Impact of Qigong Exercise on Self-Efficacy and Other Cognitive Perceptual Variables in Patients with Essential Hypertension

Department of Nursing, Mokpo Catholic University, Mokpo, Republic of Korea.
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.59). 09/2004; 10(4):675-80. DOI: 10.1089/acm.2004.10.675
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of practicing qigong on middle-age subjects with essential hypertension. Impacts on blood pressure, reported self-efficacy, perceived benefit, and emotion were observed.
Thirty-six (36) adult volunteers were assigned to either a waiting list control or a qigong group that practiced two 30-minute qigong programs per week over 8 consecutive weeks.
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced in members of the qigong group after 8 weeks of exercise. Significant improvements in self-efficacy and other cognitive perceptual efficacy variables were also documented in the qigong group compared to the original situation described above.
This pilot study demonstrates the positive effects of practicing qigong on controlling blood pressure and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy.

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    • "It has been estimated that 29% of the world's adult population, or approximately 1.56 billion people, will have hypertension by 2025 [4] [5]. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly popular [6– 13] and numerous interventions are regularly recommended to lower elevated blood pressure (BP) [14] [15] [16] [17]. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including herbal medicine and acupuncture, is an important component of CAM therapies [18] [19] [20] [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. To simplify traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation and allow researchers to master syndrome differentiation for hypertension, this paper retrospectively studied the literature and analyzed syndrome elements corresponding to hypertension syndromes. Methods. Six databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data were searched from 1/January/2003 to 30/October/2013. We included all clinical literature testing hypertension syndromes and retrospectively studied the hypertension literature published from 2003 to 2013. Descriptive statistics calculated frequencies and percentages. Results. 13,272 patients with essential hypertension were included. Clinical features of hypertension could be attributed to 11 kinds of syndrome factors. Among them, seven syndrome factors were excess, while four syndrome factors were deficient. Syndrome targets were mainly in the liver and related to the kidney and spleen. There were 33 combination syndromes. Frequency of single-factor syndromes was 31.77% and frequency of two-factor syndromes was 62.26%. Conclusions. Excess syndrome factors of hypertension patients include yang hyperactivity, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, internal dampness, and internal fire. Deficient syndrome factors of hypertension patients are yin deficiency and yang deficiency. Yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity, phlegm-dampness retention, and deficiency of both yin and yang were the three most common syndromes in clinical combination.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    • "Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly popular [8-15] and numerous interventions are regularly recommended for lowering elevated blood pressure (BP) [16-20]. Yoga, as a complementary therapeutic regimen, has been shown to be useful to individuals with a wide range of health conditions, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes [21-23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Yoga is thought to be effective for health conditions. The article aims to assess the current clinical evidence of yoga for Essential hypertension (EH). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched until June, 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing yoga against conventional therapy, yoga versus no treatment, yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy or conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. A total of 6 studies (involving 386 patients) were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. A total of 6 RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. 4 of them compared yoga plus conventional therapy with conventional therapy. 1 RCT described yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. 2 RCT tested the effect of yoga versus conventional therapy alone. 1 RCT described yoga compared to no treatment. Only one trial reported adverse events without details, the safety of yoga is still uncertain. There is some encouraging evidence of yoga for lowering SBP and DBP. However, due to low methodological quality of these identified trials, a definite conclusion about the efficacy and safety of yoga on EH cannot be drawn from this review. Therefore, further thorough investigation, large-scale, proper study designed, randomized trials of yoga for hypertension will be required to justify the effects reported here.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Currently, with increasing concern about long-term medication and the potential adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs [44–46], nondrug therapy and natural herbal products have gained more and more popularity by hypertensive patients worldwide [47–54]. As a special form of exercise, Tai Chi has made great contributions to the healthcare and well-being of the people for its unique advantages in preventing and curing diseases, especially in China. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To assess the current clinical evidence of Tai Chi for essential hypertension (EH). Search Strategy. 7 electronic databases were searched until 20 April, 2013. Inclusion Criteria. We included randomized trials testing Tai Chi versus routine care or antihypertensive drugs. Trials testing Tai Chi combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were also included. Data Extraction and Analyses. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 18 trials were included. Methodological quality of the trials was low. 14 trials compared Tai Chi with routine care. 1 trial compared Tai Chi with antihypertensive drugs. Meta-analysis all showed significant effect of TaiChi in lowering blood pressure (BP). 3 trials compared Tai Chi plus antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs. Positive results in BP were found in the other 2 combination groups. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety of Tai Chi is still uncertain. Conclusions. There is some encouraging evidence of Tai Chi for EH. However, due to poor methodological quality of included studies, the evidence remains weak. Rigorously designed trials are needed to confirm the evidence.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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