Article

Respirable Particles and Carcinogens in the Air of Delaware Hospitality Venues Before and After a Smoking Ban

Tufts University School of Medicine, USA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.63). 10/2004; 46(9):887-905. DOI: 10.1097/01.jom.0000141644.69355.52
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

How do the concentrations of indoor air pollutants known to increase risk of respiratory disease, cancer, heart disease, and stroke change after a smoke-free workplace law? Real-time measurements were made of respirable particle (RSP) air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), in a casino, six bars, and a pool hall before and after a smoking ban. Secondhand smoke contributed 90% to 95% of the RSP air pollution during smoking, and 85% to 95% of the carcinogenic PPAH, greatly exceeding levels of these contaminants encountered on major truck highways and polluted city streets. This air-quality survey demonstrates conclusively that the health of hospitality workers and patrons is endangered by tobacco smoke pollution. Smoke-free workplace laws eliminate that hazard and provide health protection impossible to achieve through ventilation or air cleaning.

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    • "Social workers can help by advocating for a complete ban on smoking in hotels, because any level of exposure to tobacco smoke poses significant health risks for respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and premature death ( Meyers & Neuberger, 2009; Repace & Lowery, 1985). Further, researchers have already identified health hazards for short-term guests and employees in hotel environments ( McNabola, Broderick , Johnston, & Gill, 2006; Polaska, Hanke, & Konieczko, 2011; Repace, 2004), so future studies can examine hazards posed to long-term hotel guests who experience smoke exposure over extended residential periods. This risk seems particularly salient for older and health-challenged adults who are unemployed, retired, or disabled and spend most of their day inside their hotel rooms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hotel environments have been identified as places where hospitality workers and patrons are at an increased risk for smoke exposure and associated health hazards. However, little research has been conducted to understand experiences of long-term hotel residents. This article presents narrative accounts of tobacco smoke exposure from 37 residents at extended-stay hotels in a large metropolitan Atlanta county. Residents' narratives included an awareness of smoking as an unhealthy habit but a shared activity that facilitates social engagement at the hotel. Secondhand smoke narratives included descriptions of exposure from roommates and hotel neighbors. Thirdhand smoke narratives included reports of persistent pollution and smoke residue in the hotel environment. These results suggest a need for further research to understand the extent and impact of tobacco smoke exposure among this understudied population. The implications of this research support the efforts of social workers to engage in clean air advocacy and policy making for a vulnerable population.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Health & social work
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    • "Social workers can help by advocating for a complete ban on smoking in hotels, because any level of exposure to tobacco smoke poses significant health risks for respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and premature death ( Meyers & Neuberger, 2009; Repace & Lowery, 1985). Further, researchers have already identified health hazards for short-term guests and employees in hotel environments ( McNabola, Broderick , Johnston, & Gill, 2006; Polaska, Hanke, & Konieczko, 2011; Repace, 2004), so future studies can examine hazards posed to long-term hotel guests who experience smoke exposure over extended residential periods. This risk seems particularly salient for older and health-challenged adults who are unemployed, retired, or disabled and spend most of their day inside their hotel rooms. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hotel environments have been identified as places where hospitality workers and patrons are at increased risks for smoke exposure and associated health hazards. However, little research has been conducted to understand experiences of long-term hotel residents who live in these accommodations to remain sheltered and avoid homelessness. This article presents narrative accounts of tobacco smoke exposure from 37 residents at extended stay hotels in a large Metropolitan Atlanta county. Residents’ narratives included an awareness of smoking as an unhealthy habit but a shared activity that facilitated social engagement at the hotel. Secondhand smoke narratives included descriptions of exposure from roommates and hotel neighbors. Thirdhand smoke narratives included reports of persistent pollution and smoke residue in the hotel environment. These results suggest a need for further research to understand the extent and impact of tobacco smoke exposure among this understudied population. The implications of this research for social workers are support for engaging in clean air advocacy and policy making for a vulnerable population.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Health and Social Work
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    • "Tobacco use is a major public health problem and the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality worldwide [1], while exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a serious health hazard for non-smokers, especially children [2-4], SHS contains over 4,000 chemical compounds, including carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, volatile- and tobacco-specific nitrosamines, as well as other toxic or irritating compounds, such as carbon monoxide, benzene, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and respirable particulate matter [5]. Over the past few years, an accumulating body of evidence has connected SHS with concerns about the health effects of indoor air-quality in public spaces, especially hospitality venues [6] and a number of studies have indicated that the introduction of smoking bans from all public spaces results in improved air-quality [7-9] and a significant drop in hospital admissions for myocardial infarction [10-17] and respiratory problems [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation’s effect on revenue and employment. Methods Several hospitality venues (n = 35) were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. Results The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, in the year following the ban, the hotel turnover rate increased by 4.1% and the restaurant revenue by 6.4%; employment increased that same year by 7.2% and 1.0%, respectively. Conclusion Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · BMC Public Health
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