Increased Poliovirus-Specific Intestinal Antibody Response Coincides with Promotion of Bifidobacterium longum-infantis and Bifidobacterium breve in Infants: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Unité d'étude de la translocation bactérienne, de Pharmacie d'Amiens, Université de Picardie, 80037 Amiens Cedex 1, France.
Pediatric Research (Impact Factor: 2.31). 11/2004; 56(5):791-5. DOI: 10.1203/01.PDR.0000141955.47550.A0
Source: PubMed


To determine whether the size of the intestinal bifidobacterial population can influence the immune response to poliovirus vaccination in infants, we set up a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. From birth to 4 mo, infants were given a fermented infant formula (FIF) or a standard formula (placebo). Bifidobacteria were quantified monthly in infant stools. Antipoliovirus IgA response to Pentacoq was assessed before and 1 mo after the second vaccine injection. Thirty infants were randomized, and 20 completed the study (nine in the placebo group and 11 in the FIF group). Fecal bifidobacterial level was significantly higher with the FIF group at 4 mo of age (p=0.0498). Furthermore, B. longum/B. infantis carriage was higher at 4 mo in the FIF group (p=0.0399). Antipoliovirus IgA titers increased after Pentacoq challenge (p <0.001), and the rise was significantly higher in the FIF group (p <0.02). Antibody titers correlated with bifidobacteria, especially with B. longum/B. infantis and B. breve levels (p <0.002). Infants who harbored B. longum/B. infantis also exhibited higher levels of antipoliovirus IgAs (p <0.002). In conclusion, the present results indicate that antipoliovirus response can be triggered with a fermented formula that is able to favor intestinal bifidobacteria. Whether this effect on the immune system is achieved through the bifidogenic effect of the formula (mainly through B. longum/B. infantis and B. breve stimulation) or directly linked to compounds (i.e. peptides) produced by milk fermentation remains to be investigated.

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    • "Vaccine-specific sIgA collected in saliva or in faeces are considered as highly suitable markers of immune response as they correlate with clinical endpoints (Albers et al., 2013) and poliovirus is a typical vaccine of early infancy with high coverage (Moturi et al., 2014) that stimulates mucosal and intestinal immunity and induces detectable level of faecal sIgA (Pasetti, Simon, Sztein, & Levine, 2011). Moreover fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) elicit immune stimulation through the intestinal mucosa as shown in animal models (Hosono et al., 2003; Nakamura et al., 2004) and stimulate the growth of intestinal bifidobacteria (Paineau et al., 2014) while bifidobacteria might have an implication for improving response to poliovirus vaccine (Mullie et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Few studies have assessed efficacy and safety of prebiotics in infants at the time of diversification. We investigated the beneficial effects of a follow-on milk formula supplemented with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) in healthy infants after 4 months of age. Subjects/methods 75 formula-fed healthy infants were included at the age of 4 months in a randomized, controlled, double blind study and received either a placebo or scFOS supplemented formula for six months. Faecal poliovirus sIgA after vaccination and bifidobacteria concentration, height, weight and digestive tolerance were monitored. Results After 1 and 2 months of supplementation, no significant difference was observed between the groups for the evolution of poliovirus sIgA concentration compared to baseline. A significant increase in bifidobacteria count was observed after 1 month of ScFOS supplementation, but this difference was no longer significant after 2 months. Breastfeeding history of infants was shown to have an impact on faecal bifidobacteria evolution. Tolerance and growth parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Conclusions A follow-on milk formula supplemented with scFOS modulates intestinal microbiota via an increase of faecal bifidobacteria concentration, while no effect on sIgA concentrations could be demonstrated. scFOS addition elicited normal digestive tolerance and normal growth suggesting it can be used safely at 5 g/L in infants after 4 months of age. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre
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    • "Even though more evidence on clinical trials is required, fermented infant formula (FIF) without live bacteria has been shown to be beneficial for several aspects of the well-being of infants [13]. It has been shown that FIF administration in infants can increase the amount of bifidobacteria in the feces and fosters the development of poliovirus-specific IgAs in response to Pentacoq vaccination, as compared to infants treated with standard non-fermented formula (SF) [14]. Another study compared three groups of term neonates: 30 newborns were breast-fed and 60 were randomized to receive either FIF or SF. "
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    ABSTRACT: The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula). We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk) could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium). Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In clinical allergy trials, certain probiotics have been reported to modulate DC populations, Treg expression, and regulatory cytokine levels such as IL-10 and TGF-β [51, 76–79]. Immunomodulatory probiotics have also been shown to enhance oral vaccine-specific responses following polio [80], rotavirus [81], and typhoid [82] immunisation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in diet can also have dramatic effects on the composition of gut microbiota. Commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract are critical regulators of health and disease by protecting against pathogen encounter whilst also maintaining immune tolerance to certain allergens. Moreover, consumption of fibre and vegetables typical of a non-Western diet generates substantial quantities of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have potent anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary interventions such as probiotic supplementation have been investigated for their pleiotropic effects on microbiota composition and immune function. Probiotics may restore intestinal dysbiosis and improve clinical disease through elevated SCFA levels in the intestine. Although the precise mechanisms by which such dietary factors mediate these effects, SCFA metabolites such as butyrate also function as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), that can act on the epigenome through chromatin remodeling changes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of HDAC enzymes and to discuss the biological effects of HDACi. Further, we discuss the important relationship between diet and the balance between health and disease and how novel dietary interventions such as probiotics could be alternative approach for the prevention and/or treatment of chronic inflammatory disease through modulation of the intestinal microbiome.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011
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