Nevus-cell aggregates in lymph nodes: Fine-needle aspiration cytologic findings and resulting diagnostic difficulties
Texas A&M University - Galveston, Galveston, Texas, United States Diagnostic Cytopathology
(Impact Factor: 1.12).
09/2004; 31(3):180-4. DOI: 10.1002/dc.20101
We report a case of nodal nevus present in enlarged lymph nodes with changes of dermatopathic lymphadenopathy sampled by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology prior to clinical evaluation of the patient. This lymph node pathology was established later by lymph node excisional biopsy, by which along with a skin biopsy the dermatopathic lymphadenopathy was tentatively attributed to early mycosis fungoides. The FNA revealed fairly atypical melanotic tissue from the dermatopathic lymphadenopathy along with nodules of uniform melanocytic nevoid cells, the presence of which in combination with the dermatopathic atypical tissue provided a tentative diagnosis of metastatic melanoma of unknown primary, with the diagnosis of nodal nevus presented as a less likely possibility. This is to our knowledge the first cytologic report on FNA of nodal nevus, which besides presenting cytologic findings of this entity highlights some of the problems related to providing an accurate diagnosis, if this exceptionally unusual pathologic entity is encountered in lymph nodes sampled for enlargement from pathologies unrelated to this entity. The subject of nevus changes in lymph nodes is briefly discussed.
Available from: Ananth S Murthy
- "Furthermore, while SLNB is a useful tool for detecting nodal metastases, it does not always differentiate between malignant and benign lesions. Benign nevus-cell aggregates in lymph nodes are known to occur with benign primary lesions and in up to 22% of malignant melanomas [16, 17]. Any of these factors may have contributed to our patient's unnecessary surgical interventions. "
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ABSTRACT: Despite advancements in protocols, a subset of melanocytic lesions continues to pose diagnostic challenges. This is particularly true in the pediatric population where certain congenital nevi mimic melanoma. Recently, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been utilized to support diagnoses of melanocytic lesions based on DNA copy number changes. Because distinct differences in copy number changes have been shown to occur in malignant melanoma and benign nevi, CGH can be a useful adjunct when diagnosis based on histology alone is indeterminate. The authors discuss the benefits of using CGH to aid in the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions that are difficult to characterize as malignant or benign based on clinical and histologic features alone. This paper presents a brief clinical report and review of the literature. A 13-year-old Caucasian male presented to an academic tertiary care medical center after a shave biopsy unexpectedly revealed malignant melanoma with positive deep margins. Following complete excisional biopsy, the diagnosis of malignant melanoma with depth of 0.92 mm was confirmed, both by the home institution's pathologist and by consultant dermatopathologists at two separate academic tertiary medical centers. Sentinel lymph node biopsy revealed a small focus of metastatic melanoma, this lead to a left-sided modified radical neck dissection. All nodes removed were negative for disease, and surgical and postsurgical care was uncomplicated. Before proceeding with interferon therapy, CGH was performed on the tissue from the primary lesion. Other than a slight amplification of chromosome 16p, no other aberrations were detected favoring a benign lesion. Ultimately, the diagnosis was amended to compound melanocytic nevus of the nose with benign nevus cell rest in the sentinel node. While histopathologic evaluation is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of melanoma, there are many cases where it is inaccurate. The use of CGH in the evaluation of histologically equivocal lesions may allow certain patients to avoid invasive procedures and associated morbidities. The authors propose that, in these select diagnostically challenging cases, tissue analyses by CGH may be beneficial before proceeding to more invasive procedures such as sentinel node biopsy and complete lymphadenectomy.
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ABSTRACT: We report a case of capsular melanocytic nevus morphologically mimicking metastatic melanoma during intraoperative imprint cytology analysis of sentinel lymph nodes for metastatic melanoma. The benign nevus cells stained positively for S-100 protein like melanoma, but were negative for HMB-45, lacked cytologic atypia, and had a distinct intracapsular location, unlike melanoma. These features are useful in distinguishing capsular melanocytic nevi from metastatic melanoma. As a false-positive diagnosis intraoperatively may result in unnecessary lymphadenectomy, pathologists must be aware of capsular melanocytic nevi as potential false-positive interpretation.
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