Placental oxidative stress: From miscarriage to preeclampsia

Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation (Impact Factor: 2.33). 10/2004; 11(6):342-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsgi.2004.03.003
Source: PubMed


To review the role of oxidative stress in two common placental-related disorders of pregnancy, miscarriage and preeclampsia.
Review of published literature.
Miscarriage and preeclampsia manifest at contrasting stages of pregnancy, yet both have their roots in deficient trophoblast invasion during early gestation. Early after implantation, endovascular trophoblast cells migrate down the lumens of spiral arteries, and are associated with their physiological conversion into flaccid conduits. Initially these cells occlude the arteries, limiting maternal blood flow into the placenta. The embryo therefore develops in a low oxygen environment, protecting differentiating cells from damaging free radicals. Once embryogenesis is complete, the maternal intervillous circulation becomes fully established, and intraplacental oxygen concentration rises threefold. Onset of the circulation is normally a progressive periphery-center phenomenon, and high levels of oxidative stress in the periphery may induce formation of the chorion laeve. If trophoblast invasion is severely impaired, plugging of the spiral arteries is incomplete, and onset of the maternal intervillous circulation is premature and widespread throughout the placenta. Syncytiotrophoblastic oxidative damage is extensive, and likely a major contributory factor to miscarriage. Between these two extremes will be found differing degrees of trophoblast invasion compatible with ongoing pregnancy but resulting in deficient conversion of the spiral arteries and an ischemia-reperfusion-type phenomenon. Placental perfusion will be impaired to a greater or lesser extent, generating commensurate placental oxidative stress that is a major contributory factor to preeclampsia.
Miscarriage, missed miscarriage, and early- and late-onset preeclampsia represent a spectrum of disorders secondary to deficient trophoblast invasion.

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Available from: Graham J Burton, Dec 15, 2014
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    • "Placenta supports the normal growth and development of the fetus by coordinating exchanges of nutrients and wastes between maternal and fetal circulatory systems and by secreting numerous hormones. Therefore, placental dysfunctions are commonly associated to pregnancy disorders, such as miscarriage or preeclampsia (Ball et al. 2006; Burton and Jauniaux 2004; Goldman-Wohl and Yagel 2002; Sebire et al. 2002). Pregnancy disorders can be consecutive to pollutants exposure so it is of most importance to conceive placenta as a target organ for toxic agents and not just as a barrier between mother and fetus. "
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to study the toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental pollutant that can reach placenta, on two human placental models in order to propose biomarkers in risk assessment for pregnancy. Ex vivo human placental cells isolated from term placenta and JEG-3 cancer cell line were incubated with BaP at 0.1-10μM for 48h or 72h. BaP induced neither loss of cell viability nor apoptosis in ex vivo placental cells. To go further, we performed experiments on JEG-3 cell line that provides near-unlimited cells. The results we obtained in JEG-3 cells confirmed that BaP, in our experimental conditions, is neither necrotic nor apoptotic for placental cells. BaP toxicity on placental cells resulted in cell cycle arrest (G2/M phase) associated with inhibition of cell proliferation. Besides, we observed that BaP remodeled the protein content of membrane microdomains via increased expression of ZO-1, caveolin-1 and P2X7 cell degenerescence receptor. In conclusion, we identified nuclear and membrane potential biomarkers of risks for placenta and then pregnancy. These potential biomarkers detected on placental cell lines could represent useful tools for toxicological studies.
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    • "Although ROS and antioxidants remain in balance during a healthy pregnancy , and cellular damage is repaired effectively, this balance can be easily disrupted (Furness et al., 2011). High OS during the first trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion (Agarwal et al., 2006; Burton and Jauniaux, 2004), as it causes the premature oxygenation of the early embryonic environment, which should occur later in the pregnancy (Jauniaux et al., 2000). OS is involved in defective embryo development and retardation of embryo growth, preeclampsia, maternal hypertension, and the risk of preterm delivery (reviewed in Ruder et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives High level of oxidative stress (OS) during the first weeks of pregnancy is related to many serious pregnancy complications. Previous studies showed that body fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is related to OS level in men, suggesting that FA is a marker of oxidative balance in an individual. The aim of this study was to analyze if body FA was related to the level of biomarkers of OS in the first trimester of pregnancy.Methods The sample included 34 women in the first trimester of pregnancy, not smoking, and not exposed to toxins in their work environment. The composite FA and levels of two biomarkers of OS, 8-iso-ProstaglandinF2α (an indicator of oxidative damage to lipids) and 8-OH-dG (an indicator of oxidative damage to DNA) were measured. Factors that may affect the level of OS (vitamin supplementation, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and health condition) were controlled.ResultsThe levels of OS markers in the first trimester of pregnancy correlated positively with women's FA (r = 0.52, P = 0.002 for 8-OH-dG; r = 0.50; P = 0.003 for 8-iso-PGF2α level) and positively with body height (r = 0.37, P = 0.03 for 8-OH-dG level).Conclusion The level of OS is likely to be a substantial and important fitness trait, and FA may convey information on the level of OS in women. The result confirms that FA is an indicator of biological condition, as suggested by an evolutionary approach to morphological human traits perceived as attractive. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    • "udies suggested a definite paternalspecific risk of developing preeclampsia (Robillard et al., 1994). In fact, maternal exposure to paternal sperm and seminal plasma and the adaptation to them seem to play a role in the unbalanced immunoregulation at the maternal/placental interface promoting an inadequate trophoblast invasion of the placenta bed (Burton and Jauniaux, 0165-0378/© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 2004). Subsequently, an imbalance of circulating angiogenic factors occurs and results in maternal endothelial dysfunction, which induces the clinical syndrome (Mutter and Karumanchi, 2008). Interestingly, the unique immune environment at the maternal/fetal interface may contribute to the angiogenic balance necessary to maintain a healthy pr"
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