unrelated to PSP. There was some evidence of publication bias for SPB and BH longer-term interventions, and 41% of the studies were coded as having a high risk of bias. Due to an insufficient number of studies, meta-analyses were not computed for other breathing techniques. Based on the heterogeneity observed in the findings, further research is required to investigate potential moderators and develop standardised breathing technique protocols that might help optimise PSP outcomes.
... Few other studies suggested that yogic practices lead to an increase in vagal tone, which causes decreased sympathetic discharge as well as decreased catecholamine levels that may cause less sleep disturbances after yoga breathing exercises. [19] ...
Article
Background: Various recent studies have reported that exclusive right nostril breathing (RNB) and left nostril breathing (LNB) has an immediate and sustained effect under various medical conditions. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of short-term left nostril breathing on various sleep parameters in medical students. Methods: We hypothesized that the increase in vagal tone because of LNB can help in improving the quality of sleep. The baseline sleep quality was documented before the start of study in the case and the control group using the 'Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index' (PSQI) questionnaire. A PSQI global score of more than 5 indicates poor sleep quality. The case group practiced LNB in a graduated manner for a period of 4 weeks. Thereafter, sleep quality was documented for both the groups using the PSQI questionnaire. Results: Practicing LNB significantly lowered all the seven component scores (p < 0.05) and the global PSQI score in the case group (p-value < 0.0001), suggesting that this practice effectively improved the sleep quality in the individuals of this group. Conclusions: Overall, this study suggested that exclusive LNB practice could serve as an important lifestyle modification that can be incorporated in the routine of medical students for improving their sleep quality.
... Despite their foundational nature in yoga philosophy, ethical practices and daily introspection, disciplined practice, or living with purity were least commonly associated with yoga in daily practice. The practice of concentration and meditation were only moderately endorsed as essential practices 12 . Yoga exposure will make doctors become stronger yoga practitioners, but it will also influence them to recommend their patients to yoga as a therapeutic modality in the future. ...
Article
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Simplified Kundalini Yoga (SKY) is a physical, mental and spiritual discipline for developing strength, awareness, character, and consciousness. Simplified physical exercises, simplified Kundalini meditation, Kayakalpa practice, and introspection are its components. Health professionals consider yoga for skeletal symptoms, followed by psychological and physical ailments. Stress is a common issue for college students during their undergraduate studies. Short-term yoga has been proven to help pupils feel less stressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate college students' knowledge, attitudes and practice of (KAP) Simplified Kundalini Yoga. A secondary objective was to compare KAP among medical, paramedical and non-medical students in Tamilnadu, India. A cross-sectional web-based online survey among the medical, paramedical and non-medical students were conducted. A semi-structured questionnaire using a non-probability volunteers sampling technique was used in this study. There were 323 responses in total: 101 medical students (40 males and 61 females), 100 paramedical students (19 males and 81 females), and 122 non-medical students (1 male and 121 females). All participants were given a pre-tested questionnaire about their awareness, attitudes, and practices related to SKY. The data collected were entered in MS Excel and presented in tables and graphs. Significant results were subjected to tests of significance like the Chisquare test at a 5% level of significance. In general, only 6.5% of them have adequate knowledge scores, 26 % of them have a good level of attitude score, and 8.7% of them have a good level of practice score. More than 80-90% of students lack knowledge, attitude and practice of SKY. Reasons for not taking up yoga were mainly lack of interest, laziness and poor time management. The study concluded that students have a positive outlook towards simplified Kundalini yoga but need motivation.
... Prior studies that have found an acute reduction in blood pressure with slow breathing have hypothesized that slow breathing reduces blood pressure through decreases in sympathetic activity and/or increases in vagal tone [22][23][24] . In our results, spectral analyses did not indicate significant changes or correlation with blood pressure reduction. ...
Preprint
Slow breathing exercises are a key component to many mind-body practices used for stress reduction and modulation of autonomic tone, and it has been shown to reduce blood pressure acutely. Long-term effects on blood pressure and autonomic tone are not well documented. We studied 95 healthy participants (41±4 years, 76% female) who performed slow breathing exercises for 12 weeks and examined the effect of slow breathing on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and autonomic tone. At baseline average BP was 105±11/67±8 mmHg. Among the 11 participants with elevated blood pressure, BP was 126±11.0/ 80±5 mmHg. Our comparison group, that received no intervention, consisted of 30 participants with baseline mean BP 125±19/ 71±10 mmHg. SBP and DBP decreased significantly (-2.4±7.3 and -1.6±5.5 mmHg, respectively) at 12 weeks for all participants who practiced slow breathing. The comparison group showed no significant changes in blood pressure. Blood pressure reduced further among slow breathing participants with baseline SBP over 120mmHg and/or DBP over 90mmHg ( -10.3±7.9 and -3.8±5.5 mmHg, respectively). In our regression model, baseline SBP was associated with further decreases in SBP from baseline to 12 weeks. No significant changes were observed in spectral analyses from baseline to 12 weeks or correlations between spectral analyses in blood pressure. In conclusion, 12-weeks of slow breathing exercises resulted in a significant reduction of blood pressure in the absence of significant changes in autonomic tone as measured by spectral analyses. Further research into the mechanisms and effectiveness of slow breathing on cardiovascular health is needed.
... • Improve the functions of the Autonomic Nervous System by regulating the functions of sympathetic or parasympathetic activity. Breathing exercises can stimulate either the parasympathetic nervous system which is responsible for stress reduction and deep relaxation (Pal & Velkumary, 2004), or the sympathetic nervous system (Pal et al., 2014). ...
Article
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The purpose of the current review study is to shed light on the relationship between breathing and learning disabilities, to investigate the efficacy of breathwork as an intervention strategy, and finally, to identify the role of assistive technologies in breathing training interventions. The results of this study revealed a close relationship between breathing problems and learning, mental or/and behavioral disorders. In addition, it was found that breath-control training can help people with various disorders to improve cognitive and metacognitive abilities, to better manage emotional and behavioral problems, and achieve better learning outcomes. Technologies such as robots, virtual reality, mobile apps, and digital games were found to assist breathing training in various ways fostering therapeutic outcomes. We conclude that breathing training should constitute not just an alternative method of intervention but an essential practice for prevention and intervention in daily life, in school settings, at home, and workplace. It is essential to train appropriate breathing habits as early as possible in young children because many of the damaging effects on cognitive functions by disordered breathing can have lasting consequences.� v
... Napas dalam dan lambat dapat menstimulasi respons saraf otonom, yaitu dengan menurunkan respons saraf simpatis dan meningkatkan respons parasimpatis. Stimulasi saraf simpatis meningkatkan aktivitas tubuh, sedangkan respons parasimpatis lebih banyak menurunkan aktivitas tubuh sehingga dapat menurunkan aktivitas metabolik (Velkumary, 2004). Program Study of Nursing Universitas Bengkulu http ://ejournal.unib.ac.id/index.php/JurnalVokasiKeperawatan ...
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Background: Minor head injury is a nervous system disorder caused by a violent blow or jolt to the head or body. As a consequence of this accident an individual will be losing his awareness signed by headache and pain. One way to overcome it is by giving nursing actions like slow deep breathing therapy.Purpose: getting the effect of slow deep breathing therapy to decrease the pain of minor head injury patient.Metode: this study was a quasi-experimental design with Pretest–posttest design with control group approach. A group of 40 respondents were recruited applying by consecutive sampling technique. The study was conducted between the period of June 25 to July 25 of 2007. The study instrument used a pain scale named NRS (numerical rating scale).Result: Based on the data presented that adult age group of intervention group was 60%, while in control group was 55%. Most of gender category was male, 70% of intervention and 75% of control group respectively. The result of paired samples t-test exam 1 received value sig.(2-tailed) = 0,000, it means that there was different of mean average of pre-test post-test group. Meanwhile, paired samples t-test exam 2 resulted value sig.(2-tailed) = 0,021 (sig>0,05), it means that there was different of mean average of pre-test post-test group.Conclusion: There was effect of slow deep breathing to decrease the pain of minor head injury patient.
... Assim, a redução de frequência respiratória induz alterações na atividade cardiovascular, que correspondem a um aumento da atividade restauradora do sistema parassimpático, 21 avaliada através da diminuição da frequência cardíaca basal em praticantes de meditação. 22 Por outro lado, a tomada de consciência da respiração também tem sido associada com aumento da sensibilidade ao reflexo barorreceptor. 23,24 A diminuição da pressão arterial é frequentemente relatada após a prática de meditação. ...
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Introduction: Recently, neuropsychiatry has focused almost exclusively on the correction of pathophysiological changes, inevitably neglecting certain psychosomatic factors of chronic diseases in the community. It is thus necessary to develop and apply mental health that uses a more comprehensive approach in the treatment of disabling diseases and in primary health care. Aim: This study aims to review the effect of self-awareness and awareness of morbidity, as described subjectively by patients during psychotherapeutic interventions or by healthy adults in meditative practices. Materials and Methods: To assess the effect described, a conceptual analysis is proposed as a method. Reviewing the current literature on the «state of the art” of brain dynamics and the psychoneuroimmunological axis, the correlation between the patient’s subjective experience and affective and cognitive neuroscience was tested. As a research hypothesis, it was intended to highlight the scientific paradigms used to study the effect described above. Results: The current limitation on the integration of psychotherapeutic approaches in understanding well-being and mental health prevention is presented, as well as the need for its implementation in general and family medicine and in the community psychiatry. Self-awareness and awareness of morbidity promotes physical and mental well-being and contributes to the development of non-pathological emotional traits. Classical psychotherapy, as well as meditation, allows the individual to access his internal representations, providing the mental space necessary to work on affections and cognitions. The clinical access to these internal representations is important not only in the treatment of disabling diseases, but also indispensable in primary health care. Conclusion: The physician, by promoting the physical and mental health of the individual, his family and the community, has a predominant role in the adhesion to the assumptions of good clinical practices. The research hypothesis defended by this conceptual analysis presents ground for the debate of a community medicine more focused on inducing policies for mental wellbeing, for self-awareness and for morbidity awareness. These mental health policies in the community are currently considered to be objectives of the general and family medicine health program, namely the person-centered approach, which aims at training and empowering the patient or healthy individual as the prime agent responsible for his own health.
... Pramanik, T. (2009) concluded that slow pace bhastrika pranayama with a respiratory rate 6/min shows improvement in the autonomic nervous system through enhanced activation of the parasympathetic system. Pal et al., (2004), Zaccaro, et.al. (2018) & Jerath et a., (2006 reported that slow breathing improve autonomic functions. ...
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Yogic Science is a word made of yoga and science where yoga means to ‘unite’ and ‘Science’ means systematic and logical way to prove any things. Yogic Science is a systematic and logical discipline to unite with the universe using Asana, Pranayama, Mantra and behavioural modification. Asanas are performed to correct the posture, pranayama to regulate breath, concentration to control the unstable mind and mantras to connect with the inner soul. When all the above are performed as a single unit, the biological body is connected with cosmic energy ‘Paramattma'. Fig.1 show that ‘Yoga’ in totality is a means to connect oneself with the cosmic energy by activating the potential energy (Kundalini) which is present at different point of body (Chakra). Passive Chakras are awakened by practicing Yama, Niyam, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharna, Dhyan as mentioned by the practitioner of Hath Yoga. https://www.jnu.ac.in/sites/default/files/Yogaday/YogaMagazine2021_EkatmaJNU.pdf
... Studies have shown that controlled slow, deep (sometimes referred to as diaphragmatic) breathing techniques increase parasympathetic dominance of the nervous system associated with "rest-and-digest" [55,56]. They have also shown improved cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory function and respiratory efficiency as a result of deep breathing exercises [57][58][59][60]. Daily mindful breathing has been shown to significantly reduce test anxiety in students [61]. ...
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Anxiety disorders affect approximately one third of people during their lifetimes and are the ninth leading cause of global disability. Current treatments focus on therapy and pharmacological interventions. However, therapy is costly and pharmacological interventions often have undesirable side-effects. Healthy people also regularly suffer periods of anxiety. Therefore, a non-pharmacological, intuitive, home intervention would be complementary to other treatments and beneficial for non-clinical groups. Existing at-home anxiety aids, such as guided meditations, typically employ visual and/or audio stimuli to guide the user into a calmer state. However, the tactile sense has the potential to be a more natural modality to target in an anxiety-calming device. The tactile domain is relatively under-explored, but we suggest that there are manifold physiological and affective qualities of touch that lend it to the task. In this study we demonstrate that haptic technology can offer an enjoyable, effective and widely accessible alternative for easing state anxiety. We describe a novel huggable haptic interface that pneumatically simulates slow breathing. We discuss the development of this interface through a focus group evaluating five prototypes with embedded behaviours (‘breathing’, ‘purring’, ‘heartbeat’ and ‘illumination’). Ratings indicated that the ‘breathing’ prototype was most pleasant to interact with and participants described this prototype as ‘calming’ and ‘soothing’, reminding them of a person breathing. This prototype was developed into an ergonomic huggable cushion containing a pneumatic chamber powered by an external pump allowing the cushion to ‘breathe’. A mixed-design experiment (n = 129) inducing anxiety through a group mathematics test found that the device was effective at reducing pre-test anxiety compared to a control (no intervention) condition and that this reduction in anxiety was indistinguishable from that of a guided meditation. Our findings highlight the efficacy of this interface, demonstrating that haptic technologies can be effective at easing anxiety. We suggest that the field should be explored in more depth to capture the nuances of different modalities in relation to specific situations and trait characteristics.
... 20-min yoga module has been developed to primarily reduce mental exertion in the healthcare worker(s). The beneficial effects of pranayama and dhyana on mental health have already been well documented in multiple clinical trials [21][22][23]. Practice of pranayama enhances the parasympathetic tone of the body, which helps release mental stress [7], which is the primary cause of burnout. Thus, the practice of pranayama may be beneficial for reducing symptoms of burnout among the healthcare worker(s). ...
Article
Background A high prevalence of burnout has been reported among healthcare worker(s). During the current pandemic, such burnout has increased due to excessive load of patient care, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) kits, working in long shifts, staying away from family due to isolation norms, and disrupted social life. Existing yoga techniques used for reducing burnout include 45 min to hour-long sessions, which may not be feasible for regular practice by the healthcare worker(s). Objective The proposed study aimed to develop a 20-min yoga module to reduce burnout among healthcare worker (s). Methods To develop a 20-min yoga module, we reviewed yoga texts and relevant scientific research articles. Components of the 20-min yoga module include sukshma vyayama (loosening exercises), pranayama (regulated breathing), and dhyana (meditation). Nineteen yoga experts validated the 20-min yoga module with an average (SD) of 11.47 (6.77) years of research and clinical experience in yoga. Content validity ratio (CVR) was calculated according to Lawshe's method. Items having a CVR of 0.47 and above were retained in the module. Results and conclusion The content validity index (CVI) of the entire module was 0.83. CVR results of the elements of the 20-min yoga module indicated that experts consider these practices to be essential for reducing burnout among the healthcare worker(s). The strength of the 20-min yoga module lies in its short duration and easy-to-learn practices. 20-min yoga module can be implemented in practice by the healthcare worker(s) for reducing burnout following efficacy studies through further clinical trials.
... The Valsalva ration also improved in our study participants due to LUFNB. An earlier study showed no change in Valsalva ration among medical students due to slow breathing practice for three months (Pal et al. 2004). The heart rate changes due to active standing, as measured by 30:15 ratio, also improved in the present study. ...
Article
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Unilateral forced nostril breathing can influence the autonomic nervous system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of left unilateral forced nostril breathing practice of 2 minutes for one week on the cardio-vagal activity. The cardiovagal activity was studies before and after the breathing practices among 50 men in the age group between 18 and 30 years. The battery of autonomic test performed was resting heart rate, E:I ratio, Valsalva ratio and 30:15 ratio for standing. Paired “t” test and Wilcoxon signed ranked test was performed for parametric and non-parametric data respectively. All the autonomic tests reflected increased vagal activity which were statically significant (p<0.001). Our study supports the hypothesis that by manipulating the nasal cycle the autonomic activity can be altered. Further research in unilateral forced nostril breathing can help patients with dysautonomia.
... Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects, both medical and psychological, of various breathing techniques (Maclarnon & Hewitt, 2004). For example, slow controlled breathing exercises may produce relaxation by enhancing autonomic nervous system function by increased activation of the parasympathetic nervous system (Pal, Velkumary, & Madanmohan, 2004). The therapeutic effects of breathing, however, go beyond the technical, because to be really effective they must enable us to develop a sense of deep subjectivity with as little ego involvement as possible. ...
Book
This book constitutes writings by South African and Australian authors on the theme of breath based mental health promotion. As editors we wish to acknowledge the valuable support from all colleagues who contributed to this work, as well as the institutions of the University of Zululand and the National Research Foundation in South Africa, and Edith Cowan University and Sophia College in Australia.
... Slow deep breathing is often used as a stress reduction technique in previous studies (Gilbert, 2003;Busch et al., 2012). The existing researches indicate that slow breathing enhances activation of the parasympathetic nervous system (Pal et al., 2004), which has far more effects on HR than on the vascular states. As a result, it leads to a decrease in average HR (Jerath et al., 2006) and an increase in HRV (Jan et al., 2019), which are also evident in our results. ...
Article
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Noninvasive assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is of great importance, but the accuracy of the method used, which is primarily based on electrocardiogram-derived heart rate variability (HRV), has long been suspected. We investigated the feasibility of photoplethysmography (PPG) in ANS evaluation. Data of 32 healthy young men under four different ANS activation patterns were recorded: baseline, slow deep breathing (parasympathetic activation), cold pressor test (peripheral sympathetic activation), and mental arithmetic test (cardiac sympathetic activation). We extracted 110 PPG-based features to construct classification models for the four ANS activation patterns. Using interpretable models based on random forest, the main PPG features related to ANS activation were obtained. Results showed that pulse rate variability (PRV) exhibited similar changes to HRV across the different experiments. The four ANS patterns could be better classified using more PPG-based features compared with using HRV or PRV features, for which the classification accuracies were 0.80, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively. Sensitive features of parasympathetic activation included features of nonlinear (sample entropy), frequency, and time domains of PRV. Sensitive features of sympathetic activation were features of the amplitude and frequency domain of PRV of the PPG derivatives. Subsequently, these sensitive PPG-based features were used to fit the improved HRV parameters. The fitting results were acceptable (p < 0.01), which might provide a better method of evaluating ANS activity using PPG.
... The hyperventilation during kapalabhati is rather mild because of the pauses between phases of fast breathing. Therefore, it is not surprising that studies comparing groups practicing slow versus fast breathing techniques found significant physiological effects in the slow breathing group, such as increased parasympathetic activity, decreased sympathetic activity, and changes in cardiovascular variables, but not in the fast breathing group [15,16]. However, on a subjective level, both groups reported reduced perceived stress after the intervention [16]. ...
Article
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Yogic breathing techniques are fundamental to the physical and mental practice of yoga. They are closely connected to meditation, which involves the observation of breath. There are many yogic techniques based on the active regulation of the breath. Breathing practices influence many processes in the body, e.g. heart rate variability, and the mind, e.g. relaxation and stress, through their impact on the autonomic nervous system. This study intended to investigate differential effects of four yogic breathing techniques: (1) ujjayi —relaxation through slowing down the breath, (2) paced breathing—enhancement of concentration by following a precise protocol of slowdown breathing, (3) kapalabhati —raising wakefulness by mild hyperventilation, and (4) alternate nostril breathing—balancing the autonomic nervous system by alternating breath between the two nostrils. This study was conducted on 36 participants, who learned each technique within two weeks of an eight-week program and practiced them daily. After each technique, mindfulness, perceived stress, and physical well-being were assessed based on questionnaires. Ujjayi breathing, showed a relaxing effect, reduced stress, increased peacefulness, and the feeling of being at ease/leisure. Paced breathing resulted in a greater awareness of inner experiences. Kapalabhati showed a significant increase in vitality and joy of life, and alternate nostril breathing showed no hypothesis-compliant changes. The findings of this study suggest several beneficial and differential effects of these breathing techniques; therefore, they could be employed as tools for self-regulation in therapeutic contexts.
... [17,18] on the other side with slow breathing resulting in a lower heart rate and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. [19], while fast breathing leads to a less robust, but consistent increase in heart rate [20,21]. In fact, a prior study found that practising Bhastrika pranayama with a low respiratory rate (RR) reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure while also lowering heart rate slightly. ...
Article
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Background and Study Aim. The present study investigated the effects of 6-weeks bhastrika pranayama intervention (BPI) program on health-related components of physical fitness. Material and Methods. We used a quasi-experimental design with fifty-two healthy girls (Mean ± SD; age, 23.6346±1.1551 yrs; body height, 158.0961±3.8616 cm; body weight, 55.6826±3.4002 kg) from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. The subjects were divided into two groups: Group-A: Bhastrika Pranayama Intervention (BPI); (n1=26) and Group-B: Control; (n2=26). The sample size (N=52) was calculated using the G*Power 3.1.9.7 software. A power of 0.80 (1-β err prob) and significance level (α) of 0.05. Subjects from both groups (pranayama and control) were assessed at baseline and right after 6-weeks. Group-A: (n1=26) subjected to BPI and Group-B: (n2=26) with no training. Results. As compared BPI with the control group, the BPI group had a positive effect on selected health-related components of physical fitness (maximal oxygen consumption - VO2 max 1.3%; flexibility 1.8%; muscle strength 0.2.%). The 6-weeks Bhastrika Pranayama intervention program had no effect on the BPI group with respect to the parameter muscular endurance. Conclusions. Daily practice of Bhastrika pranayama helps to keep lungs more efficient. Additional research is required to completely comprehend the consequences of this breathing exercise. Bhastrika pranayama is known for oxygen-based breathing exercise which helps to fill up the lungs with more oxygen. Bhastrika pranayama interventions with short as well as long duration in future research studies could be beneficial for healthy individuals with respect to health-related fitness components.
... The steps of SBE (alternate nostril breathing) 12 were thoroughly demonstrated to the study group by organizing a training session by researcher. The baseline parameters were recorded before performing the SBE. ...
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Background: Slow breathing exercise (SBE) has some useful effects on cardiovascular system. Objectives: To observe the effects of slow breathing exercise on blood pressure in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: This interventional study was implemented on sixty (60) diagnosed male type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients aged 45-55 years with disease history 5-10 years, selected from Out Patients Department (OPD) of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka. The subjects were divided into two groups, control group (n=30) included type 2 DM patients without SBE and study group included patients performing SBE for 3 months(n=30) and they were enrolled bypurposive sampling method. The study group was advised to practice SBE for 30 minutes 2 times daily for 3 months. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure(MAP),pulse pressure(PP) and rate pressure product (RPP)were recorded at the start of the study and after 3 months in both group of patients.. Independent sample t test and paired sample t-test were used for statistical analysis and p<0.05 was taken as statistical significance. Results: In this study, the value of mean HR, SBP, DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after 3 months of SBE. Again no significant changes observed (p>0.05) after 3 months in the group who did not practice SBE. Conclusion: Cardiovascular functions in T2DM patients was improved after performing slow breathing exercise for 3 months. J Bngladesh Soc Physiol 2021;16(1): 11-15
... As a consequence, sympathetic hyperactivity over a long period of time is linked to an increased risk of coronary morbidity and mortality. Simple lifestyle changes, such as diet, exercise, and yoga, will help dealing with this situation [2] Yoga is an ancient Indian science known throughout the world for its possible physical and mental restorative benefits. It regularly combines the act of physical stances (Asanas), breathing practises (Pranayama), and reflection (Dhyana) and has been practised in India for a long time to achieve utilitarian concordance between body and brain. ...
... Studies by e.g. [9] or [10] have also shown that simple breathing exercises can contribute to increased performance. [11] investigated the effects of simple breathing exercises on blood pressure and on reaction time. ...
Conference Paper
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Introducing robots in the working system as a working buddy is the area of research that led to this study. The purpose was to investigate whether the robot Cozmo from the company Anki with a function for breathing exercises can serve relaxation purposes when an employee is under stress. The study also examined how relaxation was perceived under two different circumstances. One in which interactions with the robot during breathing exercises were mainly acoustical and another in which interactions were both physical and acoustical. A further investigation was to determine whether these breathing interactive exercise would lead to an improvement in attention thereby increasing performance at work. The research was conducted on male and female university students, mainly from the departments of computer science and business information technology at the Ruhr West University of Applied Sciences. Data sources came from MIST test, questionnaires, pulse sensor and SART test. The purpose of the MIST test was to generate stress in the subjects and that of the pulse sensor was to measure the stress level. SART test measured the attention of the participants. The collected data were evaluated using t-test and variance analysis. Stress results obtained from questionnaires and the pulse sensor show that breathing exercises helped in reducing the stress level in both interaction forms. But when comparing one form of the interaction with the robot from the other, there was no significant difference in the stress level. The group with physical interactions with the robot however felt more pleasure in the interaction. The SART test results show that breathing exercises could not improve the attention of the participants. Therefore, it was recommended that a robot in combination with breathing exercises could be introduced in the daily work routine mainly for the purpose of relaxation.
... Nadi shodhana translates to "nadi purification" and the practice is believed to balance the subtle energy, or prana, of the energetic body. Its practice leads to a reduction in oxidative stress, 5 improvement in autonomic functions, 6 decreased oxygen consumption, 7 increased amplitude of theta waves, 8 a reduction in IL-6 levels, 9 and an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor. 10 There are subjective reports of relaxation, and improved well-being and quality of life after yogic breathing exercises due to increased melatonin production. ...
Article
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Abstract Hypothesis IOP is set to a normal level by inflow and outflow dynamics of aqueous humor (AH) dependent on 2 main structures those are ‘Ciliary body’ and ‘Trabecular meshwork - Schlemm's canal’. Both have a great deal of regulation through the innervations of autonomic nervous system. Sustained elevation of IOP, usually results in Glaucoma. The only alterable parameter in glaucoma is intraocular pressure lowering, that is usually done by topical drugs/performing surgery. Keeping the impact of autonomic dysregulation on IOP homeostasis, our first study was planned in year 2012 in which we hypothesized that meditators would have a low mean IOP compared to non-meditators due to a state of parasympathetic dominance which is said to be established by meditation. This was followed by a second study (a clinical trial) started in 2017 in primary open-angle glaucoma(POAG)patients in which we hypothesized that the change in IOP between patients only on medications and patients on medications along with Yogic breathing exercises would be more in the latter group due to the induced parasympathetic dominance. Methods In the first study 3 groups were formed, viz. Group A: 20 Non-meditator persons with normal IOP Group B: 20 Non-meditators who had borderline IOP Group C: 20 Meditators who had normal IOP. Subsequently a battery of tests were undertaken to assess autonomic activity in all the groups after seeking their consent and making them familiar with the tests. In the second study, 90 patients with POAG were assigned to either the control or yogic breathing exercise group. In the latter group, yogic breathing was practiced daily for 6 months. We measured the intraocular pressure at presentation and subsequently after 1, 3, and 6 months. Results In the first study, the values observed in different tests in meditator group (Group C) showed parasympathetic dominance and decreased sympathetic drive, in comparison to both subgroups of non-meditators (Group 1 & Group 2). While, in the second study, compared with the ‘only-medication’ group, the ‘yogic breathing exercise’ group had significantly lowered intraocular pressure (right eye: 20.85±3.39 to 14.90±2.86mmHg; left eye: 20.30±4.12 to 14.25±3.85mmHg; P<0.001). Conclusions Both the studies concluded that in clinical practice regular meditation in ‘glaucoma suspect’ & ‘ocular hypertensive’ patients can bring down IOP due to improved parasympathetic tone and reduced sympathetic tone. Additionally, in POAG patients, yogic breathing exercises can reduce intraocular pressure and can therefore be recommended as an adjuvant therapy.
... Often, mind-body breathing can also include a purposeful slow, deep breathing that encourages utilization of full lung capacity and complete exhalation. Slow breathing patterns can positively impact both physiological and psychological health outcomes, including heart rate variability, blood pressure, mood, and disease related quality of life [30][31][32][33] in both COPD and non-COPD populations [34]. The extent to which mind-body breathing is beneficial, in isolation from the multimodal Tai Chi intervention, is not well understood. ...
Article
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Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors. Prior research suggests that mind-body interventions may support the development and maintenance of healthy behaviors and improve health-related quality-of-life in such patients. We sought to qualitatively explore cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral changes in patients with COPD who participated in two different mind-body interventions compared to an education control. Methods We analyzed semi-structured qualitative exit interviews from a prospective, randomized pilot trial (N = 123) investigating 12-weeks of Tai Chi (TC) vs. mind-body breathing (MBB) vs. education (EDU) control in patients with moderate-severe COPD. TC involved traditional movements, that integrate meditative breathing, while MBB focused mainly on meditative breathing techniques alone. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative analysis of randomly selected transcripts was performed by two independent reviewers using an iterative process to identify emergent themes informed by grounded theory methods until thematic saturation was reached. Results A total of 66 transcripts were reviewed (N = 22 TC, N = 22 MBB, N = 22 EDU). Participants were mean age = 68.1 years, GOLD Stage = 2.3, baseline FEV1 1 percent predicted mean (SD): 58% (13.4), 42.4% female. We identified six frequently mentioned themes: 1) overall awareness and understanding, 2) self-care knowledge, skills and behaviors, 3) behavior-related neurocognitive concepts, 4) physical function, 5) psychological well-being, and 6) social support/social function. Compared to EDU, more participants in TC and MBB noted improvements in awareness of self and the mind-body connection (e.g., body and breath awareness), knowledge of breathing techniques and integration of self-care skills with daily activities, self-efficacy for symptom management (particularly managing anxiety and dyspnea), acceptance of disease, physical function improvements (e.g., endurance, dyspnea, fatigue), and psychological well-being (particularly relaxation, emotion regulation and decreased reactivity). Compared to MBB, those in TC shared more intention to continue with self-care behaviors, physical activity self-efficacy, and improved flexibility. All three groups, including EDU, noted increased social support and knowledge of disease. Those in EDU, however, had fewer mentions of processes related to behavior change, and less concrete changes in neurocognitive, psychological, and physical function domains. Conclusions Mind-body interventions including meditative breathing may impact behavior-related neurocognitive and emotional factors that improve self-care management and support positive behavioral changes in patients with COPD. Trial registration This trial is registered in Clinical Trials.gov, ID number NCT01551953 .
... Slow breathing training used to be guided by a tutor or a therapist. The trainees follow the tutor's instruction to focus on and regulate their breathing pattern in some mind-body practice (Brown & Gerbarg, 2005;Pal & Velkumary, 2004), such as yoga, meditation, or mindfulness training. Recently, an increasing number of portable devices (Choi & Ishii, 2020;Reiner, 2008), mobile apps, and novel interactive systems (Ghandeharioun & Picard, 2017;Miri et al., 2020;Moraveji et al., 2011;Paredes & Chan, 2011;Paredes et al., 2018;Patibanda et al., 2017;Yu et al., 2015b; are developed for respiration training. ...
Article
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Slow breathing guiding applications increasingly emerge, showing promise for helping knowledge workers to better cope with workaday stress. However, standard breathing guidance is non-interactive, with rigid paces. Despite their effects being proved, they could cause respiratory fatigue, or lack of training motivation, especially for novice users. To explore new design possibilities, we investigate using heart rate variability (HRV) data to mediate breathing guidance, which results in two HRV-enhanced guidance modes: (i) responsive breathing guidance and (ii) adaptive breathing guidance. These guidance modes are implemented on a soft haptic interface named “ViBreathe”. We conducted a user test (N = 24), and a one-week field deployment (N = 4) with knowledge workers, to understand the user experience of our design. The HRV-enhanced modes were generally experienced to reduce tiresome and improve engagement and comfort. And Vibreathe showed great potential for seamlessly weaving slow breathing practice into work routines. We thereby summarize related design insights and opportunities.
Article
Özet: Bu derleme çalışmanın amaçlarından biri; kalp hızı değişkenliği kavramı ve bileşenlerini, kalp hızı değişkenliği ölçüm yöntemlerini ve kalp hızı değişkenliği üzerinde etkili olan parametreleri incelemekti. Çalışmanın diğer amacı da sağlığa ilişkin birçok faydası olduğu bilinen egzersizin, sağlıklı yetişkinlerde kalp hızı değişkenliği üzerindeki kronik etkilerinin tartışılması idi. Bu amaçla otonom sinir sistemi, kalp hızı değişkenliği ve egzersiz/düzenli fiziksel aktivite/fitness sözcükleri belirli bilimsel indekslerde incelenmiş ve konuyla ilgili çalışmalar ele alınmaya çalışılmıştır. Anahtar kelimeler: Kalp hızı değişkenliği, egzersiz, otonom sinir sistemi, parasempatik aktivite, sempatik aktivite. Abstract: One of the aims of this review study; to examine the concept of heart rate variability and its components, heart rate variability measurement methods and parameters that affect heart rate variability. Another aim of the study was to discuss the chronic effects of exercise, which is known to have many health benefits, on heart rate variability in healthy adults. For this purpose, the words autonomic nervous system, heart rate variability and exercise/regular physical activity/fitness were examined in some scientific indexes and studies on the subject were tried to be handled.
Article
Introduction: Rapid decline in physical functionality has an adverse impact on both physical and psychological health. Deteriorating sleep quality during the pandemic is one such common manifestation, that further affects the general well-being. Therefore, safe non pharmacological treatments are warranted, and the practice of suryanamaskar is one such intervention. Aim: To find the effectiveness of suryanamaskar on sleep quality and general well-being among young adults. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in Physiotherapy Department at Ashirwad Bhagwat Multispecialty Clinic, Sonipat, Haryana, India, from March to July 2021. A total of 30 young adults were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into two groups of 15 participants each. The experimental group practiced eight weeks of suryanamaskar yogic exercise, also known as sun salutations, which comprises of 12 different postures performed with controlled breathing. The control group performed 20 minutes of walk. Sleep quality and General Well-being (GWB) were evaluated preintervention and postintervention using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) respectively, along with the resting Heart Rate (HR) and Blood Pressure (BP). A higher PGWBI score denotes greater psychological well-being and a total PSQI score of 5 or more indicates poor sleep quality. The effect of the intervention on GWB, sleep quality, BP and HR were assessed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test within the group and the Mann-Whitney test was used to find a statistical difference between the two groups. Results: After eight weeks of yoga training, a significant difference was found in the overall sleep quality (9.53±1.68, p-value=0.001), GWB (78.33±14.76, p-value=0.001), HR (77.07±5.48, p-value=0.001), SBP (116.67±2.99, p-value=0.001) and BMI (23.01±3.17, p-value=0.019) in the experimental group. However, the control group revealed a significant difference only in the GWB (50.80±13.87, p-value=0.019) postintervention. Additionally, when compared to the control group, the experimental group revealed statistically significant results for sleep quality (p-value=0.001), GWB (p-value
Article
Introduction and Aim: Bhramari pranayama (Humming bee breath) is the most common slow pranayama practice involving inhalation through both nostrils followed by exhalation which produces sound of humming bee. Practicing pranayama reduces the effects of stress on different systems by increasing the vagal tone. With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, there are heightened feelings of stress, anxiety and depression and pranayama can be an effective way to improve our mental and emotional well-being. This study has been chosen to assess the effect of Bhramari pranayama on autonomic functions and to compare the immediate and training effects of Bhramari pranayama in the study group. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted in a medical college among 110 students aged between 18-22 years for a period of 2 months. The participants were instructed to do 9 rounds of Bhramari pranayama every day for 3 weeks. The immediate and training effect of pranayama practice on HRV (Heart Rate Variability) was assessed. The parameters of HRV (time and frequency domains) were assessed by PHYSIOPAC- PP4 (MEDICAID SYSTEMS, Chandigarh). Results: After training of Bhramari pranayama for 3 weeks, there was a decrease in Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) and PNN50 and a decrease in frequency domain parameters, LFnu and LF/HF ratio were observed significantly. Conclusion: The study shows the possibility that Bhramari pranayama has a beneficial effect on HRV in medical students, as the autonomic balance produces the improvement of parasympathetic tone.
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The present investigation is aimed to conduct a comparative study that examine the effect of pranayama on premenstrual syndrome to gain insight on the role of pranayama. Total 100 females age range from 10 to 50 years participated in this study from Kapurthala, district of Punjab, India. Further the population was divided into two groups with equal number of participants (n=50), group A (no intervention) and group B (pranayama). The subjects of group A did not perform any type of breathing and yogic technique for past four to five months and group B used to perform pranayama exercise on regular basis. Results showed positive significant effect of pranayama practices on premenstrual syndrome (t=58.26, p<.01).
Article
Introduction Negative affect was identified as an important barrier to smoking cessation. Three-part breathing exercise showed a significant effect on decreasing negative affect immediately after being practiced. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of three-part breathing exercise on smoking cessation. Methods A 6-month cluster-randomized clinical trial was conducted. Forty-three participants recruited from 8 companies in Bangkok Metropolitan areas were randomly assigned at the cluster level into either the intervention or control groups. Control group (n = 23) received counseling for smoking cessation once a week for 12 weeks. Intervention group (n = 20) received counseling for smoking cessation plus a three-part breathing exercise program once a week for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were 7-day point prevalence and continuous abstinence rate as validated by saliva cotinine. The secondary outcomes were cigarette cravings, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, affect and quality of life. Results There was no significant effect of the three-part breathing exercise on abstinence rate. There was a significant time effect on cigarette craving, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, affect and quality of life. Both groups demonstrated significant improvement in cigarette craving, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, affect and quality of life. Conclusion Improvement of abstinence rate from the three-part breathing exercise was deemed clinically relevant. Thus, it may be recommended to smokers interested in smoking cessation.
Article
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Introduction Yoga is a practice of mind and body that combines physical postures, breathing exercises, and meditation. Yoga helps reduce stress, lower blood pressure and heart rate. It is considered one of many complementary and integrative health approaches. Yoga brings together physical and mental discipline that may help achieve a healthy body and peaceful mind. In this study, we aim to assess knowledge and awareness regarding yoga and its benefit among preclinical students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study includes 176 preclinical medical students of National Medical College, Birgunj, Nepal. A total of 14 self-designed close-ended questionnaires regarding knowledge and awareness about Yoga were used as a study tool. Data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel, 2010. Results Among 176 preclinical students, 77.84% had the habit of practicing yoga, but only 14.20% of students continued it. About 96.59% of students knew the benefits of yoga. Conclusion The result of the study reveals that there is a positive influence of practicing yoga among students. By practicing yoga, it is capable to achieve personal abilities such as stress management, attention in their work, and maintenance of physical and mental health.
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Breathing, although unconscious and often overlooked, is a central aspect of our whole being and one of our most vital functions. This review paper aims at investigating the physiological as well as the neuropsychological benefits of breathing training techniques. In addition, we examine the effectiveness of mobile breathing applications in upgrading human health and wellness. Finally, we discuss the role of metacognition in breathing, as the only means people have to gain awareness of the profound powers of breath and take conscious control of their health.
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Pranayama means a pause in the movement of breath. In the Sutras the word Prana arises by itself only once and the wording of Sutras is so clear that by no stretch of belief can the word Prana there be taken to pass on to anything aspect breath. In addition to this the word Prana occurs twice in the sutras every time being multifaceted with the word Ayama. Here again the wording of the original author, Patanjali is very understandable. He positively refers to respiratory moments. The most important commentators Patanjali’s Sutras have invariable explained Prana to mean breath.
Article
The aim of this literature review was to find out any topics which had discussed and researched scientifically according to behavior, perception, maternal, pregnancy, and labor, especially in 2015 - 2021. The method of literature review was descriptive quantitative. Literatures were tracked by using Mendeley, then selected and processed by using VOS Viewer. They were also manually processed according to completeness of each literature. Of the 4 main discussion clusters had been found, i.e. target clusters, mothers, risk groups, and health services, there were determined several main topics and keywords i.e: examination (care), mothers, factors, experiences, childbirth, and antenatal care. Meanwhile, topics those rarely discussed or researched were perceptions and adolescents. The most collected literatures were published in 2019 (29%), followed by 2020 (22%), and 2015 (15%). Most of the research or studies of the collected literatures were conducted descriptively and took research locations in Indonesia and African countries. Of the selected literatures rose basic assumption that the high maternal mortality rate, especially in Indonesia, is closely related to the lack of utilization of health facilitaties, as a result of the improper behavior of pregnant women in maintaining pregnancy and labor. This behavior is based on mindsets and perceptions related to pregnancy and labor, which have been formed since the pregnant women were teenagers. (9 pt).
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We studied cardiovascular and respiratory changes during yogic breathing exercise kapalabhati (KB) in 17 advanced yoga practitioners. The exercise consisted in fast shallow abdominal respiratory movements at about 2 Hz frequency. Blood pressure, ECG and respiration were recorded continuously during three 5 min periods of KB and during pre- and post-KB resting periods. The beat-to-beat series of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), R-R intervals and respiration were analysed by spectral analysis of time series. The mean absolute power was calculated in three frequency bands--band of spontaneous respiration, band of 0.1 Hz rhythm and the low-frequency band greater than 15 s in all spectra. The mean modulus calculated between SBP and R-R intervals was used as a parameter of baroreceptor-cardiac reflex sensitivity (BRS). Heart rate increased by 9 beats per min during KB. SBP and DBP increased during KB by 15 and 6 mmHg respectively. All frequency bands of R-R interval variability were reduced in KB. Also the BRS parameter was reduced in KB. The amplitude of the high-frequency oscillations in SBP and DBP increased during KB. The low-frequency blood pressure oscillations were increased after KB. The results point to decreased cardiac vagal tone during KB which was due to changes in respiratory pattern and due to decreased sensitivity of arterial baroreflex. Decreased respiratory rate and increased SBP and low-frequency blood pressure oscillations after KB suggest a differentiated pattern of vegetative activation and inhibition associated with KB exercise.
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Effect of inspiratory and expiratory phases of normal quiet breathing, deep breathing and savitri pranayam type breathing on heart rate and mean ventricular QRS axis was investigated in young, healthy untrained subjects. Pranayam type breathing produced significant cardioacceleration and increase in QRS axis during the inspiratory phase as compared to eupnea. On the other hand, expiratory effort during pranayam type breathing did not produce any significant change in heart rate or QRS axis. The changes in heart rate and QRS axis during the inspiratory and expiratory phases of pranayam type breathing were similar to the changes observed during the corresponding phases of deep breathing.
There is increasing interest in the fact that breathing exclusively through one nostril may alter the autonomic functions. The present study aimed at checking whether such changes actually do occur, and whether breathing is consciously regulated. 48 male subjects, with ages ranging from 25 to 48 years were randomly assigned to different groups. Each group was asked to practice one out of three pranayamas (viz. right nostril breathing, left nostril breathing or alternate nostril breathing). These practices were carried out as 27 respiratory cycles, repeated 4 times a day for one month. Parameters were assessed at the beginning and end of the month, but not during the practice. The 'right nostril pranayama' group showed a significant increase, of 37% in baseline oxygen consumption. The 'alternate nostril' pranayama group showed an 18% increase, and the left nostril pranayama group also showed an increase, of 24%. This increase in metabolism could be due to increased sympathetic discharge to the adrenal medulla. The 'left nostril Pranayama' group showed an increase in volar galvanic skin resistance, interpreted as a reduction in sympathetic nervous system activity supplying the sweat glands. These results suggest that breathing selectively through either nostril could have a marked activating effect or a relaxing effect on the sympathetic nervous system. The therapeutic implications of being able to alter metabolism by changing the breathing pattern have been mentioned.
Energy expenditure and ventilatory responses to yogic standing posture of Virasana were studied on 10 healthy men (25-37 years of age). The results of various responses respectively to the horizontal supine, Chair-sitting and Virasana were: Minute Ventilation (VE) 7.64, 8.61 and 18.67 L/min; Respiratory Frequency (FR) 15.71, 15.70 and 21.45 Breath/min; Tidal Volume (VT) 0.496, 0.544 and 0.827 L/min; Oxygen consumption (VO2) 0.127, 0.234 and 0.573 L/min; Carbondioxide Elimination (VCO2) 0.127, 0.134 and 0.420 L/min; Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) 0.58, 0.57 and 0.69; Heart Frequency (FH) 65.2, 74.5 and 104.4 beats/min; Oxygen Pulse (O2P) 3.32, 3.17 and 5.45 ml/beat; Ventilatory Equivalent (VE-EQ) 36.78, 37.12 and 33.85; Multiple of Resting VO2 (METS) 0.96, 1.05 and 2.53 and Metabolic Cost (MC) 1.04, 1.13 and 2.76 Cal/min. Virasana posture was characterised by higher VE, FR, VT, VO2, VCO2, FH and O2P with lesser VE-EQ. The observations suggest that Virasana induces temporarily a hypermetabolic state characterised by enhanced sympathetic nervous system activity which gets inhibited during the adoption of resting supine shavasana posture.
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The present study was designed to examine the effect of voluntarily slowed respiration on the cardiac parasympathetic response to a threat: the anticipation of an electric shock. Thirty healthy college students were randomly assigned to the slow, fast, and nonpaced breathing groups (10 subjects each). Subjects in the slow and fast paced breathing groups regulated their breathing rate to 8 and 30 cpm, respectively, and those in the nonpaced breathing group breathed spontaneously. Immediately after the period of paced or nonpaced breathing for 5 minutes, the subjects were exposed for 2 minutes to the anticipation of an electric shock during breathing paced at 15 cpm. The amplitude of the high frequency (HF) component of the heart rate variability, an index of cardiac parasympathetic tone, significantly decreased during the threat in the fast and nonpaced breathing groups, whereas it was unchanged in the slow paced breathing group. No significant difference was observed among the three groups in the amplitude of respiration during the threat. Results suggest that a slowed respiration decreases the cardiac parasympathetic withdrawal response to the threat. This study provides a rationale for the therapeutic uses of the slowed respiration maneuver in attenuating the cardiac autonomic responses in patients with anxiety disorder.
"The concept of yoga is helpful for the treatment of Bronchial Asthma", has created a great interest in the medical research field. In order to investigate whether autonomic functions and pulmonary functions are improved in asthma patients after short term yoga training, a study was conducted with nine diagnosed bronchial asthma patients. Yoga training was given for seven days in a camp in Adhyatma Sadhna Kendra, New Delhi. The autonomic function tests to measure the parasympathetic reactivity (Deep Breathing test, Valsalva Manouever), Sympathetic reactivity (Hand Grip test, Cold Pressure test), and pulmonary function tests FVC, FEV1, PEFR, PIF, BHT and CE were recorded before and after yoga training. The resting heart rate after yoga training (P < 0.05) was significantly decreased (89.55 +/- 18.46/min to 76.22 +/- 16.44/min). The sympathetic reactivity was reduced following yoga training as indicated by significant (P < 0.01) reduction in DBP after HGT. There was no change in parasympathetic reactivity. The FVC, FEV1, PEFR did not show any significant change. The PIF (P < 0.01), BHT (P < 0.01) and CE (P < 0.01) showed significant improvement. The results closely indicated the reduction in sympathetic reactivity and improvement in the pulmonary ventilation by way of relaxation of voluntary inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The "comprehensive yogic life style change programme for patients of Bronchial Asthma" have shown significant benefit even within a short period.
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This study was conducted to assess the physiological effects of a yoga breathing practice that involves breathing exclusively through the right nostril. This practice is called surya anuloma viloma pranayama (SAV). Twelve volunteers (average age 27.2 years +/- 3.3 years, four males) were assessed before and after test sessions conducted on two consecutive days. On one day the test session involved practicing SAV pranayama for 45 minutes (SAV session). During the test period of the other day, subjects were asked to breathe normally for 45 minutes (NB session). For half the patients (randomly chosen) the SAV session was on the first day and the NB session on the next day. For the remaining six patients, the order of the two sessions was reversed. After the SAV session (but not after the NB) there was a significant (P < .05, paired t test) increase in oxygen consumption (17%) and in systolic blood pressure (mean increase 9.4 mm Hg) and a significant decrease in digit pulse volume (45.7%). The latter two changes are interpreted to be the result of increased cutaneous vasoconstriction. After both SAV and NB sessions, there was a significant decrease in skin resistance (two factor ANOVA, Tukey test). These findings show that SAV has a sympathetic stimulating effect. This technique and other variations of unilateral forced nostril breathing deserve further study regarding therapeutic merits in a wide range of disorders.
Article
To assess the influence of different breathing patterns on autonomic cardiovascular modulation during acute exposure to altitude-induced hypoxia. We measured relative changes in minute ventilation (VE), oxygen saturation (%SaO2), spectral analysis of RR interval and blood pressure, and response to stimulation of carotid baroreceptors (neck suction) at baseline and after acute (1 h) hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 5,000 m, in a hypobaric chamber). We studied 19 human subjects: nine controls and 10 Western yoga trainees of similar age, while breathing spontaneously, at 15 breaths/min (controlled breathing) and during 'complete yogic breathing' (slow diaphragmatic + thoracic breathing, approximately 5 breaths/min) in yoga trainees, or simple slow breathing in controls. At baseline %SaO2, VE and autonomic pattern were similar in both groups; simulated altitude increased VE in controls but not in yoga trainees; %SaO2 decreased in all subjects (P< 0.0001), but more in controls than in yoga trainees (17 versus 12%, 14 versus 9%, 14 versus 8%, all P< 0.05 or better, during spontaneous breathing, controlled breathing and yogic or slow breathing, respectively). Simulated altitude decreased RR interval (from 879 +/- 45 to 770 +/- 39, P < 0.01) and increased indices deducted from spectral analysis of heart rate variability (low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio from 1.6 +/- 0.5 to 3.2 +/- 1.1, P < 0.05) and systolic blood pressure (low-frequency fluctuations from 2.30 +/- 0.31 to 3.07 +/- 0.24 In-mmHg2, P< 0.05) in controls, indicating sympathetic activation; these changes were blunted in yoga trainees, and in both groups during slow or yogic breathing. No effect of altitude was seen on stimulation of carotid baroreceptors in both groups. Well-performed slow yogic breathing maintains better blood oxygenation without increasing VE (i.e. seems to be a more efficient breathing) and reduces sympathetic activation during altitude-induced hypoxia.
Article
To investigate whether breathing more slowly modifies the sensitivity of the chemoreflex and baroreflex. University of Pavia, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo. Fifteen healthy individuals. Progressive isocapnic hypoxia and progressive hyperoxic hypercapnia were measured during spontaneous breathing and during a breathing rate fixed at 6 and 15 breaths per minute (b.p.m.). Main outcome measures: Variations in chemo- and baroreflex sensitivity (by monitoring ventilation, oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide, R-R interval and blood pressure) induced by different breathing rates. Breathing at 6 b.p.m. depressed (P < 0.01) both hypoxic and hypercapnic chemoreflex responses, compared with spontaneous or 15 b.p.m. controlled breathing. Hypoxic and hypercapnic responses during spontaneous breathing correlated with baseline spontaneous breathing rate (r = -0.52 and r = +0.51, respectively; P = 0.05). Baroreflex sensitivity was greater (P < 0.05) during slow breathing at baseline and remained greater at end rebreathing. Slow breathing reduces the chemoreflex response to both hypoxia and hypercapnia. Enhanced baroreflex sensitivity might be one factor inhibiting the chemoreflex during slow breathing. A slowing breathing rate may be of benefit in conditions such as chronic heart failure that are associated with inappropriate chemoreflex activation.
Cardiovascular regulatory mechanism Review of medical physiology
  • Wf Ganong
Ganong WF. Cardiovascular regulatory mechanism. Review of medical physiology. 20th ed. San Franscisco: McGraw-Hill; 2001 p. 575-9.
Professor, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER)
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  • G K Dr
Reprint requests: Dr G.K. Pal, Professor, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry 605006, India e-mail: gopalpravati@sify.com